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Fodder And Pasture Plants | by Geo. H. Clark, M. Oscar Malte



The purpose of this book to provide, in a form convenient for reference, fairly comprehensive information about those grasses, clovers and other fodder and pasture plants that are generally acknowledged to be of value in Canada. The introduction into Canada from time to time of different fodder and pasture plants which are of more or less importance in different parts of Europe has induced the authors also to deal with a number of plants that are not as yet well known in Canada, but for some reason or other might prove in future to be of general or local value.

TitleFodder And Pasture Plants
AuthorGeo. H. Clark, M. Oscar Malte
PublisherCanada Department Of Agriculture
Year1913
Copyright1913, Canada Department Of Agriculture
AmazonFodder and Pasture Plants

By Geo. H. Clark, B.S.A.

And M. Oscar Malte, Ph. D.

With Water Colour Illustrations By Norman Criddle

Published by direction of The Honourable Martin Burrell, Minister of Agriculture

Ottawa, 1913

Available at the Office of the Superintendent of Stationery Government Printing Bureau, Ottawa

Price, 50 Cents

Agriculture is an art that renders those who understand it rich, but leaves those who do not understand it, however much they may labour in it, to live in poverty.- Xenophon, 434-355, B.C.

Dominion Of Canada Department Of Agriculture

-Preface
When we consider that about one-third of the improved land in Canada is under fodder and forage crops, the importance of disseminating information respecting fodder and pasture plants must be apparent...
-Introductory
THE dawn of civilization is closely associated with primitive agriculture. If we try to unveil the history of a race we often find it hidden in myths and legends. When it is accessible, we see that a ...
-Grasses
Name: When speaking of grasses one often includes such plants as Rib Grass, Poverty Grass and Cotton Grass, which botanically have none of the characteristics of true grasses. On the other hand, many ...
-Grasses. Continued
Fig. 3. Spikelet of Awnhss Brome Grass. Natural size. Gl.-Sterile glumes. L. - Lemma. Spikelets: The ultimate branches of the inflorescence end with so-called spikelets, a kind of partial inflorescen...
-Leguminous Plants
Name: These plants belong to a large family of a distinct type, called Leguminosce. Peas, Vetches, Beans, Red Clover, Alsike and Alfalfa belong to this great family - that is, the plants which farmers...
-Leguminous Plants. Continued
Flowers: The flowers of all leguminous plants are alike in general construction and totally different from the flowers of other plant families. The lower part (Fig. 7, Sep.) is insignificant. It is co...
-Seeding To Fodder And Pasture Plants
The preparation of the soil prior to seeding with grasses and clovers is usually intended primarily for the benefit of the nurse crop. To get a good catch, it is important that the surface soil be of ...
-Seeding To Fodder And Pasture Plants. Part 2
Quality of seed is an important factor in making a meadow. The rental value of the land plus the cost of preparing it are many times greater than the cost of the seed; but if only a small percentage o...
-Seeding To Fodder And Pasture Plants. Part 3
In addition to the suppression of weeds, close cutting with a mowing machine, not later than the third week in September, or about a month after the nurse crop is harvested, stimulates the branching a...
-Seeding To Fodder And Pasture Plants. Part 4
Even during continued rain it is advisable, by tedding or turning with a fork, to keep the partly cured hay loose and open to prevent it from packing and becoming soaked. Its flavour and much of its n...
-Corn (Zea Mays L.)
Other English names: Indian Corn, Maize. Botanical description: Corn is one of the tallest and most vigorous of the annual grasses. The stems, which vary in height in different types and varieties, a...
-Corn (Zea Mays L.). Continued
5. The soft corns have no corneous endosperm. The shrinkage in ripening is therefore uniform in all parts of the kernel. To this group belong the mummy corns of Peru and Chili. 6. The sweet corns are...
-Millets
The millets are among the most ancient agricultural plants, grown from time immemorial in Asia and parts of Europe, where the seed is used chiefly as human food. In America they are grown as forage pl...
-Common Millet (Panicum Miliaceum L.)
Plate 1; Seed, Plate 27, Fig. 1. Botanical description: Common Millet is an annual, generally from two to four feet high. The stems are erect or ascending from a decumbent base, rather stout and cove...
-Foxtail Millet (Setaria Italica (L.)
(Beauv., Plate 2; Seed, Plate 26, Fig. 3, Other Latin name: Ixophorus italicus (L.) Nash. Botanical description: Foxtail Millet is an annual with rather stiff and erect stems, ordinarily from two to ...
-Pearl Millet (Pennisetum Typhoideum Rich.)
Pearl Millet is an annual plant which, on rich alluvial soil and under favourable climatic conditions, reaches a height of from six to fifteen feet. The stems are extremely leafy and the flowers are b...
-Barnyard Millet. (Panicum Crus-Galli L.) Barnyard Grass
Seed, Plate 26, Fig. 2. Other Latin names: Echinochloa Crus-galli (L.) Beauv.; Oplismenits Crus-galli Drum. Other English name: Barnyard Grass. PLate 26 Botanical description: Barnyard Millet i...
-Reed Canary Grass (Phalaris Arundinacea L.)
Seed, Plate 26, Fig. 4. Botanical description: Reed Canary Grass is a perennial plant with a vigorous creeping rootstock, from which long, scaly, underground runners are developed. These creep extens...
-Sweet Vernal Grass {Anthoxanthum Odoratum L.)
Seed, Plate 26, Fig. 5. Botanical description: Sweet Vernal Grass is a perennial, with a short rootstock and tufted stems. The stems reach a height of from half a foot to two feet and carry the leave...
-Knot Root Grass (Muhlenbergia Racemosa (Michx.) Bsp.)
Seed, Plate 26, Fig. 6. Other Latin name: Muhlenbergia glomerata Trin. Botanical description: Knot Root Grass is perennial with a vigorous root system. Its creeping rootstocks are branched, irregula...
-Timothy (Phleum Pratense L.)
Plate 3; Seed, Plate 26, Fig. 7. Other English names: Meadow Cat's Tail, Herd's Grass. Botanical description: Timothy is a perennial grass which has a very short rootstock and therefore grows in mor...
-Meadow Foxtail (Alopecurus Pratensis L.)
Plate 4; Seed, Plate 26, Fig. 8. Botanical description: Meadow Foxtail is a perennial much resembling Timothy. It has a short rootstock, which produces scaly, underground runners. The ends of the run...
-Red Top (Agrostis Stolonifera L.)
Plate 5; Seed, Plate 26, Fig. 9. Other Latin name: Agrostis alba L. Other English names: Fiorin Grass, Creeping Bent-grass, White Bent-grass. Botanical description: The name Red Top has been used f...
-Agrostis Vulgaris
Botanical description: This grass has often been confused with the preceding one. It differs from Red Top in the following essential respects. It grows in bunches, owing to the fact that the rootstoc...
-Blue-Joint Grass {Calamgrostis Canadensis (Michx.) Beauv.)
Seed, Plate 26, Fig. 10. Other Latin name: Deyeuxia canadensis Hook. Other English names: Small Reed Grass, Sand Grass, Canada Bent-grass. Botanical description: Blue-joint Grass is perennial with ...
-Yellow Oat Grass {Trisetum Flavescens (L.) Beauv.)
Plate 6; Seed, Plate 26, Fig. 11. Other English names: Yellow False Oat, Golden Oat Grass. Botanical description: Yellow Oat Grass is perennial with a short rootstock forming loose tufts. The stems ...
-Tall Oat Grass (Arrhenatherum Elatius (L.) Beauv.)
Plate 7; Seed, Plate 26, Fig. 12. Other English names: Oat Grass, False Oat Grass, Meadow Oat Grass, Tall Meadow Oat Grass. Botanical description: Tall Oat Grass is perennial with a short rootstock ...
-Orchard Grass (Dactylis Glomerata L.)
Plate 8; Seed, Plate 26, Fig. 13. Other English name: Cocksfoot. Botanical description: Orchard Grass is perennial with a very short rootstock. The stems, which are from two to three feet high, are ...
-Crested Dog's Tail (Cynosurus Cristatus L.)
Seed, Plate 26, Fig. 14. Other English name: Dog's Tail Grass. Botanical description: Crested Dog's Tail is perennial with a short rootstock and grows in loose tufts, consisting chiefly of leafy sho...
-Canadian Blue Grass (Poa Compressa L.)
Plate 9; Seed, Plate 26, Fig. 15. Other English names: Canada Blue Grass, English Blue Grass, Wire Grass, Creeping Poa, Smaller Blue Grass, Virginia Blue Grass. Botanical description: Canadian Blue ...
-Kentucky Blue Grass {Poa Pratensis L.)
Plate 10; Seed, Plate 26, Fig. 16. Other English names: Blue Grass, June Grass, Spear Grass, English Grass, Green Grass, Bird Grass, Smooth-stalked Meadow Grass, Common Meadow Grass. Botanical descr...
-Rough-Stalked Meadow Grass (Poa Trivialis L.)
Botanical description: Rough-stalked Meadow Grass is very like the Kentucky Blue. It is perennial with a short rootstock from which stems and leafy shoots develop. The latter are either upright or cre...
-Wood Meadow Grass {Poa Nemoralis L.)
Botanical description: Wood Meadow Grass is perennial, with a short rootstock, and grows in loose tufts. The tufts consist chiefly of flower-bearing stems, sterile, leafy shoots being developed late i...
-Fowl Meadow Grass {Poa Palustris L.)
Other Latin names: Poa flava L., Poa serotina Ehrh., Poa triflora Gilib. Other English name: False Red Top. Botanical description: Fowl Meadow Grass is perennial with short runners which produce few...
-Water Meadow Grass (Glyceria Aquatica (L.) Wahlb.)
Seed, Plate 26, Fig. 17. Botanical description: Water Meadow Grass is perennial, with a very long and thick creeping rootstock. The stems, which generally root at the base, are stout and up to nine f...
-Red Fescue (Festuca Rubra L.)
Plate 11; Seed, Plate 26, Fig. 18. Other English name: Creeping Fescue. Botanical description: Red Fescue is perennial with long, creeping, underground rootstocks, from the joints of which the overg...
-Sheep's Fescue {Festuca Ovina L.)
Seed, Plate 26, Fig. 19. Botanical description: Sheep's Fescue is perennial, forming dense tufts. The stems are numerous and slender, more or less angular, and from eight to twenty-four inches high. ...
-Fine-Leaved Sheep's Fescue (Festuca Ovina L., Var. Tenuifolia Sibth.)
This variety, as a rule, is of lower stature than ordinary Sheep's Fescue. The leaves are extremely fine and hairlike. It is distinguished from Sheep's Fescue by its awnless flowers. It has no specia...
-Hard Fescue (Festuca Ovina L. Var. Duriuscula (L.) Koch.)
Other Latin name: Festuca duriuscula L. Hard Fescue is only a vigorous variety of Sheep's Fescue, with which it agrees in all essential points. It is a strongly tufted perennial with all its leaves r...
-Various-Leaved Fescue {Festuca Heterophylla Lam.)
Botanical description: Various-leaved Fescue is perennial, forming dense tufts. The stems, which are from two to four feet high, are thin and weak. They are surrounded at their base by leafy shoots, w...
-Meadow Fescue, Tall Fescue (Festuca Elatior L.)
Plate 12; Seed, Plate 26, Fig. 20. Other Latin name: Festuca pratensis Huds. Other English names: English Blue Grass, Evergreen Grass, Randall Grass. Much confusion has resulted from the two Latin ...
-Tall Fescue
As stated above, Tall Fescue is closely related to Meadow Fescue and cannot be distinguished from it by any fixed botanical characteristics. It is generally a little taller and somewhat coarser in tex...
-Reed Fescue (Festuca Arundinacea Schreb.)
Reed Fescue is practically unknown in Canada. It sometimes goes under the name of Tall Fescue and is often regarded as a variety of Meadow Fescue. It is, however, a well separated botanical species an...
-Awnless Brome Grass (Bromus Inermis Leyss)
Plate 13; Seed, Plate 27, Fig. 23. Other Latin name: Schedonurus inermis (Leyss) Beauv. Other English names: Brome Grass, Smooth Brome Grass, Hungarian Brome Grass, Hungarian Fodder Grass, Austrian...
-Field Brome Grass (Bromus Arvensis L.)
Seed, Plate 27, Fig. 21. Botanical description: Field Brome Grass is annual, or sometimes biennial, with stems one to three feet high, generally standing many together, and with rather broad, soft le...
-Fringed Brome Grass (Bromus Ciliatus L.)
Seed, Plate 27, Fig. 22. Botanical description: Fringed Brome Grass is perennial with short rootstocks and grows in loose tufts. The stems are from two to four feet high, rather slender and generally...
-Perennial Rye Grass (Lolium Perenne L.)
Plate 14A; Seed, Plate 27, Fig. 24. Other English names: English Rye or Ray Grass, Common Darnel. Botanical description: This grass is perennial with a creeping rootstock from which bunches of leafy...
-Italian Rye Grass (Lolium Multiflonim Lam.)
Plate 14B. Botanical description: Italian Rye is perennial and very similar to Perennial Rye Grass in general appearance. The tufts are alike, but the branches of the Italian Rye rootstock are genera...
-Western Rye Grass (Agropyron Tenerum Vas.)
Plate 15; Seed, Plate 27, Fig. 26. Other English names: Slender Wheat Grass, Bald Wheat Grass. Botanical description: Western Rye Grass is perennial with a very short rootstock not creeping, like th...
-Western Wheat Grass {Agropyron Occidentale Scribn.)
Other Latin name: Agropyron Smithii Rydb. Other English names: Colorado Blue-stem, Blue-joint, Alkali Grass. Western Wheat Grass is strongly perennial with a creeping root-stock similar to that of C...
-Awned Wheat Grass (Agropyron Richardsonii Schrad.)
Seed, Plate 27, Fig. 27. Awned Wheat Grass has a short rootstock and therefore grows in tufts like Western Rye Grass. It is easily distinguished, however, by the long awns on the flowering glumes and...
-Couch Grass {Agropyron Repens (L.) Beauv.)
Seed, Plate 27, Fig. 25. Couch Grass is strongly perennial, with a widely running root-stock and numerous leafy shoots which form large matted beds. It is similar to Western Wheat Grass in its mode o...
-Virginia Lyme Grass (Elymus Virginicus L.)
Plate 16; Seed, Plate 27, Fig. 28. Other English names: Bald Rye Grass, Wheat Grass, Terrell Grass. Botanical description: Virginia Lyme Grass is perennial with a very short rootstock and therefore ...
-Crimson Clover {Trifolium Incarnatum L.)
Plate 17; Seed, Plate 27, Fig. 29. Other English names: Scarlet Clover, Italian Clover, German Clover. Botanical description: Crimson Clover is an annual plant with a strong taproot provided with th...
-Red Clover (Trifolium Pratense L.)
Plate 18; Seed, Plate 27, Fig. 30. Botanical description: Red Clover is mainly biennial. The year the seed germinates, only short leaves and stems are produced and no flowers. The second year the flo...
-Red Clover (Trifolium Pratense L.). Part 2
Geographical distribution: Red Clover is a native of Europe, southwestern Asia, parts of Siberia and northern Africa. History: It was introduced into culture comparatively late. In Italy and Spain it...
-Red Clover (Trifolium Pratense L.). Part 3
Sowing for hay and pasture: In Ontario Red Clover is always sown with a nurse crop. Tests at the experimental farms of Manitoba and Saskatchewan, particularly at Indian Head, indicate that in the Prai...
-White Clover (Trifolium Repens L.)
Plate 19; Seed, Plate 27, Fig. 31. Other English name: Dutch Clover. Botanical description: White Clover is a perennial which in its natural state grows in patches. The stems are creeping and root at...
-Alsike Clover (Trifolium Hybridum L.)
Plate 20; Seed, Plate 27, Fig. 32. Botanical description: Alsike Clover is perennial with erect or generally ascending stems which do not root at the base as do those of White Clover. They usually re...
-White Sweet Clover {Melilotus Alba Desr.)
Seed, Plate 27, Fig. 33. Other English name: Bokhara Clover. Botanical description: Sweet Clover is biennial with a strong taproot and numerous leafy stems. The latter, which are generally much branc...
-Alfalfa (Medicago Saliva L.)
Plate 21; Seed, Plate 27, Fig. 34. Other English name: Lucerne. Botanical description: Alfalfa is a strongly perennial plant which is able to live thirty years or more under favourable conditions. I...
-Alfalfa (Medicago Saliva L.). Part 2
In Europe Alfalfa is always called Lucerne. The origin of this word is uncertain. It has nothing to do with the Swiss state as the name was used before the plant was known in Switzerland. It is not li...
-Alfalfa (Medicago Saliva L.). Part 3
Pasture: When Alfalfa is grown for pasture, which is only done to a limited extent in Canada, it is important to get the plants well established before turning the stock into the field. It is never ad...
-Yellow Lucerne (Medicago Falcata L.)
Botanical description: Yellow Lucerne is closely related to Alfalfa. It is strongly perennial with a deep taproot and numerous stems. The stems are quite different from those of Alfalfa. They are seld...
-Variegated Alfalfa (Medicago Falcata L. X Sativa L.)
Other Latin names: Medicago media Pers., M. silvestris Fr. Other English name: Sand Lucerne. Botanical description: Yellow Lucerne, as indicated above, is closely related to Alfalfa, and the two spec...
-Yellow Trefoil {Medicago Lupulina L.)
Plate 22; Seed, Plate 27, Fig. 35. Other English name: Black Medick. Botanical description: Trefoil is closely related to the Lucernes but is shorter lived. It is generally biennial but sometimes li...
-Kidney Vetch (Anthyllis Vulneraria L.)
Seed, Plate 27, Fig. 36. Botanical description: Kidney Vetch is perennial with a short-branched rootstock from which numerous overground steins arise, from one-half to one foot high. The leaves are n...
-Sainfoin (Onobrychis Sativa Lam.)
Plate 23; Seed, Plate 27, Fig. 37. Other English name: Esparsette. Botanical description: Sainfoin is perennial with a vigorous taproot which becomes rather woody and much branched. The stems are nu...
-Common Vetch (Vicia Sativa L.)
Plate 24; Seed, Plate 27, Fig. 38. Other English names: Tare, Spring Vetch. Botanical description: Common Vetch is an annual plant closely related to peas. The stems, which generally branch from nea...
-Hairy Vetch (Vicia Villosa Roth.)
Plate 25; Seed, Plate 27, Fig. 39. Other English name: Winter Vetch. Botanical description: As indicated by its name, this plant is a winter annual (see page 137). It grows from two to four feet high...
-Horse Bean (Faba Vulgaris Moench.)
Botanical description: Horse Bean is an annual plant which generally reaches a height of from two to three feet. It grows strictly upright and is neither winding like beans nor climbing like peas and ...
-Grass Pea (Lathyrus Sativus L.)
Seed, Plate 25, Fig. 40. Botanical description: Grass Pea is an annual. The stems are flattened and more slender than those of ordinary peas, reaching a height of from two to three feet. The leaves c...
-Flat Pea (Lathyrus Silvestris L.)
Botanical description: Flat Pea is perennial with a vigorous root system consisting of a strong rootstock which sends out numerous side branches and secondary roots. The stems, which reach a height of...
-Soy Or Soja Bean {Glycine Hispida Maxim.)
Botanical description: Soy Bean is an annual. It resembles ordinary field beans but can be easily recognized by its more or less dense hairiness. The stems, which branch from the base, reach a height ...
-Rape (Brassica Napas L.)
Fodder: Soy Beans cannot compete with Red Clover as a hay maker in the regular farm rotation but can be used in case some spring crop fails. The hay is of high nutritive value if the crop is cut at th...
-Fodder and Pasture Plant Glossary
Acute Sharp at the end; pointed. Alternate (of leaves, etc.) Not opposite each other but distributed at different heights along the stem or branch. Annual Of only one year's duration. Winter annu...









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