1. Add egg coloring to butter or lard, if any is used.

2. Seedless (Sultana) raisins are the best for large cakes.

3. In summer wash your butter in ice water first; in winter soften a little in oven before using it.

4. If the oven bakes from the bottom, set your tin on another pan first, with heavy papers between.

5. Fruit for large cake should always be rubbed well with flour first. Keep eggs on ice, if whole or broken up.

6. For large square cakes it is best to have a wooden frame made, which should be greased and paper-lined; set on level and cook in tin. This avoids crust on the sides of cakes.

7. Grease all tins for loafcakes first, then line with paper, and for square cakes line the sides again, after the paper, with strips of cardboard. This avoids all hard crust and waste.