books



previous page: Perfection in Baking | by Emil Braun
  
page up: Cook Books
  
next page: Everywoman's Canning Book by Mary B. Hughes

A Treatise On Flour, Yeast, Fermentation And Baking Together With RecipesFor Bread And Cakes | by Julius Emil Wihlfahrt



In writing this book it has been my aim to present, in a form as condensed as possible, a work valuable to all persons interested in the baking trade. One of my chief purposes is in the interest of practical baking, which requires exact knowledge of flours and fermentations, together with all such recipes known to me in which compressed yeast should be used.

TitleA Treatise On Flour, Yeast, Fermentation And Baking Together With RecipesFor Bread And Cakes
AuthorJulius Emil Wihlfahrt
PublisherThe Gibson-Perin Co
Year1914
Copyright1914, Julius Emil Wihlfahrt
AmazonA treatise on flour, yeast, fermentation and baking, together with recipes for bread and cakes
-Preface To Treatise On Baking
In writing this book it has been my aim to present, in a form as condensed as possible, a work valuable to all persons interested in the baking trade. One of my chief purposes is in the interest of p...
-General Remarks On Treatise On Baking
This book is divided into two parts, viz: General Instructions and Recipes. In general, the information is sufficiently condensed to be clear only to such as already have a knowledge of the bakin...
-The Bakery Of Today
The dream of a few years ago - to eliminate the element of good or bad luck in the baking business - is realized, and it is, without doubt, not saying too much, that the manufacture of a compressed ...
-Part I. General Instructions. White Wheat Flour
There are two distinct kinds of wheat flour, known as Spring and Winter wheat flour. The Spring wheat flour is the strongest, as it contains the greatest per cent of gluten, and for this reason...
-Gluten In White Wheat Flour
The value of flour, of course, depends upon the quality and quantity of gluten it possesses, and also upon that substance from the soil, which, in the analyzation of the soil and in the investigation ...
-The Separation Of Gluten
The gluten may be approximately determined as follows: Scale accurately twenty-five grams of flour, and in a suitable porcelain dish, mix with 13 to 15 cc of water, of about 80 Fahrenheit. The exac...
-The Water Absorption Power Of Flour
The absorbing power of a flour is determined by weighing out 25 grams of flour into a suitable dish and adding water from a graduated burette, then making up the two into a dough of the proper, and a ...
-The Color Of Flour
The color of a flour is best defined by the well-known Pekar test. A fine, creamy yellow shade is a typical color of a high-grade flour. Starchy and weak wheats usually yield white flours. The vario...
-Natural Moisture In Flour
The natural amount of moisture varies from 9% to 13.5%; for freshly milled flour 12.5% may be given as a good average. More than 13.5% should be considered an over percentage of moisture, and would ha...
-Malt Extract As It Affects The Manufacture Of Bread
The preparation made for bakers and sold to them as Malt Extract should be prepared at a comparatively low temperature in mashing, in order to conserve the diastase. The diastase and proteids in such ...
-Various Acids In White Wheat Flour
Generally speaking, the characteristic acid in the wheat flour is given as lactic acid and, for convenience, the acidity is expressed as percentage amount of lactic acid. Wheat flour, when fermented ...
-Healthfulness Of White Wheat, Entire Wheat And Graham Flour
It is a general theory among many people that bread made from Graham and entire wheat flour is far more digestible than that made of white wheat flour. Such, however, is not the case. White wheat bre...
-Rye Flour Information
Rye flour contains less gluten than white wheat flour. Its gluten has a peculiar property of retaining moisture in the bread long after baking, but has not the same expansion qualities, as has the glu...
-Points About Fermentation
The term fermentation was first applied to the action of yeast changing the sugars or carbohydrates contained in the dough into alcohol and carbon dioxide gas. The different stages of fermentation ar...
-Yeast In Bread Making
The first and most important factor, to create a good and healthy fermentation, is, of course, good yeast. But the question now arises, which is the best and most reliable, as well as most universall...
-The Temperature Of The Bread Dough
By using compressed yeast, the time necessary for the fermentation can be accurately calculated, if the right temperature and the right blend of flours are used. To get a uniform loaf of bread should...
-Different Scales Of Thermometers
Having discussed the temperature at which doughs should be fermented, I think it appropriate to give some information as to how to change the different scales into Fahrenheit and vice versa, as the di...
-Manner Of Converting The Different Scales
To transform Fahrenheit into Reamur, deduct from degrees of Fahrenheit 32, the remaining sum multiply by 4, and divide the product by 9. The quotient received constitutes the corresponding degrees in ...
-Bread Sponge
In setting sponge before doughing the process of fermentation is lengthened and, therefore, today, in nearly all the large bakeries straight dough process is employed. But, the same as the straight do...
-Doughing
The sponge system of bread-making was so universally in practice until recently that the doughing in this respect needs but a short explanation. After the sponge is ready the remaining water is lifte...
-Yield Of Flour
The question arises: What causes the different yield of flour? And the answer is: The quantity and quality of gluten in them. But unless we go about in a careful manner and study these conditions, li...
-Amount Of Water Used For Doughing With Reference To Yield
The quantity of water which a barrel of flour will absorb depends upon the strength of the flour, strong flour taking considerably more water than soft flour, also machine-made dough will take more wa...
-Salt And Its Effect On Fermentation
Salt has a deterrent action upon fermentation, even when used in very small quantities. Its action is directly upon the yeast and is not dependent upon other ingredients in the dough. Salt neutralize...
-Rope In Bread
This is the most dreaded bread disease and many bakers do not know the real cause of it. Years ago the cause of rope was ascribed to filth. It was then more common. The bakeries were, many of them, lo...
-Flavor In Bread
Bread possesses different flavors and the difference in flavor depends upon the amount of soluble carbohydrates and the quantity and especially quality of gluten contained in a flour. It also depends ...
-Vienna Bread
Vienna bread differs in nearly every shop, and in many bakeries is far from being the genuine article. It is made both over the straight and sponge dough method. The proper manipulation of a Vienna ...
-Home-Made Bread Compared With Bakers' Bread
The name Home-made bread does not merely refer to bread made by the housekeeper, but it is also the name for a bread which a baker strives to make a perfect loaf as similar as possible to the home-m...
-Bakers Machinery
The motive power should be first considered. It is my belief that electric motors are most practical, as they are always ready and require no special trained man. If belt-driven machinery is used, it ...
-Holes In Bread
Large holes in bread are caused through irregular fermentation. All bread will contain some holes, and the difference in this respect constitutes the grain of the bread. A loaf made of a young dough w...
-Expansion Of The Loaf
The size of the loaf of bread is regulated by the respective age given to the dough. If you want a close-grained, medium-sized loaf of bread, scale your dough immediately after the second rise; if a l...
-Milk Bread
A Spring patent of medium strength or a blend resembling the same, is best adapted to this class of bread, as in too strong a flour, with too much fermentation, also part of the ingredients added woul...
-Ripeness Of Sponge, Sponge Dough And Straight Dough
A sponge set at the average stiffness should be ready for its first drop in from 3 to 4 hours, according to temperature in shop and strength of flour used. After the sponge commences to recede, it wil...
-Yeast-Raised Cakes
In making yeast-raised cakes, the raw material employed, both in quality and quantity, is a very important point. To begin with the flour, the richer the cake the softer should be the gluten containe...
-Gluten Flour
Gluten flour is a product made from white wheat flour, and its value for bread to serve in the case of persons suffering from diabetes, depends whether or not it is free from starch. A good gluten fl...
-Measures - Imperial Measure And Wine Measure
The attention of bakers in Canada is called to the difference between the Imperial Measure, commonly used in Canada, and the Wine Measure, used in the United States. The Imperial Gallon is equal to 1...
-Part II. Recipes. General Hints
Be careful in the selection of flour. The best is the cheapest. In winter it is always well to store flour for immediate use where it can not get chilled. Doughs and sponges should always be mixed w...
-How To Bake Plain Bread - Pan Loaves
196 lbs. (1 bbl.) flour. 2 lbs. Fleischmann's Yeast. 3 lbs. salt. 3 lbs. sugar (better use half malt extract). 2 lbs. lard. 60 to 64 quarts of water. This bread is best made over the Straight-...
-How To Bake Home-Made Bread
196 lbs. flour (1 bbl.) 2 lbs. Fleischmann's Yeast. 4 1/2 to 6 lbs. sugar (better use 1/2 malt extract). 4 1/2 to 6 lbs. lard or other shortening. 3 lbs. salt. 60 quarts water. Scaled at 17 ...
-Recipes For Baking Milk Bread
How To Bake Milk Bread No. 1 198 lbs. flour. 2 1/2 lbs. Fleischmann's Yeast. 3 1/2 lbs. sugar. 3 1/2 lbs. salt. 3 1/2 lbs. lard or oil. 9 1/2 lbs. sweetened condensed milk, containing 6% butter ...
-How To Bake French Bread
196 lbs. flour. 56 to 58 quarts water. 2 3/4 lbs. salt. 1 1/2 lbs. malt extract. 2 lbs. Fleischmann's Yeast. 3 lbs. of sugar. Some bakers prefer the sponge method for this kind of bread, the ...
-How To Bake Sandwich Bread
196 lbs. flour. 54 quarts water. 6 lbs. sugar. 2 lbs. malt extract. 4 lbs. oil or other shortening. 3 1/2 lbs. salt. 2 lbs. Fleischmann's Yeast. 2 lbs. milk powder, or 3 lbs. condensed milk (...
-How To Bake Vienna Bread
196 lbs. flour. 54 quarts water. 2 lbs. Fleischmann's Yeast. 2 lbs. malt extract. 2 lbs. sugar. 4 to 8 lbs. lard or other shortening. 2 3/4 lbs. salt. The respective time for straight dough to ...
-How To Bake Entire Wheat Bread
150 lbs. entire wheat flour. 46 lbs. white patent flour. 56 quarts water. 3 1/4 lbs. salt. 5 lbs. molasses. 1 lb. sugar. 1 lb. malt extract. 2 lbs. Fleischmann's Yeast. 3 1/2 lbs. lard or othe...
-How To Bake Boston Brown Bread
25 quarts water. 20 lbs. rye flour. 20 lbs. yellow cornmeal. 20 lbs. graham flour. 1/2 lb. Fleischmann's Yeast. 1 lb. salt. 1 lb. sugar. 1 lb. lard. 6 lbs. molasses (1/2 Porto Rico and 1/2 New...
-How To Bake Rye Bread - Sponge Method
Set sponge, using: 30 quarts water. 90 lbs. flour, Rye Blend. 1 lb. Fleischmann's Yeast. Allow sponge to ferment until 1/2 hour after it commences to recede. The temperature of the sponge direct...
-How To Bake Rye Bread - Straight Dough Method
196 lbs. flour Rye Blend. 58 to 60 quarts water. 3 3/4 lbs. salt. 2 lbs. Fleischmann's Yeast. Allow dough, after it has been thoroughly mixed, to get full proof twice. It is then ready to be ...
-How To Bake Rye Bread. Double Sponge Method
196 lbs. flour Rye Blend. 60 quarts water. 1 lb. Fleischmann's Yeast. 3 3/4 lbs. salt. Set sponge with 12 ounces Fleischmann's Yeast, 15 quarts water and 40 pounds flour. Allow to rest 3 hours, ...
-How To Bake Raisin Bread
196 lbs. flour. 60 quarts water. 3 lbs. salt. 2 1/2 lbs. Fleischmann's Yeast. 5 1/2 lbs. sugar. 2 lbs. malt extract. 4 1/2 lbs. lard or other shortening. 7 1/2 to 20 lbs. raisins. Place the ...
-How To Bake Concord Bread And Pulled Bread
How To Bake Concord Bread 2 quarts milk. 4 ounces lard. 1/2 ounce salt. 2 ounces Fleischmann's Yeast. 1 ounce sugar. Dissolve the yeast and the sugar in the milk; add sufficient flour to make me...
-How To Bake Plain Rolls - Sponge System
Ingredients used: 20 quarts of water. 5 pounds of sugar. 1 pound milk powder (or 1 1/2 pounds condensed milk). 10 ounces malt extract. 12 1/2 ounces salt. 5 pounds lard. 1 pound Fleischmann's Y...
-Recipes For Baking Various Rolls
How To Bake Turn-Over Rolls Take plain roll dough, but instead of pressing the rolling-pin straight down, give it a half turn. Grease the inside of one part of roll with melted lard, and lap over the...
-How To Bake Kaiser Semmel
Ingredients used: 10 quarts milk. 10 quarts water. 1 lb. salt. 1 1/2 lbs. sugar. 1 1/2 lbs. lard. 1 lb. Fleischmann's Yeast. Set sponge with the water and Yeast. The sponge should be soft, using ...
-How To Bake Vienna Kipfel
Take plain milk bread dough and add 10% of the weight of dough in butter; that is to say, for each 10 pounds of dough add 1 pound of butter. After the addition of the butter, allow the dough to get f...
-Bake Parker House Rolls
Ingredients used: 1 quart milk. 1 ounce sugar. 1/2 ounce salt. 2 ounces butter. 1 ounce lard. 5 egg yolks. 2 ounces Fleischmann's Yeast. Make straight dough out of the above ingredients and al...
-How To Bake Laugen Pretzel
Set sponge with two ounces of Fleischmann's Compressed Yeast and 4 quarts water. Sponge will be ready in 7 hours. Dissolve 1/2 lb. salt in 8 quarts water, lift this on sponge, add 5 pounds lard and s...
-How To Bake German Schnitz Bread - Hutzelbrod
Ingredients used: 4 oz. Fleischmann's Yeast. 5 lbs. rye dough. 2 lbs. seedless raisins. 2 lbs. currants. 1 lb. finely chopped citron. 1/2 lb. chopped orange peel. Gratings from 6 citrons. 1/2 ...
-Suggestions For Making Sweet Doughs
In making sweet doughs, always bear the following points in mind: 1. Weigh the ingredients carefully, especially the salt. 2. If water is used in place of milk, add 2 oz. more lard and 3 oz. more su...
-Recipes For Sweet Dough
How To Make Sweet Dough No. 1 4 quarts milk. 2 quarts water. 12 ounces butter. 6 ounces Fleischmann's Yeast. 12 ounces lard. 2 pounds sugar. 6 to 8 eggs. 2 ounces salt. The grating of a lemon. Flour....
-How To Bake Cinnamon Cake
Use either Sweet Dough No. 1 or No. 2. Keep the dough as soft as can be handled. They can either be made up in 2-oz. cakes or large 1-lb. cakes. For 2-oz. cakes roll into round balls, allow to rise 2...
-How To Bake Cinnamon Buns
Use either Sweet Dough No. 1 or No. 2. Roll out into a square sheet about 1/4 inch thick, 18 inches wide and any length according to quantity desired. Brush over with melted butter and bestrew with s...
-How To Bake Saxon Cakes
Use either Sweet Dough No. 1 or No. 2. Make dough firm, adding 1 lb. raisins, 1 lb. currants and 1/2 lb. finely chopped citron. Scale off in 18-oz. pieces, mould into round loaves, let rise 15 minute...
-Recipes With Yeast-Raised Pastry
How To Bake Yeast-Raised Pastry Use Sweet Dough No. 2, of medium stiffness. Take 6 lbs. of sweet dough; let dough be of medium firmness. Roll out into a square 12x18 inches and set in a cool place 1...
-How To Bake Snails
Use either Sweet Dough No. 1 or No. 2 or best Yeast-Raised Pastry. Roll out into a square sheet, same as for cinnamon buns, brush over with lard or butter, bestrew with sugar and currants, then make ...
-How To Bake Apple Cake
Use either Sweet Dough No. 1 or No. 2, but better Yeast-Raised Pastry. Line a baking sheet with the dough 1-8 inch thick, prick well with a fork all over, allow the dough to rise 15 minutes, then lay ...
-Recipes For Baking Speckkuchen
How To Bake Speckkuchen No. 1 Take either Sweet Dough No. 1 or No. 2, or better Yeast-Raised Pastry. Line a baking sheet the same as for apple cake. Wisk eggs thoroughly (6 to 8 eggs for a medium-si...
-Recipes For Baking Cheese Cake
How To Bake Cheese Cake Line baking sheet the same as for apple cake and fill with the following mixture: Ingredients used: 1 lb. green cheese. 5 eggs. 6 oz. sugar. 1 qt. milk. Little vanilla f...
-How To Bake Spanish Snails
Ingredients used: 1 pt. water. 12 eggs. 3 lbs. sugar. 4 oz. Fleischmann's Yeast. 1-3 oz. salt. Sponge. Dissolve the yeast and 1 1/2 lbs. of the sugar in the water; then add the eggs; beat the w...
-Recipes For Baking Kugelhupf And Babas
How To Bake Kugelhupf 1 lb. flour. 2 oz. Fleischmann's Yeast. 7 oz. butter. 4 oz. sugar. 7 eggs. 1/2 teaspoon salt. 3 oz. almonds. 1/2 lb. raisins. 1/2 lb. currants. 1/4 lb. chopped citron. ...
-How To Bake Savarin
Ingredients used: 1 gill milk. 19 oz. flour. 2 oz. Fleischmann's Yeast. 15 oz. butter. 2 oz. sugar. A pinch of salt. 8 eggs. The grating of 1 lemon. 1 oz. chopped citron. 2 oz. raisins. A p...
-How To Bake Brioches
3 lbs. flour. 3 oz. Fleischmann's Yeast. 2 lbs. butter. 18 eggs. 3 oz. sugar. 1 gill brandy. 1/2 teaspoonful salt. Dissolve the yeast in 1/2 pint luke-warm milk, and with it make a medium-firm ...
-How To Bake German Ring Twist
20 oz. flour. 2 oz. Fleischmann's Yeast. 5 oz. butter. 1 oz. sugar. Grating of 1 lemon. A pinch of salt. 3/4 pint milk. Set sponge with all of the milk, yeast and sufficient flour. Allow to res...
-How To Bake Hazelnut Rings
Use Yeast-Raised Pastry (1 3/4 lbs.) Roll out into a sheet 9 inches wide and 18 inches long, fill with the hazelnut paste, sprinkle with 2 ounces of sugar and 2 ounces of chopped orange peel and make ...
-How To Bake Butter Bread
Ingredients used: 7 oz. butter. 2 oz. sugar. 11 eggs. 1/2 pt. milk. 1 lb. flour. 2 oz. Fleischmann's Yeast. 1/2 teaspoonful salt. The grating of 1 lemon. Cream the butter thoroughly, adding t...
-How To Bake Ulmer Breads
Ingredients used: 15 oz. flour. 2 oz. Fleischmann's Yeast. 1/2 pint milk. 3 oz. butter. 3 oz. sugar. 4 eggs. 1/2 gill brandy. 1 teaspoonful anis. The grating of 1 lemon. 2 oz. chopped orange ...
-How To Bake Stollen
Ingredients used: 37 oz. flour. 3 oz. sugar. 10 oz. butter. 4 eggs. 1 1/2 pts. milk. 2 oz. Fleischmann's Yeast. 1/2 teaspoonful salt. 5 oz. raisins. Grating of 1 lemon. 2 oz. chopped almonds. ...
-How To Bake Baked Apple Dumplings
Take Yeast-Raised Pastry, roll out into squares large enough to lap over the apples; peel apples and core them, leaving the apples whole; place the apples in the center of the square pieces of dough, ...
-Recipes For Baking Waffles
Waffles No. 1 Ingredients used: 1 quart milk. 1 ounce Fleischmann's Yeast. 2 pounds flour. 4 eggs. 3 ounces sugar. 1 teaspoonful salt. A little grated nutmeg. Set sponge with milk, which shou...
-Wheat Gem Recipe And Recipes Based On It
Wheat Gems Ingredients used: 1 1/4 pounds sugar. 1 1/4 pounds lard or butter. 12 eggs. 2 quarts milk. 2 ounces Fleischmann's Yeast. 1/2 ounce salt. 4 pounds flour. Set sponge with milk, which...
-Graham Gems And Recipes Based On It
Graham Gems Ingredients used: 4 ounces sugar. 1 pint molasses. 1 1/4 pints lard or butter. 12 eggs. 1 1/2 quarts milk. 2 ounces Fleischmann's Yeast. 1/2 ounce salt. 2 pounds white flour. 2 p...
-Recipes For Corn Muffins, Corn Gems And Corn Bread
Corn Muffins 1 quart milk. 2 lbs. white flour. 1 lb. corn meal. 2 oz. Fleischmann's Yeast. 3 oz. sugar. 9 oz. butter. 6 eggs. 1/2 oz. salt. A little nutmeg. Set sponge, using all the milk, y...
-Recipes For Pop Over Muffins And Potato Biscuit
Pop-Over Muffins Ingredients used: 2 quarts milk. 2 1/4 lbs. flour. 12 eggs. 1 oz. salt. 2 oz. Fleischmann's Yeast. Set sponge with milk, flour and yeast, which should be luke-warm. Allow to res...
-Recipes For Making Mother Muffins
Mother Muffins Very quickly made. Ingredients used: 1 pint milk. 1 oz. melted butter. 1 yeast cake, Fleischmann's. 1 egg. 1 teaspoon salt. Flour. 2 tablespoons sugar. Make sponge with the mi...
-Recipes For Making Batter Cakes And Buckwheat Cakes
Batter Cakes Ingredients used: 2 cups white Indian meal. 2 cups white flour. 1 oz. butter. 1 quart milk. 1 Fleischmann's Yeast cake. 1 teaspoon salt. Set batter over night, using all ingredien...
-How To Make Flannel Cakes
Ingredients used: 1 quart milk. 1 Fleischmann's Yeast cake. 1 oz. butter, melted. 2 eggs. 1 teaspoon salt. Set sponge with half of milk and yeast. Allow to rest until it drops back; then add the...
-How To Make Icing For Sweet Cakes
Plain Icing For each pint of water, use whites of two eggs, beaten to a stiff froth. Add all the sugar possible; then, little by little, add the boiling water. After the addition of the water again a...









TOP
previous page: Perfection in Baking | by Emil Braun
  
page up: Cook Books
  
next page: Everywoman's Canning Book by Mary B. Hughes