This section is from the book "A Treatise On Beverages or The Complete Practical Bottler", by Charles Herman Sulz. Also available from Amazon: A Treatise On Beverages.
Flavoring syrups and compounding with them the various ingredients is a delicate operation. Unless the party in charge of this important branch of the factory is a man of methodical habits, his experiments are often of no practical future use. One of the most prominent features in the compounding of syrups is the thorough blending of them with the various flavors and other ingredients; if it is given the attention which it duly deserves, the bottler will never regret to have followed it, and will certainly be crowned with the very best of results. Never use syrup unless it has been flavored at least one day before. It is absolutely necessary to allow time for the various ingredients to combine with the syrup. Experiments have proved that the diffusion of liquids is very slow, and it requires thorough agitation, besides time, to produce a perfect compound syrup. The use of the syrups immediately after flavoring is so general, that we must urge the bottlers to discard this bad usage. A harmonious combination will be obtained only if time be permitted, and by frequent agitation, otherwise an imperfectly blended syrup, and consequently an unequally flavored beverage, will be the result. To obtain an equal flavoring of the bottles, therefore, perfect and thorough blending of the syrups is the principal requirement.
The syrups should be compounded in stoneware vessels, such as represented by Fig. 410, carefully covered and at intervals agitated, to insure a thorough combination. Prepare them one day in advance in such quantities as can be conveniently used. When mixing and stirring the compound syrups, always use a wooden paddle, and never a metal one. If more time can be spared, they should be put in five-gallon stoneware bottles or demijohns, repeatedly agitated, and when required they can be poured into the syrup jars attached to the bottling apparatus. To blend the syrup in the act of bottling or drawing, as a patent arrangement recommends, we do not favor at all, as positively time is necessary to combine the syrups with their ingredients. In regard to syrup-receptacles, on page 347 we have already called the bottler's attention to the fact, that it is highly important to avoid any exposure of flavored and compound syrups to copper, lead, zinc or iron, as its chemical action on such metals results in a contamination which not only destroys its beneficial effects, but renders it positively noxious, and we refer to what we suggested in respect to the necessary condition of syrup receptacles. If a syrup is poured to water in fountain, avoid letting it stand long, as fruit acids attack the lining in fountain.
The recipes which follow will be found useful for bottlers and dispensers. The formulae represent the average standard strength, but they may be reduced or increased, according to circumstances. By intelligent manipulation and combination the formulas may be improved, or others put up and named to suit the fancy of the bottler or his customers.
The strength of the syrup, extracts, essences, tinctures, fruit-acid solutions, refer to the formulae given in this work. Examine the commercial preparations in regard to their strength, as directed on page 662, and use them accordingly. All the fruit syrups made from artificial flavors, also lemon syrup made from the soluble essence of lemon, require acidulating; this much improves them, and the pleasant fruit acid can be perfectly simulated by adding to each gallon of syrup about two ounces of fruit-acid solution. Use no tartaric acid or a mixed solution of citric and tartaric, where aniline colors are employed, as they would fade. Add all the ingredients one after the other to the syrup, never together; after each addition agitate briskly, then add the next ingredient. Never add flavoring extracts to syrups while hot. This would simply cause them to volatilize. Never add the fruit or other acids to the syrup either before boiling or when perfectly cold. Thick colorings, such as caramel, should be mixed well with an equal bulk of water, and filtered before adding to the syrup. Three-fourths of an ounce to an ounce of the compound syrup is the usual quantity for a half-pint bottle, one and one-half ounce of a ten-ounce bottle. The syrup gauge attached to the bot-tling-apparatus is recommended in all cases where a fair amount of business is done; for a small business a dipper and funnel may be used. At the dispensing counter measure one ounce of syrup into the tumbler, and fill with plain soda water. Use gum foam but sparingly; preservatives only when necessary. Before commencing to bottle examine the compounded syrup by measuring one ounce of it into a bottle, and charging with carbonated water; compare against the light; then taste it in regard to sweetness, strength of flavor and acidity, and correct, if necessary, the former by clarification or filtration, and the latter by adding more of what is wanted, or if too strong, by using less syrup or cutting with other plain syrup Cream syrups, especially adapted for dispensing, can be made with all flavors, by simply combining cream syrup or cream or condensed milk with the other ingredients. They should be made but in small quantities and kept in a cool place. As they soon become sour, the addition of a small quantity of carbonate of soda or a few grains of powdered borax will retard the souring for several days. The various formulae of compound syrups in books, involving in some instances changes, are but different modes of arriving at the same result.
If any liquor is used in compounding, a rectifier's license will be necessary.