Time of bloom: June to July.
Seed-time: July to August.
Range: Ohio to Iowa, southward to Georgia and Texas.
Habitat: Dry fields, meadows, and waste places.
Another pernicious Composite, which, like Black-eyed Susan, is broadening its range by the agencies of commercial seeds and baled hay. Stem, stout, simple, hairy, two to four feet tall, widely four-winged by the decurrent bases of the alternate leaves; these are two to four inches long, narrowly ovate, rough above but softly hairy on the under sides, saw-toothed, and sessile. Heads few in a cluster or solitary, two or three inches broad, with conical disk and eight to fifteen yellow neutral or sometimes pistillate but sterile rays; involucre hemispheric, about a half-inch high, its bracts closely appressed, lance-shaped, and gray-hairy. Achenes flattened, rough-hairy, with winged border and pappus of two divergent awns.
Prevent seed development and distribution by close cutting while in first bloom. Rankly infested ground should be put under cultivation in order to destroy the perennial roots, but small areas may profitably be hand-pulled or grubbed out.