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A Manual Of Home-Making



Herein is brought together a collection of precepts and advice on the setting up and management of a home. The book is written and compiled primarily for those women who are managing households, not for those who are teaching or who are students in the class-room. It has been the purpose to bring together from many reliable sources the guiding rules to be followed in making the home a place where the family can live a thrifty and joyous life. It is compiled by those who understand the subject and the situation.

TitleA Manual Of Home-Making
AuthorMartha Van Rensselaer
PublisherThe Macmillan Company
Year1919
Copyright1919, The Macmillan Company
AmazonA Manual of Home-Making

A Manual Of Home-Making

Compiled By Martha Van Rensselaer Flora Rose Helen Canon

Of The Department Of Home Economics, New York College Of Agriculture At Cornell University

New York

The Macmillan Company

All rights reserved

Copyright, 1919

By The Macmillan Company

Set up and electrotyped. Published February, 1919

Edited by L. H. Bailey

A Manual Of Home-Making

A Manual Of Home MakingA Manual Of Home Making 2Plate I

Plate I

Dignified houses, in plaster and shingle, adapted for country homes.

-Statement By The Editor
Herein is brought together a collection of precepts and advice on the setting up and management of a home. The book is written and compiled primarily for those women who are managing households, not f...
-Part I. The House And Its Furnishings. Chapter I. The Modern House
By Helen Binkerd Young A sound house plan is fundamental to the economics of the home. A common impulse toward rational living has made it necessary to simplify the paraphernalia of existence; to e...
-Arrangement Of The House
The plan of the house must be above all a direct and business-like arrangement. Every foot of space must be made to count, must contribute either to the smoothness of the housework or to the effective...
-The Farmhouse
No building can be discussed intelligently apart from its surroundings. The best placing of the farmhouse depends on the location of the barns and other outbuildings. The relation of these buildings t...
-Farmhouse Planning
A farmhouse is more difficult to plan than either a city or a suburban dwelling, because it must provide for so many needs. The city or the suburban house is merely a home; it is supplemented by an ou...
-Traditional Types
It may truly be said that the problem of the American farm-house is still unsolved. For the building of new appropriate farm dwellings, there is almost no precedent to guide one. Most of the rural hou...
-Plan Of Farm House
In this house the laundry is located in the basement, which stands out of ground on the kitchen corner. An outside door enters the cellar on grade level. The bedroom plan is compact, private, light...
-Modern Improvements
The class of conveniences known as modern improvements - meaning thereby plumbing, heating, and lighting systems, the installation of mechanical power to be used for pumps, washing machines, mangles, ...
-Color Scheme
The setting of a rural house presupposes such natural scenery as is composed of trees, shrubs, lawns, gardens, hills, rocks, and streams. The color effect of the house must be in harmony with this set...
-General Proportion
The effectiveness of a house in the landscape depends not at all on ornament, but on its structural shape and the color produced through the use of building materials. Refined proportions, simple roof...
-Structural Elements
The windows of a dwelling, whether grouped or single, . should be similar in style and should show some kind of orderly arrangement. In general, unity of design is preserved if the tops of all windows...
-Cost Of Building
The actual cost of building a given house is determined largely by local conditions. The cost of labor, the cost of materials used, the distance of the new building from the base of supplies, and the ...
-Suggestions For Making Alterations
Any person who expects to make alterations in a house should begin to ponder improvements a long time in advance. The first step should be an accurately measured record of the present floor plans, dra...
-Chapter II. Home Furnishing
By Annette J. Warner The home represents the most intimate environment of the individual. No matter how unconscious of their surroundings persons may seem, their tastes and ideas are affected by th...
-Structural Consideration Of Rooms
Size The old ideal for a room was the largest, squarest room possible for every use - for a family room, bedroom, or kitchen. Changed conditions of living and the increased cost of labor and buil...
-Room Shape And Proportion
Simple rectangular shapes for rooms are the natural outcome of building conditions. Any extension or projection should be a coherent structural feature and should be used only to satisfy a need in the...
-Structural Surfaces
The structural surfaces of the room are walls, ceiling, and floor. Walls include plaster walls, windows, doors, and trim. ...
-Plaster Walls
The usual finish for the walls of a dwelling is plaster. Plaster may be rough or smooth. It may be left in the natural color, painted, or papered. 1. Rough plaster: The irregularities in rough, or ...
-Wainscots
Wainscoting treatments formed by chair-rail or paneling of various heights suggest a variety of decorative effects which are appropriate for important rooms, such as living-room, dining-room, and hall...
-Trim Of Walls
The trim of the room may be thought of as part of the wall or as a frame for an opening. If the room is small or the openings many and not well placed, the trim should be subordinated to the wall trea...
-Doors
Doors of good pattern in various woods may be obtained ready-made in standard sizes. They should be of the same general finish as the trim and other woodwork. Doors of uniform height on each floor con...
-Ceiling
The treatment of the ceiling should harmonize with the finish of the walls and woodwork. Ordinarily the ceilings in dwellings are finished with plaster. This lends itself through the use of calcimine ...
-Floors
Floors are made to be walked upon and are subject to hard usage. They should, therefore, be durable. Floors cannot be easily changed; therefore they should be permanent in material and finish. Since t...
-Color
Color is more potent in creating the atmosphere of a house or room than is any other influence. Harmonious color will cover a multitude of sins in design, while no amount of good design will atone for...
-Recognized Influences Of Color Hue
Colors in which there is a suggestion of yellow or orange or red, the warm colors, such as tones of tan or buff or old gold or brown or yellow-green, or the warm grays, such as taupe or sand or m...
-Intensity Or Chroma
Strong or bright colors are not appropriate for use in large masses, such as wall or floor coverings, because they are too insistent and aggressive and they do not easily harmonize with the furnishing...
-Considerations Governing Color Selection
From the foregoing discussion it follows that: 1. Southerly rooms with a superabundance of light and sunshine need in general cool and dark colors to temper the light. 2. Northerly rooms with no...
-Color For The Whole Interior
A uniform coloring for the walls of a series of connecting rooms contributes to unity of effect. A sufficient variety in effect may be secured by varying the color or pattern of draperies and other fu...
-The Parts Of The Room As A Background
The ceiling, the side wall, and the floor form the background of the room against which all the furnishings and the occupants of the room are seen. Like the frame of a picture, the background should b...
-Walls And Trim
The wall color, being most in evidence as a background, covering a greater area than either ceiling or floor and serving as the connecting link between these, should be the determining factor in the s...
-Pattern (Plates IV, V)
An exhaustive discussion of pattern would involve the whole theory and practice of design, but the usual mistakes of the home-maker in choosing wall paper, drapery, upholstery, and fugs may be avoided...
-Characteristics Of Good Pattern
The motifs employed for patterns are of two kinds: (1) abstract or geometric forms which are simply harmonious shapes so repeated as to make a pleasing pattern; for example, the Greek key pattern; (2)...
-Pattern As Used For Walls And Floors
Walls and floors are flat solid surfaces. Their effectiveness and comeliness depend on this structural fact and this must be borne in mind in the selection of pattern for them. Any variation of surfac...
-Selection Of Furnishings. Wall Coverings
A textile may be used to cover smooth plastered walls. All sorts of materials that give the desired effect, from the cheapest to the most expensive, have been employed for this purpose. Canvas, burlap...
-Color And Pattern
Color is of first importance in the decorative effect of window-hangings. White curtains may be appropriate in a room with white woodwork, white ceiling, and light walls, for they are in such case in ...
-Texture
Texture affects the adaptability of the hangings. Texture is the quality of material made known to us originally, as its name signifies, through touch, but by experience is equally recognizable throug...
-Hanging Of Draperies
If the woodwork of the room has been so selected and finished as to make of it a structural decorative feature, it should bear somewhat the same relation to the draperies as a picture-frame to a pictu...
-Lining
If the curtains are to be lined, allowance should be made for the heading at the top and, ordinarily, for 2 inches to be turned up at the bottom, that is, as much for making as in the unlined curtain....
-Portieres
For portieres hung from a pole by rings, the space to be covered by the hanging finished is that from the bottom of the pole to within 2 inches of the floor. This space is required in the interest bot...
-Lined Curtains
Many materials used for the outer window drapery should be lined, especially for windows subjected to the heat and glare of the sun. Lining is often desirable even when there are glass curtains, both ...
-Valances
The ordinary valance of cretonne or thin material is gathered or plaited and made with a heading. Gathered valances are made in the same way as gathered curtains. For plaited valances, the box plait i...
-Floor Coverings
Only modern rugs of domestic or foreign manufacture will be considered here, as the choice Oriental rugs are not within the compass of the average purse and the ability to select these wisely is acqui...
-Carpets
Carpets are not so popular at the present time as rugs; but with the home-maker, fashion should not enter into the consideration. A carpet with small figures or none, covering the entire floor, tends ...
-Rugs
Rugs serve all the purposes of a carpet and are in general much more easily cared for and more adaptable decoratively. Even a large rug, when rolled on a pole, can be easily moved in and out for clean...
-Linoleum
For hard and continuous wear, such as on the floors of kitchens, passages, and dining-rooms, on farms or for large families, linoleum makes a very satisfactory covering. A good quality of linoleum is ...
-Cork Carpet
Cork carpet, a floor covering similar to linoleum in wearing qualities, but with more of a surface texture, can be obtained in a number of plain tones. Like linoleum it can be used pleasingly even in ...
-Wood-Veneer Carpet
A wood-veneer carpet of inconspicuous pattern laid over an old floor is also a very durable and satisfactory background for rugs. Japanese matting of fine weave, though light in color can be made to t...
-Ingrain Filling
Ingrain filling or other plain carpets may also be used as a background for rugs in the absence of a good wood floor. furniture (Plates VI-IX and Figs. 24-29). Furniture is perhaps the most dist...
-Furniture Function
The usefulness of a piece of furniture is paramount to every other consideration. For example, a chair of whatever materials constructed, is made to sit in. If it does not answer this use comfortably,...
-Construction And Design
The first requirements in construction are strength and durability. These are essential elements also for efficient service. Good furniture must be sincerely built from honest material, should be desi...
-Upholstery
Well-disposed springs and padding add much to the comfort of a lounge or chair, and a textile covering may contribute most attractive notes to the color scheme of a room. Upholstered chairs with a wel...
-Relation To Other Furnishings
To secure a homogeneous result in house furnishing, the fitness of each purchase should be thought of in relation to the room in which it is to go and in relation to the other furnishings of that room...
-Pictures
Contrary to the usual belief, pictures are not indispensable in a well-furnished room. If the wall spaces are not too large and bare, if the walls are paneled or have an interesting covering, or if th...
-Other Furnishing Accessories
While some small furnishings have a distinct use and may introduce the one decorative note needed to complete the scheme, safety lies in restraint. These small things should be selected with as much c...
-Arrangement Of Furnishings
(Figs. 31-33). The character of every room should be obvious at the moment of entrance. It should be immediately evident whether the room in question is used for a family gathering room, for literary...
-Character Of Rooms Expressed By Furnishings
The hall, living-room, dining-room, and library, if there is one, represent one group of interests, and may be considered to form the social, recreative, or living area of the house. The general chara...
-Chapter III. Planning The Home Kitchen
By Helen Binkerd Young Any home-maker should be able to plan a kitchen intelligently. This means a kitchen that measures up to some standard tests on general essential points. The details are of sm...
-Use Of The Kitchen
Properly speaking, the kitchen is a scrupulously clean room intended for operations connected with food materials, and for this purpose only. It is not the province of the kitchen to provide space for...
-Kitchen Doors
After the size and the location of the kitchen have been determined, the placing of the openings is the next step to be considered. The subject of doors especially should be given the most deliberate ...
-Kitchen Windows
The function of a window is essentially, twofold-to admit light and air. Naturally that arrangement of windows will be most reasonable which provides for the best diffusion of light and the best venti...
-Arrangement Of Kitchen Equipment
Having planned the kitchen that is structurally suited to its use, further convenience depends on the selection and arrangement of the furniture, or equipment. In this, as in the case of any industry,...
-Kitchen Drawers And Shelves
(In form of closet or cabinet) 2. The heat center requires the following equipment: a. Stove or range, from 2 by 3 feet to 2 1/2 by 5 feet b. Storage space... Fuel box or bin, if coal or wood is...
-Table Space
Extensive table space may be gained by providing generous drain-boards to right and left of the sink, continuous with the cabinet shelf. A movable table of the same height, mounted on casters or, pref...
-Kitchen Range
The newer patterns of reliable ranges are simpler and less ornate than those of the older stoves and require less care. If a new kitchen is to be built, a separate ventilating flue maybe provided i...
-Sink And Drain-Boards
A one-piece enameled iron sink, with high back, will prove a satisfactory appliance. This sink should be large enough to hold a dishpan conveniently. Dishwashing will be more quickly accomplished with...
-To Barns
Fig. 35. - A farmhouse kitchen that demonstrates the principles of sound planning. The purpose of a washroom is to save the other parts of the house. Here all dirty and occasional forms of work...
-Pantries And Closets
No part of the kitchen equipment has been so evaded in planning as has accurate and systematic storage space. The habit has been acquired of using every corner and tuck-away place for a closet, the id...
-Living Room
Fig. 37. - Plan in which principles of kitchen arrangement are clearly expressed. There are three general types of storage space that may be used in connection with the kitchen arrangements: (1) th...
-Interior Finish
Any kitchen that is to give full satisfaction must be sound in arrangement, sightly in appearance, and smooth in operation. Within reasonable limits, anything that can be devised to enforce this tripl...
-Part II. Household Management. Chapter IV. Care Of The House
By Helen Knowlton For convenience as well as efficient work in housekeeping, a schedule of regular daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly processes should be made out. Time can then be well planned, an...
-Cellar
To keep the cellar in a sanitary condition, as much sunlight as possible should be admitted. The windows should be made as large as possible and be on opposite sides to insure cross-ventilation. If th...
-Kitchen
Sink A sink without running water is unjustifiable for the busy housewife. A drain connection with a trap and a sanitary disposal outside for wastes should be provided. The best kind of sink and th...
-Living-Room And Dining-Room
The window shades of the living-room and the dining-room should be raised more than halfway to let in the sunshine, and the windows should be opened frequently to air out and to keep the temperature b...
-Sleeping-Rooms
The ideal sleeping-room is the outdoor porch with only curtains for protection. An indoor sleeping-room should have simple furnishings. Unnecessary draperies collect dust and exclude air and sunshine....
-Bathroom
Absolute cleanliness and abundant ventilation are essential in a sanitary bathroom. Kerosene applied with a special brush or cloth to the bathtub, bowl, and toilet and washed off with a good soap solu...
-Suggestions For Sweeping And Dusting
Dust should be avoided, since it irritates the throat and may carry germs. If possible a vacuum sweeper should be used. If a broom is used it should be dampened, or bits of moist paper or some commerc...
-Repair Kit
A well-stocked repair kit should be a part of the equipment of every household. It should be placed in a convenient location and should contain: hammer, screwdriver, plane, pliers, awl, oil-can, saw, ...
-Some Special Directions For Cleaning. Cleaning Closet
In every house there should be a cupboard or a closet set aside for cleaning purposes, with a place for everything and everything in its place. The cleaning materials and apparatus listed under the ...
-Cleaning Materials
Paraffin Rottenstone Salt Soap * Turpentine Vinegar Washing-soda Wax (floor) Whiting Apron, stove Carpet, piece old brussels Chamois skin or leather Cheese-cloth ...
-Cleaning Utensils
Irons Monkey wrench Mop, cloth Mop, string Saucepans (old) Scissors (for lamp) Step ladder Tub Tub, fiber Washboard Whisk-broom Wringer ...
-To Clean Lamps
The apparatus necessary for cleaning lamp is an old newspaper, the kerosene can, a damp flannelette duster, lamp scissors, and a dry towel. 1. Carry the lamps to a sink, or to a table convenient to...
-To Oil A Kitchen Stove
1. Put a little light oil on a wad of cotton waste and rub it on all the iron parts of the stove. 2. Rub it off with fresh waste, an old cloth, or some crumpled paper. 3. Polish it with a dry flannele...
-To Clean Windows
A high stepladder, fiber tub, damp flannelette duster, scrub cloth, soft linen towel, chamois leather, ammonia, and warm water are necessary to clean windows. 1. Fill the tub half full of warm wate...
-To Clean A Piano Case
A bottle of olive oil, a bottle of alcohol, some new or perfectly clean canton flannel, a perfectly clean chamois leather, and a basin of water will be needed to clean a piano. 1. Wet a small piece...
-To Wax A Floor
In waxing floors, the following apparatus is necessary: a can of floor wax, a waxing flannel, a half yard of heavy flannel or a piece of old brussels carpet, and a weighted brush. 1. The floor must...
-Chapter V. Household Measurements And Their Use
The modern household should be equipped with well-selected measuring appliances which can be intelligently used not only to help standardize the daily housework and living conditions in the home but a...
-Weighing Scale
A weighing scale should have a capacity of 10 to 30 pounds or more, and should be graduated to 1 ounce or less. Among good types on the market are the hanging-pan spring scale, the counter beam scale,...
-Liquid Measures
The supply of liquid measures should include a quart, a pint, and a half-pint measure, and a 4-ounce glass graduate subdivided to 1 dram or less for measuring small quantities of liquids and determini...
-Dry Measures
A nest of dry measures holding from 1/2 bushel to 1 quart may be necessary, although the growing tendency is to sell dry commodities by weight. The weight of a bushel of certain common dry commodities...
-Temperature and Thermometers
The following thermometers should be a part of the equipment of every household: Room-Temperature Thermometer To give a fair measure of the temperature of a room, a thermometer should be placed ...
-Tests For Thermometers
Household thermometers from reliable makers are usually correct to within 1 or 2 degrees at room temperature and below, although sometimes they are several degrees in error. Any thermometer which h...
-Temperature Tables
Table I. - Boiling Point Of Water And Average Barometer Readings For Different Altitudes Altitude Temperature of steam Corrected Average barometer , readings ...
-Time
The usual clocks found in the home may be divided into two classes, the mantel or wall clock type, which has a pendulum, and the common alarm-clock type, in which the movement is controlled by the vib...
-Moving A Pendulum Clock
The pendulum clock usually has its pendulum suspended by a thin flat spring, and to avoid breaking this spring when the clock is to be moved from one place to another, it is best either to unhook the ...
-Setting A Clock
The setting of a pendulum clock is usually best done by turning the minute hand forward, several revolutions if necessary, to bring the hour hand to the correct hour. If the clock does not have a stri...
-Regulating A Clock
Few clocks of either the pendulum or the alarm-clock type are made with devices to compensate for changes in temperature, and as these changes will alter the rate, it is desirable to keep the clock in...
-Care Of Timepieces
Precautions should be taken not only with clocks but also with watches to keep them at a constant temperature if one wishes to obtain the best results with them. If possible a watch should be kept at ...
-An Alarm Clock
An alarm clock may be made very useful in giving a warning of the necessity of inspecting a given process which otherwise might be overlooked, and when food materials are frequently spoiled in prepara...
-Measuring Gas
How to read a gas meter. The index of an ordinary gas meter, which is similar to that of an electric or a water meter, is shown in Fig. 41. The smaller top dial, which is marked Two feet inside o...
-Measuring Electricity. How To Read An Electric Meter
A view of the dials of a modern electric meter is given in Fig. 43. The method of reading is similar to that for the dials of a gas meter as explained on page 144. The reading in Fig. 43 is 538 kilow...
-Checking The Watthour Meter
The electric meter may be checked approximately by the householder without the use of electrical instruments. For this purpose it is only necessary to note the reading of the meter, then turn on a num...
-Measuring Water
How to read a water meter. Meters for measuring water for domestic use are usually graduated in cubic feet - sometimes in gallons. One cubic foot 10,000 is taken commercially as equal to 71/2 gallo...
-Density Of Liquids
A knowledge of the density or specific gravity of a liquid is usually of value in the household only as an index of some other physical property or quality of the liquid. For example, in the preparati...
-Determination Of Specific Gravity
The specific gravity of a liquid may be most readily determined by means of a small glass instrument known as the hydrometer. This instrument floats in the liquid to be examined and the specific gravi...
-Classes Of Hydrometers
Hydrometers in general use may be divided into three classes with reference to their indication: 1. Specific gravity hydrometers; 2. per cent hydrometers; 3. arbitrary scale hydrometers. Specific g...
-Table IV. - Densities Of Some Household Materials
Densities Of Some Household Materials Substance Temperature in degrees centigrade Density in grams to the cubic centimeter Air, dry................
-Use Of The Hydrometer
In using the hydrometer, a portion of the liquid whose specific gravity is to be measured should be placed in a glass cylinder of such a size that the hydrometer when placed in the cylinder will be fr...
-Influence Of Temperature
When the temperature of a liquid changes, its specific gravity also changes and the indication of a hydrometer in the liquid will, therefore, differ at different temperatures. All hydrometers should b...
-Kitchen Measures
In the kitchen more accurate weights and measures are gradually coming into common use, as the units used are becoming better defined. Domestic science departments of schools and colleges are largely ...
-Tables Of Weights And Measures
Apothecaries' Fluid Measure: 60 minims = 1 fluid dram 8 fluid drams = 1 fluid ounce 16 fluid ounces = 1 liquid pint 8 liquid pints = 1 gallon (British measures differ from above) Apothecaries...
-International Metric System
In the international metric system the fundamental unit is the meter-the unit of length. From this the units of capacity (liter) and of weight (gram) were derived. All other units are the decimal subd...
-Units Of Area
The table of areas is formed by squaring the length measures, as in our common system, For land measure 10 meters square is called an Are (meaning area). The side of one are is about 33 feet. The ...
-Chapter VI. Household Records
by Edith Fleming Bradford The business of housekeeping needs its records, not only those dealing directly with finance-the whence and whither of the income-, but those showing such facts as the qua...
-How To Keep Household Records
A small filing cabinet of pasteboard or wood, in which the information is recorded on cards arranged according to the classification chosen, may be used. The general headings should be written or prin...
-Household Accounts
The advantages of keeping household accounts include: (1) an accurate knowledge of the use of the family income; (2) a check on wasteful expenditures; (3) an encouragement to form a proper relationshi...
-Equipment
Equipment for keeping accounts may be of the most simple kind. In the kitchen there should be a hanging hook file on which to place delivery slips and bills to await entry in the accounts. A small pad...
-Forms Of Keeping Accounts
Accounts may be kept in book form, either bound or loose leaf, or on cards. The simplest method of keeping accounts is one that records merely receipts and expenditures, each in its own column, no ent...
-To Balance Accounts
It is desirable that accounts be balanced at least once each week in order that errors and omissions may be avoided. In balancing accounts, totals of all columns may be inserted in small pencil figure...
-Chapter VII. Heat And Light
The enormous waste of fuel in the homes of this country is coming to claim the attention of thoughtful householders. In both the heating of dwellings and the cooking of food, careful choice of equipme...
-Care Of Fires
A few general rules for controlling heating and cooking fires are as follows: 1. To increase the amount of heat, open drafts which let air into the ash pit, and with soft coal and wood when fresh f...
-Radiation
Hot objects, like stoves and steam pipes, lose much of their heat by radiation, and the blacker the object the more it will lose; hence, stoves and steam pipes should be black if they are intended to ...
-Comparative Cost Of Various Methods Of Heating
The ideal heating system is one that will give a uniform temperature throughout the house, if desired. Furnaces are more likely to produce this result than are stoves. A stove seldom heats more tha...
-Factors Governing Consumption Of Fuel And Convenience Of Operation
Climate Variable weather and high winds make difficult the economical use of fuel and convenient operation. Size And Type Of Dwelling Fuel consumption varies with the size of the house, the n...
-Size Of Boiler And Furnace
If to supply the necessary heat requires the consumption of 20 pounds of fuel an hour and the boiler or furnace is to keep this up for eight hours without attention, it is evident that the fire pot mu...
-Kind Of Fuel Used
The most desirable fuels are, as a rule, the most expensive. It may be possible to burn some of the smaller sizes of anthracite with the furnace or egg size and thus effect a saving. The price a ton o...
-Care Of Furnace
The heater should receive regular attention, and if the demands for heat are intelligently anticipated, as they ordinarily can be, the house can be warmed with minimum trouble and fuel. When the rooms...
-Suggestions For Firing And Cleaning A Furnace
Suggestions for firing and cleaning a furnace that apply regardless of the fuel used may be given as follows: * U. S. Bur. Standards, Circ. 55. + L. P. Breckenridge and S. B. Flagg. U. S. Bur. M...
-Advantages And Disadvantages Of Various Fuels
Some of the advantages and disadvantages of various fuels for residence heating have been mentioned. These and some others are summarized in the table on page 201: Lighting Although electricity ...
-Electricity
Of electric lamps three kinds are common in household lamp costs one-half cent an hour. This is true of any 50-watt lamp without regard to the kind of filament it has. The amounts of light produced by...
-Candles
Fig. 48. - Relative cost of producing a given amount of light by various illuminants at usual prices. Costs are based on the following prices: Candles, 12 cents a pound; kerosene, 15 cents a gallo...
-Methods Of Distributing Light
The three methods of lighting, direct, indirect, and semi-indirect, are dependent for their efficiency on the type of shade or reflector employed. By means of reflectors, light may be concentrated on ...
-Chapter VIII. Stoves And Cookers
Every kitchen should be equipped with a good range and a fireless cooker. If a coal or a wood range is used in combination with a fireless cooker, the two should be near enough together to prevent muc...
-Drafts In Kitchen Stoves
As soon as the fire has warmed the air in the stove, stove-* pipe, and chimney, the heated air rises, forced up by the cooler air from the room and from outside. Admitting air below the fire box gives...
-Utensils For Fuel-Saving
Special utensils are made for use on kerosene, gas, and electric stoves, which are so shaped as to make it possible to cook two or three foods in as many utensils at one time over one burner. A pre...
-Selection Of Wood
In general, the greater the dry weight of a non-resinous wood, the more heat it will give out when burned. Woods having high fuel values are osage orange, locust, hickory, oak, apple, black birch, yel...
-Kerosene Stove
Kerosene is obtained by distilling crude petroleum which consists of a variety of inflammable liquids. The more volatile it is, the more brilliant the light. Kerosene which can be heated to 140 F...
-Coal Range
A coal range which has as much insulation as possible should be selected to avoid waste of heat. Over 90 per cent of the heat generated in the ordinary kitchen range is usually lost. Ashes should b...
-Gas Range
Gas-stove burners should be adjusted so that the blue-green central part of the flame is about half the height of the entire flame. If the flame is very long and is bright yellow in parts, too little ...
-Insulated Ovens
It is estimated that 90 per cent of heat supplied for baking in ovens is lost through the sides of the oven. A considerable saving of heat can be effected by insulating the oven, as is done in the cas...
-Table XIII. - General Cooking Processes
General Cooking Processes Method of cooking Definition Coal or wood range Gas stove (1) Dry heat Broiling ...
-Fireless Cookers
The commercial fireless cooker costs more than does the home-made one; on the other hand, it is likely to be more durable, it seldom has any absorbent material exposed to the odor and the steam from f...
-Fireless Cookers. Continued
The interior of the fireless cooker should be kept absolutely clean. It should be washed, dried, and sunned, if possible, each time after being used. It should remain open for several hours after use,...
-Chapter IX. Methods Of Keeping Foods Cool
Some of the methods of keeping foods cool that were used by primitive people are still resorted to, sometimes with certain modifications. The use of vessels permitting evaporation, the running water o...
-Refrigerators
Ordinary household refrigerators, even of the best make with the best insulated walls, are by no means as effective in saving ice as might be desired. Three points to consider in purchasing a refriger...
-Iceless Refrigerator
An iceless refrigerator depends for its efficiency on the cooling effect of evaporating water. An open framework of shelves is surrounded by a cloth kept moist by means of a large pan of water on the ...
-Unglazed Earthen Vessels
If the air is dry, evaporation is quite rapid even when water is cool. Thus, when water is placed in a slightly porous unglazed earthen vessel, a small amount constantly filters to the outside and eva...
-Chapter X. Kitchen Utensils
While waiting for the day when labor-saving machinery will be the rule instead of the exception, much can be done by selection, arrangement, and care of kitchen equipment to make work easier and worki...
-Utensils Best Adapted To Various Cooking Processes. Baking
Cake Tin, if well cared for (page 237), is the metal best adapted for cake-making. It does not scorch, heats quickly to the point at which the leavening agent in the cake becomes effective, and res...
-Cooking Of Meats
Roasts Roasts require a high temperature at the start in order to sear the surface; for this reason the best choice is a pan of iron or high-grade granite ware. An oval pan can be more carefully cl...
-Stewing Fruits Or Vegetables
Aluminum, granite, and enamelware are equally good for stewing fruits and vegetables. A wide, shallow type of saucepan, with a well-fitting cover, should be selected for fruits and for such vegetables...
-Sauteing
A rather heavy iron or steel frying pan is best adapted for this purpose. In a thin pan, or in one of graniteware, the fat passes too soon from the temperature at which it forms the desired golden-bro...
-Frying
For frying in deep fat an iron or steel frying kettle is best. It may be bowl-shaped, or it may have straight sides. The latter shape accommodates a greater number of articles at a time, and is more c...
-Candy-Making
Professional confectioners use a copper kettle connected with an apparatus that makes a partial vacuum in the kettle and allows the sugar to boil at a lower temperature than the ordinary boiling point...
-Jelly-Making
Enamel or graniteware - unless there is a defect in the enamel finish - makes the best utensil for jelly-making, because of the ease with which it may be cleaned and the certainty that it will not be ...
-Special Utensils And Equipment. Knives
The assortment of knives should include a bread knife, butcher's knife, vegetable knife, a knife with a waved edge for cutting fresh bread and cake, and a spatula. The most durable knife is a hand-for...
-Egg-Beaters
Different types of egg-beaters are needed, according to the consistency desired in the beaten whites. For all-round use, the dover egg-beater is a good choice because it works most quickly. It is oper...
-Spoons
Spoons of hard wood should be used whenever possible; they are lighter than metal ones, do not discolor the hand, make less noise, and do not scratch metal surfaces. For basting roasts, or whenever a ...
-Brushes
If brushes are used in connection with food - that is, for greasing pans or for brushing rolls or pastry with butter, egg, or milk - they must be of a kind that can be cleaned with boiling water. This...
-Double Boilers
A double boiler should be selected with a lower part sufficiently large to hold a quantity of water that will not soon boil away. ...
-Paper
Heavy absorbent brown paper, on a roller, such as is used in meat markets, is a great kitchen help. In breading cutlets or making croquettes, for example, the table or the rolling board may be covered...
-Wooden Skewers And Toothpicks
For testing cake, wooden toothpicks are as good as broom straws and much cleaner. Skewers are helpful in cleaning corners, or, covered with several thicknesses of cheese-cloth, in keeping free from cr...
-Arrangement Of Utensils
The best-selected utensils may fail in usefulness if arranged awkwardly. Although stacking is not the menace to kitchen utensils that it is to tableware, it calls for many unnecessary motions, espec...
-How To Prepare New Utensils For Use
Iron, Tin, And Enamelware It is a general custom to prepare a new iron utensil for use, after thorough cleaning, by rubbing unsalted fat over it and baking the fat in. The same treatment is adapted...
-How To Protect Metals Not In Use
If the house is to be closed for a time, or if for any other reason utensils are to be set aside, all metals should be protected from dampness by a coating of vaseline, paraffin, or un-salted fat of s...
-Pottery
Porcelain, stoneware, and earthenware have clay for a foundation, but differ in appearance and quality according to the fineness of the clay used, the kind of glaze applied, and the length of time tak...
-Soapstone
Advantages: Soapstone gives a good even heat for cake griddles. Disadvantages: Unless it is of excellent quality and is well cared for, it is likely to be too absorbent to be sanitary. Gen...
-Wood
Advantages: Wooden spoons are lighter than metal spoons and not so noisy, they do not scratch saucepans, they do not discolor the hand, they are nonconductors of heat. Disadvantages: 1. Woode...
-Chapter XI. Table Setting And Serving
by Flora Rose When an attempt is made to formalize any household practice, there is always the danger of red tape. Yet some formalities, if based on a strong foundation of common sense, make life m...
-Table Service General Equipment
There is a certain amount of general equipment which must go on each table. This varies with the simplicity of the meal and with the formality of the service. As formality decreases, food is left to b...
-Table Service
A few simple rules will greatly facilitate attractive and convenient serving. No attempt will be made here to discuss service of the extremely formal type. To Pass Food Food should be passed at ...
-Clearing The Table For Dessert
Semi-Formal Method The large general dishes should be removed first. The plates are taken from the individual cover, and carried from the room, one in each hand. Smaller equipment, such as salt and...
-Some Table Manners And Customs
The order of serving at a meal. If little children are present, it is often desirable to serve them first, since they eat slowly and must have their food made ready for them. Older children need th...
-Handling Table Equipment
The fork functions as a spear, as a shovel, and as a pick. The good workman learns to handle his tools in an efficient way. When the fork functions as a spear to hold food on the plate, there is only ...
-Chapter XII. The Laundry
By Flora Rose Washing has a threefold purpose: to remove dirt and thus reopen the pores of the cloth, to dry the cloth so as to renew its power of absorption; and to destroy any bacteria that may b...
-Fabrics
A first step toward gaining necessary knowledge of laundry methods is to learn something of the nature of the fabrics to be laundered and how they respond to the cleansing agents or solvents generally...
-Hard And Soft Water
Water is the natural solvent for much of the dirt that accumulates on clothing; moreover, it acts as a carrier to rid the clothing of all forms of dirt, both soluble and insoluble. A water good for th...
-Materials For Softening Water
A number of materials for softening water are on the market. The cheapest and best of them are alkalis, known as washing-soda, lye, borax, and ammonia. In softening water, the objection to the use of ...
-How To Soften Water
Both permanently and temporarily hard water may be softened by distillation, but that method involves apparatus not practicable for the average home. If water is temporarily hard, however, it may b...
-Organic Matter
Organic material may be precipitated by the use of alum in the form of an alum-borax mixture. The sediment should be allowed to settle and the water may then be drawn from the top. To remove organi...
-Soap
A question often arises as to the advisability of using kitchen-waste fats in making soap at home. While some housekeepers may find such use an economy, the fact remains that home-made soaps are gener...
-Soap Substitutes And Accessories
Soap is the best all-round cleansing agent to use in the laundry, but there are other substances with similar cleansing properties that may be used with good results in its place: In the leaves, st...
-Soap Directions And Formulas
Home-made soap: 1 pound can lye dissolved in 3 pints cold water 5 pounds fat melted, 1 1/2 tablespoons borax, 1/2 cup ammonia When lye mixture has cooled add it to fat, stir until as thick as...
-Starch
There is a twofold reason for the use of starch in laundry operations: (1) the glazed surface of a starched garment keeps clean longer than an unglazed, or unstarched, surface; (2) the. increase in bo...
-Stir Thoroughly Before Using
Raw starch is often used with very thick or very thin goods, to increase their stiffness. A fabric will take up a greater amount of starch in the raw than in the cooked form. The desired stiffness is ...
-Bluing
White fabrics have naturally a creamy tint, which may be deepened to an unpleasant pale yellow by careless washing, by insufficient rinsing, or by lack of exposure to the bleaching influence of sunlig...
-Washing
While Monday has long been chosen as the home day for washing, there may be good reason to postpone the process until Tuesday. Before washing day, clothing should be thoroughly gone over to discover r...
-Soiled Towels And Cloths
b. Colored clothing. 2. Mend rents, except in stockings. 3. Remove stains (pages 282 to 306). 4. Put as many white clothes to soak as is practicable. Some colored clothes having fast colors m...
-Soiled Towels And Cloths. Directions For Washing
Directions for washing: 1. Have plenty of hot water before beginning the washing. If possible the water should be soft; if it is not, soften it as directed on pages 252 and 253. 2. Make a soap s...
-Washing Colored Clothing
Colored goods require more careful treatment than do white goods. The conditions that most affect the stability of colors in fabrics are: long-continued action of water and soap; strong alkalis or aci...
-Washing Woolens
Strong soaps should never be used in washing woolens, nor should soap be applied directly to the garment. The soap should be used in solution. A great deal of stress is laid on having the water used i...
-Washing Silk
Silk should be washed in much the same way as wool. While it is not so strongly affected by soaps and alkalis as is wool, its gloss is destroyed by the use of strong cleansing agents. The delicacy of ...
-Washing Laces
It is often best to dry-clean fine laces, as they thicken slightly in washing. To wash them, a warm neutral soap-solution should be used to which has been added ammonia or borax. The dirt is squeezed ...
-Bleaching
Occasionally, even in the household, it may be necessary to supplement the natural bleaching process accomplished by sunshine, fresh air, and green grass, by the use of chemicals. If a garment has yel...
-Ironing
For ironing, the following equipment should be provided: a flat, firm, unwarped ironing-board or table, tightly covered with a blanket and clean sheet, securely fastened underneath; clean irons; an ir...
-Method And Order Of Ironing
The following simple rules for ironing may be followed: Iron first that part of the garment which will be least mussed by further handling or in which a little wrinkling will not seriously interfer...
-Equipment For The Laundry
It is always best, when possible, to have a separate room for laundry purposes. Much of the apparatus can then be made stationary and many little labor-saving conveniences devised. Some dairy farms ha...
-Washing-Machine
The home laundry should be equipped with a washing-machine and at least one stationary tub. If running water has not yet been introduced into the house and the barn, at least it is possible to provide...
-Ironing-Machine
The ironing-machine, or, as it is often called, the mangle, is another device for making laundry work easier. It may successfully take the place of the hand iron for a larger part of the family ironin...
-Irons
A number of irons are now on the market for summer use when it is not desirable to have sufficient fire in the range to heat the irons. Some of these are electric irons, gas irons, and denatured-alcoh...
-Tubs
Although a washing-machine may be used, there should be one or more tubs in a laundry. Stationary tubs are best, even though running water is not available, for some simple method of draining them can...
-Laundry Bench
The laundry bench for holding tubs should be of the proper height. Most benches are far too low, involving effort out of proportion to the task to be accomplished. ...
-Wringer
A wringer should be a part of the laundry equipment, and the best on the market is always the cheapest. After a wringer is used, it should be carefully dried and the screws pressing the rollers should...
-Ironing-Board
An ironing-board that has its broader end attached by hinges to the wall is a great convenience, for then it is always in place and can be put out of the way by folding up against the wall. Ironing...
-Sleeve-Board
A sleeve-board (Fig. 56) is good not only for sleeves, but for gathers and for small dresses. It is not difficult to manufacture at home. ...
-Character Of Utensils
As far as possible, all utensils that are to come in contact with clothing or to contain material to be used on the clothing, should be non-rustable. Tinware is not good for laundry use because of the...
-Other Equipment And Supplies
The miscellaneous equipment necessary for efficient laundry work is given in the following list: Rubbing-Board Wooden Spoon Dipper Dishpan, enamel Tea kettle Measuring cup Quart measure Iron hol...
-Chapter XIII. Stain Removal
With some stains prompt treatment is necessary in order to save the article in question from being ruined, and in most cases it is desirable, since all stains are removed more easily when fresh. Chang...
-Methods For Treatment Of Stains In General
The following paragraphs deal with methods and reagents commonly used in the removal of a number of stains. To save repetition, these are given here in detail and reference is made to them in dealing ...
-Application Of Chemicals
Chemicals should not be used until water or laundering has been tried, for they attack the fibers of the cloth as well as the stain. There are a few common chemicals which are necessary in removing...
-Specific Methods For Individual Stain Removal
In cases in which the nature of the stain is not known, it should be attacked first by sponging with cold water, provided, however, that the fabric would not be injured by water. If the stain is not r...
-Acids
With the exception of nitric acid, acids do not generally produce stains upon white fabrics but often change or destroy the color of dyed materials. However, cotton and linen fibers are destroyed read...
-Alkalis
Dilute alkalis have little effect on cotton and linen, but strong alkalis cause the fibers to swell and become yellow, and the cloth to contract. The fiber, however, is not weakened unless the alkali ...
-Blood Stain Removal
Any of the following agents may be used: 1. Cold or lukewarm water. Either soak the blood stains or rub them in the water until they turn light brown in color; that is, until most of the coloring m...
-Bluing Stain Removal
Three types of laundry bluing are in common use, namely, ultramarine, Prussian, and aniline blues. Since they differ chemically, spots due to them require different treatment. It is not difficult to d...
-Butter Stain Removal
Stains due to butter are essentially grease spots and should receive the same treatment. Candle wax (colored). These stains consist of paraffin in which an organic dye is dissolved. Remove the p...
-Chocolate And Cocoa Stain Removal
For removing chocolate and cocoa stains the following agents are satisfactory: 1. Soap and hot water (ordinary laundering; see page 284). 2. Borax and cold water. Sprinkle the stains with borax ...
-Coffee Stain Removal
Cream in the coffee sometimes necessitates the use of grease solvents in addition to other reagents. One of the following agents should be employed: 1. Soap and water. Fresh stains and most old ...
-Dye And Running Colors
As the dyes of textiles differ greatly in chemical composition, different methods must be tried, beginning with the simplest, until the stains disappear. For washable materials, No. 1 may be tried. ...
-Egg Stain Removal
Egg stains should be washed or sponged with cold or lukewarm water before any hot water is applied. Sometimes a large part of the stain hardens on the surface of the material and may be scraped off wi...
-Glue Stain Removal
One of the following agents should be used in removing glue spots: 1. Water. Either soak the spot in warm water or, if small, sponge it. Occasionally it is necessary to boil the stained material. ...
-Grease Stain Removal
Sometimes it is possible to scrape or wipe much of the adhering grease irom a stained material. One of the following agents should be used in removing grease spots: 1. Warm water and soap, as in...
-Ice Cream Stain Removal
One of the following agents may be employed in removing ice-cream stains: 1. Soap and water as in ordinary laundering. Use this for wash materials in the case of stains in which no chocolate or hig...
-Iodine Stain Removal
One of the following agents may be used in removing iodine stains from unstarched materials: 1. Water. Wash the stain in an abundance of water or soak it for a number of hours in cold water. These ...
-Iron-Rust Stain Removal
For iron-rust stains on white washable materials one of the agents given below should be used. In the case of colored materials, the effect of the agent should be tried first on a sample or in an inco...
-Lead Foil Stain Removal
One of the following agents may be employed for this purpose: 1. Soap and water, for washable materials. Use the soap freely and rub the stain thoroughly. Sponge woolen materials. 2. Chloroform or ...
-Lead Pencil Stain Removal
The marks from lead pencils contain graphite, which is insoluble. The methods of removing pencil marks from textiles are the same as for removing lead foil marks. A soft eraser sometimes can be used s...
-Leather Stain Removal
The following agents are satisfactory in some cases: 1. Soap and water, as in ordinary laundering. Use an abundance of soap, with thorough rubbing. 2. Potassium permanganate (p. 286). Lime (s...
-Meat Juice Or Gravy Stains Stain Removal
Stains from meat juice are similar to blood stains (page 288). Hot water sets the stains and should not be used until the protein material has been removed by cold water. Grease spots, which sometimes...
-Medicines Stain Removal
If the nature of the medicine is known, the remover can be chosen accordingly. If the nature of the medicine stain is not known, it is necessary to try various agents until one is found which serves t...
-Mildew Stain Removal
One of the following agents may be used for the removal of mildew stains: 1. Soap and water, as in ordinary laundering. Very fresh stains can be washed out. Drying in the sun helps to bleach the spots...
-Milk And Cream Stain Removal
One of the following agents should be used in removing spots from milk and cream: 1. Cold or lukewarm water, followed by hot water and soap (ordinary laundering), for stains on washable materials. ...
-Mucus Stain Removal
To remove mucus stains, soak in ammonia water or in salt and water, then wash with soap and cold water. ...
-Mud Stain Removal
Allow mud stains to dry and brush carefully before any other treatment is used. Sometimes no other treatment is necessary. The following agents are satisfactory: 1. Soap and water, as in ordinary l...
-Paints And Varnishes
Before using any agent upon paint or varnish stains, it is best to scrape off as much of the stain as possible from the surface of the material. One of the following agents may be used for the remo...
-Paraffin Or Paraffin Wax
For removing the part of the stain which has penetrated the fiber, use one of the following agents: 1. Blotting paper or an absorbent powder and a warm iron (No. 2 under grease). 2. Grease sol...
-Perspiration Stain Removal
While the perspiration from most of the body is acid, that from the armpits is alkaline. For treating colors changed by this, see alkali, page 288. The yellow stains sometimes caused upon white mate...
-Resins And Resinous Substances Stain Removal
One of the following solvents may be used: Turpentine, chloroform, alcohol (grain or wood), ether, kerosene, gasoline, and water for water-soluble gums, such as gum arabic. In each case sponge the sta...
-Salad-Dressing Stain Removal
Salad-dressings usually contain oil, vinegar (or lemon juice), and condiments, and may contain egg or cream also. If egg or cream is present, hot water must not be used. For discoloration due to the a...
-Scorch Stain Removal
Scorch upon cotton and linen sometimes can be removed, if the fibers are not actually burned. Wool and silk are disintegrated at a lower temperature than cotton and linen and cannot be restored to the...
-Shoe-Dressings Stain Removal
One of the following agents should be used in removing stains from the black shoe polishes: 1. Soap and water for the pastes. If the stains are fresh, sponge or wash them thoroughly with an abundan...
-Soap Stain Removal
When a material has not been rinsed sufficiently and is ironed with soap still present in the fiber, stains sometimes appear which resemble iron-rust stains, but usually are lighter yellow in color. U...
-Soot Stain Removal
Soot spots, being composed of fine particles of carbon, are insoluble and must be removed from a fabric mechanically. Use one of the following agents: 1. Soap and water (ordinary laundering). First...
-Soup Stain Removal
Stains from soup should be treated in the same way as those from white sauces (page 306). ...
-Stove-Polish Stain Removal
The following agents are fairly satisfactory: 1. Soap and water (ordinary laundering). Rub the soap thoroughly on the stain. 2. Chloroform, gasoline, or other organic solvent, for materials inju...
-Sugar Sirups Stain Removal
One of the following agents should be used in removing sugar sirup stains: 1. Soap and water (ordinary laundering), for washable materials. 2. Sponging with clear water is satisfactory for other...
-Tea Stain Removal
One of the following agents should be employed in removing tea stains: 1. Borax, boiling water. If stains are on cotton or linen and not more than a few days old, soak them in a borax solution (1/2...
-Tobacco Stain Removal
One of the following agents may be utilized in removing tobacco-juice stains: 1. Soap and water (ordinary laundering). Sponge materials which cannot be washed. If a stain on washable materials cann...
-Tomato Vine Stain Removal
One of the following agents should be used in removing such stains: 1. Lemon juice and sunlight. First wash the stains carefully, then moisten them with lemon juice and expose them to the sun for s...
-Turmeric Stain Removal
Turmeric is a constituent of many pickles and of curry powder, to which it is added for its yellow color and aromatic flavor. To remove such stains, one of the following agents may be used: 1. Dilu...
-Vaseline Stain Removal
One of the following reagents may be employed in removing vaseline stains: 1. Turpentine. Sponge fresh stains with this agent. Old stains, even those which have been washed and ironed, usually can ...
-Verdigris Stain Removal
The blue-green tarnish on copper, brass, and bronze, consisting of basic copper carbonate, is known commonly as verdigris. In removing it from textiles use the following agents: 1. Soap and water (...
-Vinegar Stain Removal
See acid, page 287. Walnut, black. Fresh stains, which are still moist, usually can be removed, provided the material is strong enough to stand the treatment, but old stains or stains on delic...
-Water Spots
Some silks and wools are spotted by water. This probably dissolves some of the finishing or weighting substances present and on evaporating these substances are deposited irregularly or in rings. A sa...
-Part III. Clothing. Chapter XIV. Textiles
By Beulah Blackmore The word textile as used in this chapter is applied to the common fibers and the woven goods produced from them. Since the making of fabrics has been taken out of the home, the ...
-Cotton
Cotton has short, flat fibers with a spiral twist, characteristics that give elasticity and the possibility of being spun into fine thread (Fig. 57). The quality of cotton materials depends on the str...
-Cotton Adulteration
Cotton, being the cheapest fiber, is not adulterated with any other fiber when the material is to be sold as cotton cloth, but it can be made to appear heavier by the addition of mixtures called sizin...
-Cotton Mercerization
Mercerized cotton is cloth produced by the action of a strong alkali on cotton fiber rinsed under tension. The process of mercerization is generally carried on while the fiber is still in the yarn. Me...
-Standard Cotton Materials
Standard cotton materials such as muslins, organdies, percales, calicoes, and sheetings differ only in the weight of the material, fineness of thread, hardness of twist, and method of finish. Ginghams...
-Uses Of Cotton Materials
Cotton fiber is covered by cotton wax, which serves as a protective coat and renders cotton material very slow in absorbing water. For this reason, cotton dish-towels are unsatisfactory. If a cloth to...
-Linen
Linen was formerly the most important vegetable fiber, and was commonly used for all household purposes. Of late years it has been largely replaced by cotton, with which it may be compared, although t...
-Linen Selection
Good linen yarn is round and twisted; if the yarn is loosely twisted and flat, the material will not wear so well. Linen fiber absorbs moisture readily; it is, therefore, very suitable for toweling...
-Wool
In point of quality wool belongs next to cotton, although in price there is a long distance between them. A scaly structure on the surface of wool (Fig. 59), especially marked in sheep's wool, gives i...
-Wool Adulteration
Since the demand for woolen cloth far exceeds the supply of new wool, there are many devices for making the supply go a long way, and consequently many methods for deceiving the buyer. The manufacture...
-Woolens And Worsteds
Two classes of cloth are manufactured from wool: woolens and worsteds. Woolens are made generally of short wool carded and spun into yarn in which the fibers lie in all directions. This is woven into ...
-Shoddy
As has been pointed out, the demand for woolen goods is so much greater than the supply that it is necessary to resort to various measures to increase the supply of cloth. One method is to use the woo...
-Silk
Silk is commonly known as the fiber of luxury. It is the most expensive to cultivate, the most beautiful, and the strongest fiber. Since it is the most expensive to buy, and the demand for it is so la...
-Silk Adulteration
In olden times the price of silk was much greater than now, but the material was much more durable. Silks which have been laid away for a hundred years are still in fairly good condition. At present s...
-Artificial Silk
For years chemists of America and Europe have endeavored to make a fiber which would compare favorably with silk. A number of so-called artificial silks have been made synthetically, but each has lack...
-Ramie
Ramie, a vegetable fiber of antiquity, has until very recently been used almost exclusively in China and Japan. A highly lustrous fiber, in this respect surpassing linen, and very white, its use has b...
-Jute
Jute, another vegetable fiber, is familiar in sacking, twine, and door-mats, but it is not expected in finer materials. The natural color of this fiber is somewhat darker than linen color, it is harsh...
-Tests For Fabrics
A general comparison of fabrics may be made, but this will mean little even to the expert, since each class includes so great a variety of fabrics which differ widely in appearance, feel, and strength...
-Fabric Feel Test
The feel of many fabrics very closely resembles that of the raw fiber. Cotton material: Unresponsive, soft, and inelastic. Cotton because of its inelasticity crushes easily. It may be made to look ...
-Fabric Strength Test
No satisfactory comparison of the strength of different fabrics can be made, since this depends on the size and quality of the yarn and the kind and quality of the weave. The strength of a fabric has ...
-Fabric Color Test
Color is affected by various factors, chiefly by washing, boiling, soap, hot irons, wear, friction, and exposure to sun and air. Cotton and linens must generally be tested for laundering. A sample ...
-Fabric Burning Test
Burning a small sample of cloth gives about the same result as burning the fiber. The closeness of the weave may somewhat retard the rapidity of the burning. This is one of the best and most reliable ...
-Fabric Tearing Test
The tearing of material will help to determine in a general way the kind of fiber as well as the strength of the material. Cotton material: Cotton material tears easily with a shrill sound. The tor...
-Fabric Weave Test
The weave affects the appearance and often the wearing quality of cloth. A close twill weave makes a firm, durable material, while the loose basket weave gives quite a different effect and is frequent...
-Chapter XV. The Making Of Clothing
By Beulah Blackmore To the woman generally falls the responsibility of the wise or unwise expenditure of that part of the family income apportioned to clothing. Whether she spends wisely depends on...
-Table XV. - Colors Appropriate to Different Types of Persons 1
Colors Appropriate to Different Types of Persons 1 Color Hair Black Brown Eyes Brown Hair Black Brown Eyes Blue Gray Hair Li...
-Equipment For The Sewing Room
Good equipment is necessary if the home worker is to turn out good work with the least drain on her own strength. In addition to the customary pieces of equipment, a floor cloth, a dress form, a sleev...
-Sewing Machine
There are two types of sewing machine in use - the automatic, or single-thread, and the lock stitch, or two-thread machine. The single-thread machine makes a chain stitch, which requires about a half ...
-Preparation Of Materials. Shrinking
Nearly all cottons and linens should be shrunken before being made up. Probably the most satisfactory way is to place the folded piece of material in a tub of lukewarm water and to allow it to remain ...
-Sponging
All woolen fabrics should be sponged to prevent shrinking and water spotting. This is often done either in the store, at a small cost a yard, or at the factory. In case it is necessary to do the spong...
-Pressing
Pressing may be done in much the same way as sponging, care being taken to lift and place the iron rather than to drag it along. The iron will often leave a shiny mark if placed directly on the materi...
-How To Take Clothe Measurements
Before using a commercial pattern it is best to test it to see whether it is approximately the correct size. The following measurements should be taken and the pattern tested by several of them. It is...
-Kinds Of Patterns
Patterns may be made in two ways: by drafting and by modeling. Drafting is impracticable for the average housewife but invaluable for the professional worker, in that it develops a fine feeling for li...
-How To Estimate The Amount Of Material
No definite rules can be given for estimating the necessary amount of material for a garment because of the many influencing factors, such as fashion, finish, width, and design of the material. ...
-For A Skirt
In estimating the amount of material necessary for a skirt, one must first decide on the width of the bottom of the skirt. Fig. 64. - Method of shortening a shirt-waist pattern. To shorten the ...
-How To Place The Pattern On The Material
After the pattern has been altered and tested, or after it has been cut in inexpensive material and modeled to the figure, it is ready to be placed for cutting on the material. A few general rules are...
-How To Mark A Garment For Basting
After the pattern is placed, the seam allowance and other necessary points should be marked by one of the suggested methods. The points or lines generally marked are: (1) waist line; (2) seams along t...
-How To Cut A Garment
In using a standard commercial pattern on which the seam allowance is made, the material should be cut close to the edge of the pattern. In using a modeled pattern, the material may be cut at the corr...
-How To Baste A Simple Garment
Too much basting is almost worse than too little. It not only pulls the material and makes it unyielding, but it is very time-consuming. If pins are skillfully placed, much of the tiresome basting may...
-General Rules For Basting
1. In basting garments of any size, keep the work on a table or a lap-board as much as possible. For very long seams, such as are in a skirt, the basted edges will be much flatter if they are placed p...
-To Baste Sleeves
For a shirt-waist sleeve, make the placket and apply it before basting the sleeve. The placket is generally placed about 1 inch back of the center fold, made by folding the sleeve along the seam. Afte...
-To Baste A Skirt
Pin the hip-lines, waist-lines, and hem-lines of the gores together. Place as many pins as necessary between these points. If it is necessary to baste the skirt before trying it on, observe the genera...
-Kinds Of Seams For Garments
Many kinds of seams are possible in the various types of garments, some practical and some decorative as well. In this short discussion of the processes in dressmaking it will be impossible to explain...
-How To Make A Foundation Belt
For a dress or a skirt with a raised waist-line, a ribbed belting or a cambric belting stiffened with stays of featherbone should be used. This belting should be as wide as the distance above the wais...
-Fitting Garments
(Plates XII And XIII) Two fittings for a simple garment, such as a house-dress, a plain shirt-waist, or a skirt, should be sufficient, if the garment has been properly prepared and the fitting is c...
-How To Make A Skirt Even At The Bottom
The following ways of making a skirt even at the bottom are suggested: 1. Put the skirt on, and place a yardstick perpendicular to the floor and close to the body. Mark the skirt at the top of the ...
-How To Keep Bias Seams From Sagging
After a skirt has been basted and stitched, it is well to allow it to hang for a number of days in order to sag as much as it will. It may then be hemmed, and it will stay even for some time. If seams...
-Suggestive Finishes To Be Used By The Home Worker. Cuffs And Collars
The material in the cuffs and the collar should be the same, and both the cuffs and the collar should have the same general shape. For example, if the corners are rounded on the collar the same type o...
-Waist-Line Finishes
The following waist-line finishes may be used for the top of the skirt when it is sewed over the waist on the foundation belt. Fig. 82. - Combinations of simple embroidery stitches to be used i...
-Simple Designs In Embroidery
Simple designs is embroidery suitable for finishing cuffs and collars, holding hems in place, and decorating belts and pockets are shown in Fig. 82. Set-In Pocket The set-in pocket, suitable for...
-Suitable Materials For Various Types Of Dresses And Waists
For house-dresses: Gingham, chambray, linen, poplin, crepe. For business or street dresses: Serge, poplin, gabardine, fine twilled material, dull satin. For formal dresses: Broadcloth, velvet, c...
-Suggestions For Economy In Dress
It will be found economical to select one color for a season and choose garments that will harmonize. A definite portion of the income should be set aside for clothing and this amount should not be ex...
-Making Simple Undergarments (Julia Gleason)
When making or buying undergarments, the points to consider are simplicity and durability of materials and design, ing the lining into place. The right side of the lining is placed to the right side o...
-Materials Suitable For Undergarments
Muslin: Heavy, firm cotton material of plain weave; very durable. Longcloth: Firm, closely-woven cotton material with slightly fuzzy surface; finer than muslin, very durable, but difficult to work ...
-Trimings Suitable For Undergarments
Trimmings should correspond in fineness with the material on which they are placed; they should be simple in design and sparingly used. A very little good lace is far better than a great deal of cheap...
-Construction Of Undergarments
Before making undergarments, a good commercial pattern of the correct size should be bought, and the amount of material that the pattern directs purchased. The directions should be read carefully, and...
-Uses Of Seams On Undergarments
Undergarments may be made with various kinds of seams: For a corset-cover or combination, the under-arm and shoulder seams may be hemmed fells, stitched fells, or French seams; for drawers and bloomer...
-Top Finishes For Corset-Cover, Combination, Or Gown. (Plates XIV And XV)
The fullness at the top of corset-covers, combinations, or gowns may be arranged by: 1. Gathering, (a). The neck may be finished with embroidery ribbon beading, and lace edge, the gathers set into ...
-Finishes For Nightgown With High Neck And Long Sleeves
A nightgown with a high neck and long sleeves may have the fullness set into a yoke, which may be decorated with tucks, featherstitching, and the like. The neck may be finished with a small collar hav...
-Finishes For Bottom Of Underskirt (Figs. 93, 94)
For the bottom of a white cotton or gingham underskirt without a flounce or a dust ruffle, the following finishes may be used: a plain hem, a shaped hem or facing, tucks and a hem, scalloped finishing...
-Finishes For Waist-Line
A corset-cover may be gathered into a straight band cut lengthwise of the material. A circular peplum may be set into the lower edge of the band. For a combination, the corset-cover may be gathered...
-Plackets And Closings For Undergarments
A corset-cover may have a plait 3/4 to 7/8 inch wide on the right side for buttonholes, and a hem 5/8 to 3/4 inch wide on the left side for buttons; or it may have a plait and fly for buttonholes on t...
-Clothing For Children
The children's garments described in this chapter are chosen because of simplicity and durability of design and material, and economy of time and money in making them. In making or selecting garmen...
-Materials Suitable For Infants' Clothing
Materials that are suitable for infants' clothing are as follows: For a nightgown: nainsook, cotton flannel, wool flannel, and wool and cotton flannel. For a petticoat: nainsook, batiste, handke...
-Materials Suitable For Infants' Clothing. Continued
Designs and materials for garments suitable for girls from ten to twelve years of age. The washable middy blouse with the cloth skirt (Fig. 105) Fig. 105. - Suitable designs for dresses for ...
-Cloth Darning
Darning is the repairing of cloth by the weaving in of threads to replace torn or worn warp and woof threads. Knitted fabrics, also, are mended in this way. Darning is a less conspicuous method of rep...
-Stocking Darning
A hole in a stocking is repaired by a woven darn. In place of being woven in a loom as cloth is, stockinet is made on a knitting machine and consists of a series of interlocked loops of a continuous t...
-Method Of Stocking Darning
Guide Line For The Stitches As a guide line for the work, outline with basting the space to be darned. Make the darn diamond-shaped, large enough to reinforce all the weakened part surrounding the ...
-Chapter XVI. Millinery. How To Select A Hat
By Beulah Blackmore Hats should be analyzed, and the peculiar defects of every unsatisfactory hat should be exactly noted. In this way a group of principles may be mastered, which should be followe...
-Choosing Hat Line And Form
Already exaggerated features or undesirable lines of the face should not be accented by a pronounced repetition of the direction of these lines in the hat. For example, if there are heavy downward lin...
-Choosing Hat's Color
Color is discussed on pages 45 to 47. It may be said here, however, that in selecting a hat one should be sure that it is in harmony with the other outer garments with which it is to be worn. In gener...
-Choosing Hat's Trimming
The foregoing discussion of the principles of design applies also to the trimming of hats. The following suggestions apply to that considered in relation to the entire costume and the wearer, not as a...
-Hat Storing
At the end of each season when hats are to be stored for another season, they should be examined carefully. Hats to be used in the same way at another time should be well dusted and spots that might t...
-Renovating Hat Materials
When looking over an old stockof hats, the home worker finds that brims change in shape more slowly than do crowns. Growns may often be remodeled, however, by the use of ribbon or silk. Trimming may s...
-Simple Handmade Hat Trimmings
The ability to trim a hat artistically is a gift. The placing of trimming should be practiced before a mirror and the general principles of design thus studied. Ideas may always be obtained from magaz...
-Part IV. Foods And Nutrition. Chapter XVII. Planning The Daily Meals
By Flora Rose Any person who has to choose the food that he is to eat himself or that is to nourish others should know at least a few simple principles of food selection. Food is too important in h...
-Good Foods For Supplying The Body's Needs
To supply these three needs of the body, different foods are necessary. The housewife should know the function of the various food materials in order to make up a balanced and healthful ration. ...
-Fuel Foods. Foods Rich In Starch
These foods should supply most of the body's energy, because starch is the cheapest and most abundant of all fuel foods, and furthermore the body can use more of this fuel than any other without dange...
-Foods Rich In Fat
These foods should supply a part of the day's energy. Fat seems to be necessary for two reasons: because it helps to regulate the rate at which food passes along the digestive tract; and because certa...
-Foods Rich In Sugar
Foods containing much sugar may furnish a part of the day's energy. Sugar as such is not an altogether necessary food, though it is very desirable because it adds palatability to the day's meals and i...
-Foods Rich In Protein
Protein foods must always furnish a part of the day's energy, from 10 to 15 per cent, not because the protein is needed for the energy which it furnishes but because it has value as building material ...
-Building Foods
There are many building materials needed by the body. Four of these play most conspicuous parts and should be considered in planning the day's meals. ...
-Protein
Protein is a name given to a large variety of substances in foods. Casein in milk, albumin in egg, milk, and meat, gluten in wheat, are illustrations of types of protein. Protein is a substance necess...
-Lime
Lime is a necessary building material. Many dietaries are low in this substance. If it is not supplied in sufficient amounts, the bony structures of the body suffer and the welfare of other tissues is...
-Iron
Iron is a necessary building material. An iron-poor diet means a poor quality of blood, weakened tissues, and a rundown body. Many dietaries are poor in iron. The most valuable iron foods are: gree...
-Phosphorus
Phosphorus is a necessary building material. If enough animal food, whole cereal grains, and legumes are used in the dietary, it will not lack phosphorus. Foods that are best to supply phosphorus a...
-Regulating Foods
Just as much attention should be paid to selecting body-regulating foods as to fuel and building foods. Fortunately there is an overlapping of all three of these needs, and a single food often supplie...
-Growth-Promoting Factors
The first unknown factor, or vitamine, essential for growth and health, often called the fat-soluble growth-promoting substance, is found, in amounts sufficient for human needs, dissolved in the fat o...
-How To Estimate The Daily Need Of Food (Fuel)
It is not possible in any simple way to estimate the daily fuel need with entire accuracy. The approximate fuel need may be easily estimated, however. To do this, it is necessary to have some understa...
-Calories A Pound Each Day
For first 3 months............................................45-50 For second 3 months.........................................40-45 For third 3 months.........................:...................
-How To Estimate The Daily Need Of Protein
The average daily allowance of protein may be estimated in two ways. Both have disadvantages as well as good points. One way of estimating the protein allowance is on the basis of the actual amount...
-How To Estimate The Daily Need Of Lime, Iron And Phosphorus
It is more difficult to estimate the daily need for lime, iron, and phosphorus than for energy and protein. Yet these are no less important than energy and protein, and some quantitative estimates hav...
-Table XVI. - 100-Calorie Portion of Foods Rich in Starch 1
100-Calorie Portion of Foods Rich in Starch 1 Food materials Approximate measure of 100-calorie portion Number of calories furnished by protein ...
-Table XVII. - 100-Calorie Portions of Foods Rich in Sugar
100-Calorie Portions of Foods Rich in Sugar Food materials Approximate measure of 100-calorie portion Number of calories furnished by protein ...
-Table XVIII. - 100-Calorie Portions of Succulent Vegetables
100-Calorie Portions of Succulent Vegetables Food materials Approximate measure of 100-calorie portions Number of calories furnished by protein ...
-Table XIX. - 100-Calorie Portions of Foods Rich in Fat
100-Calorie Portions of Foods Rich in Fat Food materials Approximate measure of 100-calorie portions Number of calories furnished by protein ...
-Table XX. - 100-Calorie Portions of Foods Rich in Protein
100-Calorie Portions of Foods Rich in Protein Food materials Approximate measure of 100-calorie portions Number of calories furnished by protein...
-Table XXI. - Table of 100 Food Units
Table of 100 Food Units Name of food Portion containing 100 food units (approx.) Wt. of ioo calories (oz.) Calories furnished by prote...
-Some Rules For Planning Meals. The Balanced Dietary
To balance the dietary means to supply in the meals of each day, in a form best suited to the individual, enough energy for the day's activities, all the substances needed to build the tissues - bone,...
-The Choice Of Foods
The main part of the meals of each day should consist of simply prepared, mild-flavored, non-stimulating, and easily digested foods. Well-cooked cereals, thoroughly baked, sweet-flavored bread, potato...
-The Choice Of Foods. Continued
Butter substitutes are made up more or less of vegetable oils, which give energy but which do not contain the necessary growth-promoting factors of butter-fat. Beef-fat contains a small amount of the ...
-Examples Of Desirable Food Combinations
Some simple combinations will serve to show how few foods may be put together and yet answer all requirements. Menu I Whole-wheat bread Whole-milk Prunes A dietary must be built on broa...
-Food For The Prospective Mother
The woman's food needs are very little increased during the first months of the growth of the child. Even if the appetite is small and trouble is experienced with nausea, the actual growth of the chil...
-Food For The Nursing Mother
The food need of the nursing mother is increased in proportion to the amount of milk she produces and the child consumes. It has been estimated that her food needs are increased as follows: For the fi...
-Formulas For Infant Feeding
If a baby cannot be fed by its own mother, the next best thing is the milk of some other animal. A study of the food needs (pages 407 to 412) will soon show why milk is practically an essential food f...
-Type Of Meals For Children 18 Months To 2 Years Old
Breakfast (6:30-7:30 A. M.): Warm milk with lightly buttered bread; or cereal with thin cream, glass of warm milk; or lightly cooked egg, lightly buttered bread, glass of warm milk. Mid-morning mea...
-Type Of Meals For Children 2 To 4 Years Old
Breakfast (7-8 A. M.): Cereal with thin cream, milk to drink, or lightly cooked egg with toast and milk. Mid-morning meal (10-11 A. M.): Bread and milk. Dinner: Lightly cooked egg, buttered bake...
-Type Of Meals For Children 4 To 8 Years Old
Breakfast (7-8 A. M.): Stewed fruit; cereal with whole milk or thin cream, bread and milk; an egg may be added to this meal. Mid-morning meal: Milk with thin slice of bread and butter. Dinner (1...
-Type Of Meals For Children From 8 To 12 Years Old
Breakfast: Cereal with thin cream; eggs, poached, boiled, or scrambled; milk with bread and butter; fruit may be eaten at this meal. Mid-morning meal: Glass of milk and a cracker. Dinner: Small ...
-Type Of Meals For Boys And Girls 12 To 16 Years Old
Breakfast: Stewed or fresh fruit; well-cooked cereal with thin cream or whole milk; bread and butter; milk or cocoa; eggs, if available. Luncheon or supper: Scalloped hominy and cheese; bread and b...
-Chapter XVIII. Marketing For The Household
By Anna Hunn The housewife has the duty and privilege of spending for food on an average of about 30 or 40 per cent of the family income. Hers is the tremendous responsibility of seeing that the fa...
-Buying Fresh Or Staple Foodstuffs. Kind Of Food
The kind of food which the buyer seeks is based on the family's standard of living. Such as may quite properly be bought by those who can afford it, may not be at all suitable for those with a smaller...
-Grade Of Food
After the buyer has decided on the kind of food to buy, the next step is to select the grade best suited to individual needs. To be able to judge of grades, it is necessary to know the standard produc...
-Amount To Be Bought
After the kind and grade of food have been decided on, it is next necessary to determine the definite amount to buy, which depends primarily on such factors as the following: The amount allowed for on...
-Table XXII. - Servings of Vegetables in One Pound
Servings of Vegetables in One Pound Vegetable Approximate size of serving Number servings in one pound Asparagus...................
-Bulk Or Unit Package
When the amount to be bought has been determined, the housewife must decide whether to buy in bulk or package, and, if in package, the size of the unit. It is generally cheaper to buy in bulk than in ...
-Units Of Sale
Most commodities are sold by the pound. The tendency is to increase the number thus sold, since the pound is an exact measure, whereas the bunch or basket or other container is too often unstandardize...
-Food Price
The price to pay depends on market conditions. The market and crop conditions may be learned by a study of the market reports in the daily newspapers. These prices, however, are generally wholesale pr...
-Where To Buy Food
The question of where to buy may be settled by buying where the maximum value can be obtained for the minimum price. This place can be determined by a study of markets. It is always advisable to know ...
-Inspection Of Goods On Delivery
On arrival at the house, goods should be opened and examined as to grade and condition. If not acceptable, they should be returned at once. The goods should be checked with the invoice for quantity an...
-Records
In the case of staples, it is often desirable to keep a stock record. The form of record as here suggested for sugar enables one to tell at a glance the date, the amount bought, and the price paid for...
-Stock Record - Sugar
Stock Record - Sugar Amount (Pounds) Price a pound (Dollars) Total cost (Dollars) Yearly consumption (Pounds) D...
-Storage
The proper storing of food is very important, because only by having good storage conditions can there be profit in buying in large quantities. It is desirable to have cool, dry, and well-ventilated s...
-Buying Canned Foods
Grading fruits and vegetables for canning. Before one can distinguish the relative values of market grades of canned goods, it is necessary to know how these are determined by the packer. For fruit...
-Trade Terms
Pie fruit is the lowest class of fruit. In peaches there are two grades, the unpeeled and the peeled, the latter bringing the higher price. The standard grade of fruit ranks next. It has the ...
-Quality Of Canned Goods
On opening the can the volume of the contents in relation to the capacity of the can should be noted. The contents should fill the can; any considerable space between the top of the can and the surfac...
-Safe And Unsafe Tin Cans
Sanitary cans. - Until the last few years it was the general custom to seal tin cans by soldering. It was inevitable that some small portion of the solder should be exposed to the action of the cont...
-Quantity Value
Among dealers the sizes of packages of canned goods are designated by terms that refer to weight expressed in pounds. The common sizes or capacities are 1, 2, 2 1/2, 3, and 10 pounds, and are briefly ...
-Suggestions For The Consumer
In buying canned goods, one should not choose the cans because of the pictures on the labels. One should not hesitate to require of the dealer as much information regarding the quantity and quality...
-Chapter XIX. Food For The Sick
By Flora Rose Only such directions for feeding the sick will be given as may be of service in minor illnesses treated without the advice of a physician or as may aid in carrying out the directions ...
-Fluid Diet
Generally illness means that the body is below par and cannot stand the strain of even normal conditions. This necessitates reducing all kinds of work which the individual would normally do. The diges...
-Soft Or Semi-Solid Diet
Many sick persons thrive better on a soft diet than on a fluid one. This is particularly true for those persons who dislike milk. A soft diet is the first step after the fluid diet and may, if necessa...
-Light Or Convalescent Diet
Light diet should be given in convalescence following the fluid and soft diets, and in those cases not needing special dietary consideration. It is the normal diet for the passive condition of the res...
-Care And Feeding For Incipient Colds
If colds are recognized and treated at the very beginning, they may generally be controlled soon. They are most often the result of fatigue, overeating, and a run-down condition, and can be suppressed...
-Care And Feeding For Constipation
Many serious illnesses may be caused by chronic constipation. Liver, kidneys, pancreas, and even the heart may become damaged by continued absorption of the poisonous products of a clogged intestine. ...
-Laxative Foods
Laxative foods include most fruits and vegetables, and cereal foods and breads containing the whole of the cereal grain. Bran is inadvisable if a finer meal will accomplish the result. Continued use o...
-Diet During A Condition Of Intestinal Putrefaction
A number of causes may contribute to a condition of intestinal putrefaction. It is generally, though not always, associated with constipation. Since putrefaction means decomposition of the proteins an...
-Care And Diet For Indigestion
By indigestion is meant a more or less acute irritation of the digestive tract. It may be caused by fatigue, worry, rapid eating, wrong foods, too much food, badly prepared foods, too little exercise,...
-Diet In Fever
The old adage, stuff a cold and starve a fever has been completely reversed. Colds are now starved, while fevers are starved only long enough to rest the digestive organs. Thereafter effort is made ...
-Food For Tuberculosis Patients
Tuberculosis is almost always accompanied by fever. Unfortunately lack of appetite may be associated with the increased food need that is due to fever and wasting tissue. The problem is, therefore, th...
-Chapter XX. Beverages
By Frances Vinton Ward Coffee and tea have no nutritive value aside from the cream and sugar that may be served in them as beverages. Cocoa and chocolate contain starch and fat and consequently are...
-Coffee
The standard kinds of coffee include Mocha, Java, Mara-caibo, Santos, Rio, and Bogota. Coffee Adulteration Adulterants are seldom found in coffee that is unground, or in the whole berry. Ground ...
-Directions For Making Coffee
Weak, medium, or strong coffee may be made according to the following proportions: Weak coffee: 1 level tablespoon of ground coffee to 1 measuring-cup of water (1/2 pint). Medium coffee: 1 round...
-Clearing The Coffee Liquid
It is necessary to clear the liquid only when the grounds are steeped in the water loose, not inclosed in a bag. The following methods may be used: 1. Egg-white: (a) Add an egg-white to the dry gro...
-Coffee-Pots And Their Care
Pots for boiled coffee are best made of agate or aluminum. Tin pots of good quality give satisfaction until the tin wears off on the inside. An aluminum pot is the most durable. Agate pots should be b...
-Tea
Teas may be classified as follows: 1. Black tea: tea that has been fermented in the process of drying; it is supposed to contain less active tannin than green tea. 2. Oolong: tea that has been partly ...
-How To Judge Tea Leaves
Dry fresh tea leaves should be free from dust, broken bits, and stems. When the leaves are steeped, they may be judged by their size; the smaller leaves are best. Tea that consists of leaves that are ...
-Directions For Brewing Tea
The aims in properly brewing tea are: 1. To extract the aromatic oils but to prevent their escape from the liquid. The best temperature for this result is just under the boiling point; the best time, ...
-Tea Clouding
Some teas, expecially some black kinds, cloud on cooling and standing. Re-heating will clear them temporarily, but these teas are not suited for serving as iced teas or in punches. To test a tea for c...
-Cocoa
Cocoa is found on the market in the following forms: 1. Cocoa . nibs: chocolate beans, cracked. 2. Chocolate cake: chocolate beans ground fine and pressed. 3. Cocoa-shells: the thin inner shells of th...
-Directions For Making Fruit Juices
The principal charm of a fruit drink lies in the smooth blending of the various flavors. Unless the fruit juices have been well sweetened before bottling (page 619),-the needed sugar should be supplie...
-Chapter XXI. Batters And Doughs
By Mary F. Henry When flour and liquid are mixed in such proportions that the resulting mixture can be beaten, it is called a batter. When the mixture is so thick that it cannot be beaten, but must...
-Batters And Doughs Ingredients
Flour A good grade of flour should be used for all doughs and batters (p. 495). Pastry flour is better than bread flour for quick-bread mixtures and cake, since it gives a more tender product than ...
-Methods Of Mixing Batters And Doughs
The method of combining the ingredients in flour mixtures is determined somewhat by the ingredients, and there is no hard and fast rule to be followed. However, experience has shown that the following...
-Utensils For Baking
Kinds Popovers are best if baked in iron or pottery. Tin may be used, but it is not so satisfactory. Iron baking pans should be heated before the batter is poured into them. Muffins may be baked...
-Filling The Pans
A pan should never be filled more than two-thirds full of batter. When a cake batter is put into the pan, it should be brought up against the sides by using a spoon or spatula, so that before baking t...
-Baking
The pan should be placed on the lower grate of the gas-oven and on the floor of the oven of a coal range so that the greatest amount of heat will reach it from underneath and force it to rise to its f...
-Oven Temperatures
A correct oven temperature is very important in baking. The correct temperature depends on the size of the loaf and the constituents used in the mixture. The following classification of temperature...
-Table XXVIII. - Time-table for Baking Batters and Doughs
Time-table for Baking Batters and Doughs Mixture Time required (minutes) Biscuits, baking, powder or soda................. 10 to...
-Table XXIX. - Formulas for Batters and Doughs (Based on One Cup of Flour)
Formulas for Batters and Doughs (Based on One Cup of Flour) Mixture Flour (cups) Liquid Chemical leavening (teaspoons) ...
-Chapter XXII. Cakes
Cakes may be divided into three classes: cakes made with yeast, sponge cakes, and butter cakes, or cakes made with shortening. ...
-Cakes Made With Yeast
The points which are essential for success in bread-making (page 495) should be observed in mixing cakes lightened with yeast. Since sugar, butter, and eggs have a tendency to retard fermentation, the...
-Sponge Cakes
Sponge cakes are really a variation of a souffle or puffy omelet. They are made without fat. They may be leavened with eggs alone, or with baking powder and eggs. Plain sponge cakes, choux paste, lady...
-Butter Cakes
Recipes for butter cakes call for various proportions of materials. Results produced by such variations are discussed briefly on pages 474 to 477. With a fair understanding of the possibilities of sub...
-Ingredients Used In Cakes
A discussion of the essential materials used in cakes is given on pages 474 to 477. Following are suggestions on certain accessory materials.* * Mills, Katherine H. Making Cake. Part I. Cornell Rea...
-Cake Fillings
A layer cake should be arranged if possible in such a way that the bottom of the layers will receive the filling, because the bottom is more porous than the top and consequently takes the filling bett...
-Cake Frostings
A cake may be merely dusted over the top with powdered sugar and the layers put together with a cream filling. The sugar will stick to the cake better if the white of an egg or fruit jelly has been br...
-Chapter XXIII. Pastry
By Winifred Moses and Lucile Brewer Pastry is a shortened dough, a mixture of flour, shortening, and liquid put together in different ways, according to the purpose for which it is to be used. Thre...
-Characteristics Of Good Pastry
Lightness depends on the amount of air incorporated, on the expansion of that air, and on the presence of baking powder. If the materials used are cold and the manipulation is carried on in a cold ...
-Directions For Making Plain Pastry
Recipe For Plain Pastry 1 cup flour 1/4 teaspoon salt 1/4-l/3 cup shortening Water (1) Mix the flour and salt; (2) cut in the fat, and add only enough water to hold the ingredients together; ...
-Directions For Making Flaky Pastry
Flaky pastry made half of washed butter and half of other shortening is used for pie crusts, turnovers, cheese straws, and tarts. Recipe For Flaky Pastry 3 cups flour 1/2 cup shortening 1/2 t...
-Directions For Making Puff Pastry
Puff paste is used when pastry of great flakiness and lightness is desired, as in patty shells, tarts, fruit rolls, tea cakes, Florentine meringues, and the like. Recipe For Puff Pastry 1 pound ...
-Chapter XXIV. Yeast Bread
By Claribel Nye . The making of yeast bread has a certain fascination because success depends largely on the proper control of living organisms, or yeasts. If dough is left for too long or is kept ...
-Mixing And Kneading
Milk for making bread is scalded in order to kill any organisms that might develop under the favorable conditions offered and thus give the bread a bad flavor. The best temperature for the growth o...
-Fermentation
The rising of dough until it goes into the pan is called fermentation. The best temperature for the growth of yeast is 80 to 87 F. If a strong or good grade of bread flour is used, the do...
-Shaping Dough
No flour should be used in molding loaves. The dough is molded by folding the sides under several times. It is placed in a greased tin with the crease on the bottom. The tins should be only half fille...
-Proofing
The rising in the pan is called proofing. This rising can be more rapid than in fermentation. Commercially, loaves are proofed at a temperature about 10 above that of fermentation. ...
-Bread Baking
Loaves are ready to be baked when they have doubled their original size. The baking temperature depends somewhat on the amount of sugar and shortening used in the dough. With an increase in sugar a...
-Bread Recipes
White bread (2 loaves) 2 tablespoons sugar - brown or granulated - honey, molasses, or corn sirup. (The sugar may be omitted.) 2 tablespoons any kind of shortening. (The shortening may be omitte...
-General Directions For Mixing And Baking Bread
(1) Add the hot scalded milk or other liquid to the sugar, the salt, and the shortening; (2) when this is lukewarm, add the yeast, which has been softened in a small amount of lukewarm water (this wat...
-Baking Bread Variations
For variation in kind of bread, use the recipes and directions for making white bread, substituting, according to the following suggestions, other flour or cereals for part of the white flour. The sub...
-Salt-Rising Bread
An old-fashioned bread, the making of which is almost a lost art to-day, is called salt-rising bread. No yeast is used. Gas from a certain type of bacteria found in cornmeal is the leavening agent. Do...
-Chapter XXV. Cooking Of Cereals
By Mary F. Henry Cereals in general are a cheap source of energy but there are wide differences in the cost of the various cereals themselves. Rolled oats, the whole-wheat grain, and cornmeal are, ...
-Chapter XXVI. Meat And Poultry
By Lucile Brewer Although meat is not a necessity in the diet (page 410), the estimate is that in the United States about one-third of the total expenditure of money for food is for meat. This coun...
-Selection Of Meat By Appearance
Beef should be firm and fine-grained in texture. It should have a bright red color and be well mottled with fat. The fat of beef should be firm and of a yellowish color. Suet should be dry and should ...
-General Rules For Cooking
Meat is cooked to soften connective tissue, to develop flavor, to improve appearance, and to destroy bacteria or other organisms. The cuts of meat may be divided into two classes, the tough and the...
-General Directions For Soup-Making
Soups may be classified as follows: Soups with stock, as bouillon, brown stock, white stock, consomme, lamb stock; soups without stock, as cream soups, purees, bisques; and chowders. Only soups with s...
-Care Of Meat
Meat should be removed from the wrapping paper as soon as it comes from the market, since the paper absorbs some of the juices. Before meat is cooked, it should be wiped with a cloth wrung out of c...
-Keeping Meat
After slaughtering, the meat undergoes several changes. Immediately after being killed, the flesh, especially in young and well-nourished animals, is juicy and tender. On account of the clotting of th...
-Use Of Market Trimmings And Meat Fat In Cooking
Market trimmings vary with the customs of the locality and the character of the cuts bought, but it is certain that a saving can be made if the trimmings are brought home and used in cooking or for ot...
-Chickens And Fowls (Frances Vinton Ward)
Chickens have soft, smooth legs and feet, a soft flexible breast bone, pin feathers, few hairs, a tender skin, and they are lean. Fowls have hard scaly feet, a hard breast bone, long hairs, a tough...
-Chapter XXVII. Fish And Oysters
By Winifred Moses Fish is an excellent animal food. Many kinds of sea fish that have heretofore not been used are, through the efforts of the United States Bureau of Fisheries, coming into the mark...
-Fish
Fish may be divided into two classes according to the amount of fat contained in their flesh: (1) white fish, or fish with flesh that contains little oil, the fat being secreted in the liver -to this ...
-Fish. Continued
To broil slices of fish: (1) Cut the fish into slices 1 inch thick; (2) wipe it dry; (3) season it, and proceed as in the case of broiled whole fish. Table XXXVII. - Fish That May Be Broiled, With ...
-Oysters
Oysters are among the most commonly used of the shell fish. The bivalves, including oysters, mussels, clams, and scallops, have white flesh and are easily digested. The crustaceans, including lobsters...
-Chapter XXVIII. Eggs
By Winifred Moses Eggs are one of the best meat substitutes, since they furnish animal protein and are easily prepared for the table. Moreover, they are especially valuable in the diet because of t...
-Tests For Fresh Eggs
The following tests may be used to determine whether eggs are fresh: (1) The shell of a fresh egg is rough, not smooth and shiny; (2) a reasonably fresh egg will sink in salt water made by dissolving ...
-Egg Cookery
Beating Eggs To beat well, eggs should be cold and fresh. A few grains of salt added to the whites may hasten the process. In preparing egg-white for beating, one should be careful to have it free ...
-Omelets
French omelet: (1) Scour the omelet pan with salt and vinegar, and wipe it; (2) just before using the pan, scour it with salt; (3) beat the eggs just enough to break them (12 revolutions with a Dover ...
-Custards
Firm Custards Baked custard: (1) Allow from 4 to 6 eggs or 6 egg-yolks, 1/2 cup of sugar, 1/4 teaspoon of salt, and a few gratings of nutmeg, to 1 quart of milk; (2) scald the milk; (3) beat the eg...
-Souffles
Plain souffle: For 4 eggs, allow 1 cup of sugar and the juice and rind of 1 lemon, or its equivalent in liquid and other flavoring; (2) beat the yolks until they are thick; (3) add the sugar gradually...
-Meringues
Meringues for pies and garnishes for desserts: (1) Allow 1 tablespoon of sugar to 1 egg-white; (2) chill the egg-whites; (3) add a pinch of salt to them; (4) beat them with an egg-whisk until they are...
-Chapter XXIX. Vegetables
By Lucile Brewer Although by means of proper storage, vegetables can be kept beyond their season, the price of products held in this way is necessarily higher than of those bought in season. Theref...
-Care Of Vegetables In The Home
Summer, or green, vegetables should be cooked as soon as possible after being gathered. If they must be kept, they should be spread on the floor of a cool, dry, well-ventilated cellar, or placed in th...
-Cooking Of Vegetables
Vegetables may be classified according to flavor into those with strong juices, and those with mild juices. Strong-Juiced Vegetables Strong-juiced vegetables, such as cauliflower, Brussels sprou...
-Chapter XXX. Sauces
By Winifred Moses Sauces are relied on in cookery as a basis for soups, croquettes, souffles, certain desserts, such as cornstarch pudding. and as a means of making other foods more palatable or mo...
-White Sauce
Thin sauce Up to 1/4 or 1 tablespoon fat 1/2 or 1 tablespoon flour 1 cup milk Seasoning Medium, thick sauce Up to 2 tablespoons fat 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 tablespoons flour 1 cup milk ...
-Butter Sauce
Method of making: (1) Melt half of the butter; (2) add the flour and seasonings; (3) stir the mixture over the fire until it bubbles; (4) remove it from the fire; (5) add the hot water gradually; (6) ...
-Brown Sauces
Method of making: (1) Melt the butter in a saucepan; (2) add the flour and stir the mixture until it bubbles; (3) remove the mixture from the fire, and add the liquid gradually, stirring constantly to...
-Sauces Thickened With Egg
Method of making: (1) Wash 1/2 cup of butter and put in a bowl; to wash butter, cover it with cold water and wash it with a wooden spoon until it is free from water and salt; (2) divide the butter int...
-Sweet Sauces
Sweet sauces thickened with starchy material. Method of making: (1) Mix the sugar and the cornstarch; (2) add the hot liquid gradually; (3) cook the mixture, stirring it constantly until it thicken...
-Chapter XXXI. Salads
By Miriam Birdseye The word salad is derived from the Latin salatus, meaning salted. The original salad probably consisted of crisp leaf or stem vegetables dressed with salt. With the passage of ye...
-Salad Herbs
To Season Salads And Dressings The following herbs, except capers, may easily be grown in the home garden. For directions for cultivating them, see Bailey's Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture. ...
-Salad Dressings
The apparently infinite number of salad dressings may readily be reduced to a few well-recognized types. These types with their best-known modifications are listed below in the order of their simplici...
-Chapter XXXII. Desserts
By Winifred Moses In planning a well-balanced meal the dessert must be considered, because if it is used at all it plays a part in the nutritive scheme of the meal. It may be as simple as fresh fru...
-Fruits
Fruits may be served alone as dessert, fresh or cooked, hot or cold. A combination of fruits may be used for variety in flavor or color. ...
-Gelatin Desserts
General directions for making gelatin desserts are as follows: (1) Soak the gelatin in about four times its measure of cold liquid for from 3 to 5 minutes, or until it is softened; (2) dissolve it ...
-Whipped Cream
In whipping cream, only cream containing at least 20 per cent of butter-fat should be used, and 25 to 40 per cent is better. Cream from twelve to twenty-four hours old is best to use in order that a s...
-Frozen Desserts
Water Ices Water ices are fruit juices sweetened, diluted with water, and frozen. Frappes Frappes are ices made of fruit juice, water, and sugar, frozen to the consistency of mush. Sherbet...
-Chapter XXXIII. Sugar Cookery
By Mary F. Henry Success in sugar cookery, as in all other cookery, requires intelligent work and to work intelligently means that one must understand the nature of the materials used, the changes ...
-Chapter XXXIV. Food Preservation
If foods are to be kept successfully from one season to another, it is necessary to have as nearly as possible exact knowledge of the conditions that interfere with their preservation. This statement ...
-Preservation Of Food By Low Temperatures
Preservation Of Eggs Eggs should be preserved during March, April, May, and June, when the production is greatest and the price lowest. Spring eggs will keep better than summer or fall eggs. Only a...
-Preservation Of Food By Low Temperatures. Continued
Storage of vegetables.* Storage requirements for different vegetables vary widely. Some vegetables are easily kept. If the parsnip is merely left in the ground, oncoming spring will find it not onl...
-Drying Fruits And Vegetables
Dried products do not require expensive containers, and they can be stored almost indefinitely under proper conditions in relatively small space. One hundred pounds of fresh vegetables may be reduced ...
-Salting Vegetables
Equipment A supply of clean wooden kegs or stone crocks is the first requisite. For home use the smaller sizes are preferable as a rule, because the contents will then be used up more quickly and t...
-Salting Vegetables. Continued
The first method is to cover the surface with very hot melted paraffin. If the paraffin is sufficiently hot to make the brine boil when poured upon it, a smooth, even layer will be formed before harde...
-Canning
Successful preservation of food by canning depends on two things: first, the sterilization of the food and the can, that is, the complete destruction by heat of all life in or on the food, and on all ...
-Equipment For Canning
If canning is to be done successfully, even on a small scale, it is necessary to have some equipment that will lighten labor and save time. Such equipment may be bought especially for the purpose, or ...
-Blanching
Blanching is an important preliminary step in the cold-pack method of canning. It is used for some fruits and may be used for all vegetables. Blanching may be done with either boiling water or steam. ...
-Sirups
The thickness of sirup for canning fruits depends on the kind of fruit with which it is to be used and the richness of the product desired. In order to obtain three grades of sirup for ordinary use...
-Methods Of Canning
Two methods of canning are commonly used both in the household and in the canning factory, the open-kettle method and the cold-pack method. The open-kettle method is so called because the food to b...
-Methods Of Canning Fruit
Directions for canning fruit by the cold-pack method. * (1) Select well-grown, firm, and not overripe fruit; (2) if possible, can fruit on the day that it is picked; (3) wash, pare, or otherwise pr...
-Methods Of Canning Vegetables
Directions for canning vegetables by the cold-pack method. (1) Choose vegetables that are young and have made a quick growth. (2) Do not use very dirty vegetables. (3) Can vegetables as soon as pos...
-Methods Of Canning Meat
Directions for canning meat by the cold-pack method. Continuous sterilization is necessary for meats canned by the cold-pack method. A fowl weighing 2 pounds when dressed should make a pint can of ...
-Canning Time-Tables
Table LIII. - A Time-Table For Canning Fruits, Acid Vegetables, And Meats By The Single, Or Continuous, Period Of Heating Food Time of blanching Time of cooking in...
-Storing Canned Foods
Canned food should be set aside for two or three days before being stored, and then as a means of special precaution, it should be tested as follows: Loosen the clamp and grasp the jar by the edges of...
-Fruit Juices
Properly extracted fruit juices contain much of the sugar and the body-building and body-regulating constituents of the whole fruit, as well as much of its flavor and its pectin (jelly-making substanc...
-The Making Of Jelly
Currants, sour apples, crab-apples, raspberries, blackberries, blueberries, partly ripened grapes, and quinces make good jelly; but peaches, pears, strawberries, and cherries are deficient in certain ...
-Preservation Of Meat
Directions for canning meat are given on page 613. ...
-Keeping Fresh Meat
All meat to be preserved, either fresh or cured, should be thoroughly cooled after the animal is slaughtered, for unless this is done the meat will not cure well nor will it be possible to keep it in ...
-Curing Meats
As has already been stated, meat should be thoroughly cooled before it is cured. It is equally important, however, that the meat shall not be in a frozen condition, for if it is frozen the brine or pi...
-Curing Pork
Sugar-Cured Hams, Bacons, And Tongues Method I. After the meat has been thoroughly cooled, the carcass may be cut up and cured. Sugar-cured pork is preferable to dry-cured or plain salt pork becaus...
-Brine Salt Pork
Pack thoroughly cooled pork in a barrel or a jar after having rubbed each piece with salt. The following day weigh out for each 100 pounds of meat 10 pounds of salt and 2 ounces of saltpeter. Mix thes...
-Dry-Cured Pork
To dry-cure meat involves more work than to brine-cure it, although it is a little less expensive in some cases. It is less difficult merely to salt the meat, pack in a jar, and pour the brine over it...
-Pickled Pigs' Feet
Take well-scraped pigs' feet, with the toes removed, and soak them in cold water overnight. The next morning put them in a kettle, add enough water to cover them, and let them cook until soft. This wi...
-Head-Cheese
Head-cheese is made from the part of the head of the hog that would otherwise be wasted. When properly prepared it is a delicacy. The feet, as well as the head, may be used for this purpose. Skin t...
-Lard
Lard is made from the fat of the hog carcass. Three grades of lard are obtained from three parts of the body: the best grade, leaf lard, is made from the leaf, or layer of fat lying inside the abdomin...
-Curing Beef
Beef is not so commonly cured as pork; but when corned it takes the place of fresh beef during periods of the year when fresh beef does not keep well, and also offers a method of preserving part of th...
-Corned Beep
Method I. Since corned beef is used for practically the same dishes as fresh beef, only wholesome untainted meat should be used for this purpose. Naturally, the choicer the meat that is put into the p...
-Dried Beef
Dried beef is usually made from the round, although any heavily muscled part may be used for this purpose. The inside of the round makes the tenderest meat. In cutting meat for dried beef, the muscles...
-Pickled Beef Tongues
The recipe given on page 625 for sugar-cured hams and bacons may be used also for pickling beef tongues. ...
-Curing Mutton And Lamb
Mutton and lamb are seldom, if ever cured on the farm. In the larger packing houses, mutton is sometimes partly cured in a plain salt pickle, and then cooked and packed in cans, which are soldered shu...
-Sausages
Very good sausages can be made from the scraps that would otherwise be wasted in the butcher shop and on the farm. Such pieces as cheeks, trimmings, jowls, pork hearts and tongues, mutton hearts and t...
-Hamburg Steak
This is the simplest form of sausage made, and consists simply of fresh beef run twice through a grinder. It may be seasoned after the first grinding, or left unseasoned. It is never stuffed into casi...
-Mixed Sausage
This is made by mixing beef and pork in such proportions as to suit the taste of the consumer. This kind of sausage is usually made if the consumer dislikes the extremely fat undiluted pork sausage. I...
-Pork Sausage
Pork sausage should be made from clean, fresh pork scraps, or the cheaper parts of the meat. The meat should be in the proportion of three parts of lean pork to one of fat pork. This should be run thr...
-Smoking Meats On The Farm
The smoking of cured meats aids in their preservation because the smoking process closes the pores of the meat or casings, and the creosote is objectionable to some insects. Smoking gives a desirab...









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