The rose, as amongst Eastern nations, has ever been a peculiar favourite in France. And some of the French deeds or "acts" of the middle ages, contain clauses stipulating for certain "rentes" of roses (which appear to have been analagous to the " duty fowls," etc, even now, in some of our more remote country districts, rendered to the lord of the land). Such rents too, have been paid in our own country; Lord Brougham still holds the castle of Highhead, in capite of the Queen, "by the service of a red rose, rendered annually, at Carlisle;" and a similar service is on record in relation to a property near Bristol, of the noble family of Lovell, which passed, through the marriage of an heiress, to Sir Thomas Wake; her son, espousing the cause of Richard III., at the battle of Bosworth, having been attainted, and his land seized by Henry VII., who granted his forfeited manor of Clevedon, to four of his own friends, to hold on service of a red rose, payable yearly, at the feast of the nativity of St. John the Baptist. Sir Richard Wake, however, was afterwards pardoned, and his manor restored to him.

A similar grant was formerly made of one of the Hastings' castles, by a widow of that family, to her steward, but as she afterwards married him, this "rent" may rather perhaps be regarded as a sort of love-token.

A custom also formerly prevailed in France, of wearing chaplets of roses upon Fridays, in commemoration of our Saviour's crown of thorns; the choice being of course originally made on account of their being thorny plants. The custom, however, seems a curious exemplification of the religion of outward observance, when we find St. Louis sending a chaplet of roses, "or of any other flower," to each of his daughters, every Friday. The most remarkable of these bygone usages is, however, that which, in the fourteenth century, was one of the services connected with the Parliament of Paris.* Three above all, with roses. The officiating peer then provided a magnificent breakfast for the presidents, councillors, and officers of the court; which breakfast was required to take place in public. He then proceeded into each of the different courts, accompanied by the sound of harps and flageolets, and bearing a large silver bowl containing bouquets of roses, and garlands and chaplets of the same flower. He was finally received in the great court; and having there attended at the celebration of mass, with the whole of the members, the presidents were conducted by the musicians to their own houses, and the ceremony ended.

* See "Tristant Le Voyageur" The term Parliament, as applied to the French Assembly, in the early ages, signified a congress of nobles, who came together to discuss such affairs as more immediately affected their own interests. These meetings were simply held at the pleasure of the lords themtimes in the year an offering of roses was made to the members of the court, as if to remind them that the upright and unbending severity of Justice might be graced and adorned without being rendered less efficacious and exact, if tempered with the sweetness of mercy, and the beauty of generous feeling. Every duke and peer, whose title included him in that court (whether he were a "Son of France," a King of Navarre, or some lesser luminary), was obliged, in his turn, to preside at the solemnities of this offering. The proceedings commenced by strewing the floors of all the different chambers with odoriferous herbs and flowers, but, selves. In the thirteenth century, however, the name of Parliament became appropriated to the body of nobles who composed the court of the king, and who, therefore, discussed public affairs.

Gradually we find this distinctive character becoming less marked, and when, according to M. Davezac-Macaya, "the great men who composed this court, regarded the culture of letters as beneath them,.....they found amongst the lower clergy men, who, knowing how to read and write," prepared their causes and decisions for them. Such, he continues, was the origin of the gentlemen of the long robe {gens de robe) in France. These men soon became invested with magisterial authority, and, at length, constituted the persons who composed the, so-called, parliament, or court of justice; after the original assemby had ceased to exist. This court was, at first, held only in Paris, but in the year 1454, Charles VII., for the purpose of facilitating the hearing of appeals, instituted that which sat at Toulouse. It was therefore, rather a court of justice, than such a representative assembly as we understand by the term "Parliament." For further information on this interesting subject, the reader is referred to the " Essais Historiques sur Le Bigorre" of M. Davezac-Macaya.

At this period Paris and other large French cities had each professional "chaplet-weavers," who are distinctively alluded to in many public documents. And in consequence of the profuse employment of the rose, both in these chaplets, and for the purpose of strewing over the tables and floors at festivals, large fields of roses were cultivated in the environs of all the larger cities: reminding the traveller, by their fragrance, of the "gardens of Gul in their bloom:" the celebrated rose-gardens of Persia:

"Oh, who has not heard of the vale of Cashmere, With its roses, the brightest that earth ever gave?"

Sir R. Ker Porter gives a most glowing account of the gardens of Negauristan, comparing their flowery mazes to those described in the old fairy tale of "Beauty and the Beast." He was especially astonished at the appearance of two rose-trees, measuring full fourteen feet in height, and laden with thousands of flowers in every degree of expansion: and of a strength and delicacy of scent which imbued the whole atmosphere with the most exquisite perfume. "Indeed," he adds, "in no country is it so cultivated and prized by the natives. Their gardens and courts are crowded with its plants, their rooms ornamented with vases filled with its gathered bunches, and every bath strewed with the full-blown flowers plucked from the ever-replenished stems; even the humblest individual who pays a piece of copper-money for a few whiffs of a kali6n, feels a double enjoyment when he finds it stuck with a bud from his dear native tree!" In many parts of the east, as in Syria and Egypt, dandies wear a rose at the side of the face, with its stem thrust up into the fez of their turbans.