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Foods And Household Management | by Helen Kinne



This volume, like its companion, Shelter and Clothing, is in-tended for use in the course in household arts in the high school and normal school, whether the work be vocational or general in its aim. It is hoped that both volumes will prove useful in the home as well, including as they do a treatment of the homecrafts, and the related topics now so significant to the home maker, - the cost and purchasing of foods and clothing, the cost of operating, the management of the home, and questions of state and city sanitation vital to the health of the individual family.

TitleFoods And Household Management
AuthorHelen Kinne
PublisherThe Macmillan Company
Year1914
Copyright1914, The Macmillan Company
AmazonFoods and Household Management

A Textbook Of The Household Arts

By Helen Kinne Professor Of Household Arts Education

And

Anna M. Cooley, B.S. Assistant Professor Of Household Arts Education Teachers College, Columbia University

New York The Macmillan Company

All rights reserved

Copyright, 1914, By The Macmillan Company.

Set up and electrotyped. Published January, 1914. Reprinted February, June, August, October, 1914. Education Dept. Norwood Press

J. S. Cushing Co. - Berwick & Smith Co.

Norwood, Mass., U.S.A.

The Macmillan Company

The Macmillan Company

New York • Boston • Chicago • Dallas Atlanta • San Francisco

Macmillan & CO., Limited

London • Bombay • Calcutta Melbourne

The Macmillan Co. Of Canada, Ltd.

Toronto

Foods And Household Management 3

From the London and Country Cookbook, 1770. Courtesy of the Bryson Library.

-Preface
This volume, like its companion, Shelter and Clothing, is in-tended for use in the course in household arts in the high school and normal school, whether the work be vocational or general in its aim. ...
-Suggestions To Teachers
The topics in this volume are so arranged that they can be followed in sequence as the course of study develops through the year, with such modifications as seem necessary to the teacher in order that...
-Chapter I. Food Materials And Foodstuffs
Food Problems What shall I plan for the three meals? is a question as new each day as the day itself. That many women ask it, and are glad for an answer or a suggestion is proved by a glance at t...
-Food Materials
What is food? - This would seem to be a difficult question to answer as we look about a modern grocery or market with its bewildering assortment of foods. It seems hardly possible to describe such a v...
-Composition Of Milk And Beans
Food Materials Water Per Cent Protein Per Cent Fat Per Cent Carbohydrate Per Cent Ash Per Cent Milk..... ...
-Foodstuffs
All the varieties of food with which we are supplied will be found to contain some of these substances: protein, fat, carbohydrate, mineral matter, water; and to these we give the name foodstuffs. Som...
-Functions of the Foodstuffs
Food For Energy The first requirement of the body is for fuel, because it has a great deal of work to do. Even when one lies perfectly quiet and appears to be resting, the heart is working to keep ...
-Functions of the Foodstuffs. Part 2
Food For Body Building Every living cell has a little life history of its own, and constantly demands a certain amount of new material to replace old which it has worn out. Besides this, old cells ...
-Functions of the Foodstuffs. Part 3
Salt A mineral substance that develops other flavors. It should not be used in excess. A small amount is desirable even in sweet dishes. Acids Vinegar, lemon juice, and juices of other sour f...
-Chapter II. Kitchen Furnishings
There is no more attractive room than a well-fitted kitchen, shining with cleanliness; and the kitchen furnishings should have their fair share of the money spent in buying furniture for the house. ...
-Chapter II. Kitchen Furnishings. Part 2
The Kitchen Table The table should have a top with room for food materials and utensils to stand in neat order without crowding. Glass is the cleanest top, painted steel and hard maple coming next ...
-Chapter II. Kitchen Furnishings. Part 3
The Sink White enameled iron and porcelain are the most desirable materials for the sink. A simply constructed sink is shown in Fig. 10. Notice that the sink is supported from the wall, leaving a f...
-Chapter II. Kitchen Furnishings. Part 4
Enamel A vitrified material upon iron or steel. The English enamel ware upon iron is durable, excellent for preserving, heavy. The German and American enamels are lighter. Avoid the attractive blue...
-List Of Utensils
For preparing and mixing. 1 can opener. 1 corkscrew. 1 vegetable knife, pointed. 1 steel table knife, broad blade. 1 meat knife and fork. 1 bread knife, or slicer. 1 small meat axe. 1 k...
-Care Of The Kitchen
The daily cleaning must include the care of the sink and traps, the cleaning of the stove, brushing the floor, and washing off of tables. More thorough cleaning includes the scrubbing of the floor, wa...
-Chapter III. Fuel And Stoves
The fuels most widely used in this country are coal, gas, and kerosene. Wood is still used for cooking by those who own wood lots, or who live in a district where wood is abundant, but in a sense it i...
-The Common Fuels
Coal is of two kinds, anthracite and bituminous, or hard and soft. Hard coal of good quality has 90 per cent or more of carbon, and burns with little flame. Soft coal contains as much as 18 per cent o...
-The Common Fuels. Continued
To Read The Meter Figure 13 shows the three dials found on the face of a gas meter. The arrows show the direction. The dial at the right indicates 100 cubic feet between the numbers, the middle dia...
-Cooking Apparatus
The wastefulness of cooking operations, past and present, is due largely to the defects of the apparatus used. The open fireplace for wood, and the open grate for coal, are two arrangements that permi...
-The Coal Range
Progress is slow, and the coal range will not be abolished at present. Figure 18 is an example of a good range as easy to manage as possible. The coal box at (1) has a lining that prevents the iron fr...
-To Make A Coal Fire
See that the grate is clean and that the ashes have been removed. You know that a current of air containing oxygen is needed to make the fire burn. How will you arrange the damper at (2) and (3) when ...
-The Gas Stove
Figure 19 shows a well-constructed stove of the usual type. Notice the air space, and asbestos lining around the oven. The burner for heating the oven is at (1). Holes in the sides allow the heated ai...
-To Manage A Gas Stove
Before lighting the top or oven burners see that the stopcocks are all tight, with no escaping gas. To light the top burners, strike the match, turn on the stopcock, and touch the match to the gas whe...
-Kerosene Stoves
The best type is a blue-flame stove with a wick. Kerosene stoves are made with no wick, the kerosene being vaporized just before it reaches the burner, but such a stove requires occasional pumping to ...
-Electric Apparatus
Figure 21 shows a table arranged for cooking by electricity, each piece of apparatus having its own connection. Compare this with the frontispiece, the method of cooking in the eighteenth century, and...
-Chapter IV. Food Preparation, The Principles And Technique
The Principles Of Cooking In science the word prin-ciple ordinarily means a formulation of some general or constant mode of behavior - a generalization based on many observations of fact. In cook...
-Protein
There are several forms of protein, with differences that we can understand only after a thorough study of chemistry. The most important proteins in meat, fish, eggs, milk, old beans and peas coagulat...
-Fats
Solid fats are liquefied by heat, and freed from the tissue that contains them in animal fats like suet. When a fat begins to smoke with heat, a chemical change is taking place. If intense heat is ...
-Starch
Starch occurs in the form of granules. See Fig. 39. In boiling water, the granule expands and finally bursts, and frees the content, the pure starch, and the whole mass thickens. Boiled with an aci...
-Sugar
Sugar first melts with heat, then begins to decompose, giving off water. This is also a stage on the road to pure carbon. Caramel, a familiar flavor, is sugar in the brown stage, with the water partly...
-Mineral Matter
The ash remains for the most part unchanged by heat, but may be lost in the water in which vegetables and meat are cooked if the water is thrown away. Vegetable fiber is softened by heat and mois...
-The Technique Of Food Preparation
From the moment the food materials enter the kitchen until the unusable portions are destroyed or carried away, there is a best way of working with them at each step, and the sum of these may be said ...
-Regulating the source of heat
Placing the slices firmly in a toaster, or on a fork, or evenly on a rack when toasting by gas. Keeping the toast at a distance from the source of heat that insures a steady but not too rapid chang...
-The Care Of Food Materials
When food materials are delivered, have receptacles ready for each kind of food. (See kitchen furnishing.) Attend first to perishable foods. Wash and dry milk and cream bottles before putting them in ...
-The Processes Of Food Preparation
With kitchen in order, tools ready, and food materials at hand, we are ready for the actual food preparation. A distinction is to be made between cookery and cooking. Cookery includes all the steps ne...
-How To Study A Recipe
Remember that a recipe is a bit of experience handed down for us to make useful. Some one experimented at some time long ago, perhaps failed at first, tried again, finally succeeded, and passed on the...
-Weighing And Measuring
The system is Avoirdupois, sixteen ounces to the pound. Learn to read the scales exactly, and when weighing, always allow for the weight of the utensil or paper holding the food. Weighing is more ac...
-Experiments in weighing and measuring.1
Answer these questions by performing the experiments. Record in notebook in orderly form. 1 Teacher's Note These experiments may be performed as each food material is used. In this case a page s...
-Preparing And Mixing
Food materials that are not to be mixed with others still need special preparation before heat is applied. For fruits and vegetables, washing is the first stage, followed by scraping, paring, peeli...
-Cooking Processes
For the beginnings of cooking we should need to go back to the days when game was roasted by the open fire, built for warmth, or corn parched on hot stones. Perhaps some root was cooked in the hot ash...
-Care Of Food After Cooking
Bread, cake, cookies, and pastry should be cooled on a rack, or spread out in such a way that they do not steam. They should then be placed in a tin box or stone jar, which has been cleaned by washing...
-Care Of Left Overs
This is one of the tests of food management. It is so easy at the end of a meal either to throw food away, or set it into the refrigerator on the dish in which it has been served. Have a good supply o...
-Disposal Of Waste Food
This is the final test of good housekeeping, and many otherwise good housekeepers fail just here. Even at its best the garbage pail is not altogether a pleasing object, and at its worst it is unspeaka...
-Chapter V. Water And Other Beverages
Although water does not supply energy to the body, it plays an important part in nutrition. As building material, it constitutes about two thirds of the body weight, and as a regulator of' body proces...
-Water In Cooking
Water is necessary to the softening of fiber, and the cooking of starch. It acts as a solvent for sugar and salt and for gelatin, and is the basis of meat soups, certain substances in the meat dissolv...
-Experiments with the boiling temperature of water
A. Apparatus: A ring stand, a Florence flask, a square of wire net, a chemical thermometer, a Bunsen burner. Method: Place the Florence flask, half full of water, on the square of wire net upon the la...
-Boiling At High Altitudes
When the air pressure upon the surface of the water is lessened, the water boils at a lower temperature. As the altitude increases, the air pressure decreases, as many a mountain traveler knows to his...
-The Uses Of Ice
Water freezes and ice melts at the same point, 32 F., or 0 C. If ice is mixed with salt, the temperature is reduced far below the freezing point, nearly to 0 F. This process reduces any...
-Ice Substitutes
Where the supply fails or the price is exorbitant, one property of water makes it a partial aid. The rapid evaporation of water will absorb heat so rapidly as to reduce the temperature of adjacent ...
-Fruit Beverages
Fruit juices with water and sugar make refreshing beverages and have nutritive value as well. (See the next chapter.) ...
-Cocoa And Chocolate, Coffee, And Tea
These are the three most important non-alcoholic beverages used by man. They are used because of the agreeable flavor given them by volatile oils, and also because they have a stimulating effect. The ...
-Cocoa And Chocolate
Cocoa and chocolate are manufactured from the seed of a tree, Theobroma cacao, grown in tropical America. The seeds, when removed from the containing pod, are fermented to improve the flavor, dried, c...
-Other Beverages
Several very acceptable coffee substitutes are on the market, made from roasted and ground grain, and they give an agreeable hot drink for breakfast when served with cream or milk. In some cases they ...
-1. Lemonade and fruit drinks
Utensils Silver knife for paring and slicing, glass lemon squeezer, a grater, a strainer, and a saucepan. Avoid the use of tin and iron utensils. Materials Lemon or other fruits, sugar water....
-Plain Lemonade
After deciding upon the proper amounts to be used, dissolve the sugar in a part of the water, brought to the boiling point. When cool, add the lemon juice and remaining water, ice and serve. A small p...
-2. Cocoa shells
Principle To extract the flavor from the shells, by boiling in water. Utensil A saucepan or coffee boiler. Proportions One half cup shells to 1 quart boiling water. As much as 1 cup...
-3. Cocoa
Principle To mix the particles smoothly and evenly with the liquid by stirring and by heating. Utensils A measuring cup, a saucepan, spoon, and beater. A double boiler, if milk only is used. ...
-4. Chocolate
Principle To mix the chocolate smoothly with the liquid that the fat may not float on the top. This is accomplished by having all the ingredients either hot or cold. If after the chocolate is disso...
-5. Coffee
Principle To extract the flavoring oils at the boiling point of water, and to avoid the extraction of the tannin. The tannin is extracted by prolonged boiling, and when the liquid coffee stands upo...
-6. Tea
Principle To extract flavor by allowing the leaves to remain for a few minutes, in water which has been poured on at the boiling temperature, and to avoid the extraction of tannin by making the per...
-7. Iced cocoa, coffee, and tea
Cocoa and coffee are agreeable in hot weather served in a glass with ice, and cream and powdered sugar. Make both slightly stronger than for hot drinks, as the ice in melting dilutes the liquid. ...
-Chapter VI. Fruit And Its Preservation
The United States is fortunate in the native fruit supply, including as it does so many degrees of latitude and longitude with the differences in altitude, climate, and soil needed by different variet...
-Fruit Composition And Nutritive Value
The chief foodstuffs in fruits are carbohydrates and mineral matter. Fresh fruit contains from 75 to 95 per cent of water, and its presence is apparent in such juicy fruits as the melon and the orange...
-How To Buy Fruit
Since we should eat fruit daily, and not merely as a treat, it is important to practice economy in buying it. Fresh fruits in season, and dried fruits are the cheapest. Canned fruit is economical wh...
-Fresh Fruits
Principles of preparation. Thorough cleansing in clear water. Cleanliness, in avoiding use of the fingers. Making convenient for eating, sometimes by paring or cutting or expressing the juice...
-Berries
Pick over. Wash in colander with a gentle stream of water, and shake carefully to avoid bruising and breaking. Chill in the refrigerator. Sprinkle with sugar when served. Oranges. - Scrub the peel wit...
-Principles of Fruit Cooking
The fiber, and skin when retained, are softened. Flavors are developed at a low temperature long continued. A high temperature at the end of process, browns, and adds flavor. Flavors retained by pr...
-1. Whole Apple Baked, With Skin
(1) Remove core. (2) Place in pan, with enough water to barely cover the bottom of the pan. (3) Pour sugar into the holes. (4) A bit of butter may be put on the top of the sugar. (5) Nutme...
-2. Whole Apples Baked, Without Skin
Whole Apples Baked, Without Skin. A good method when skins are tough. (1) Remove core and pare. (2) Place in earthen baking dish. The remainder of the process is the same. (3) Serve in the di...
-3. Whole Apple Stewed. (Compote.)
This is a more difficult method than method 2, and really no better. (1) Core and pare five or six apples. (2) Dissolve \ cup sugar in 1/2 pint water in a saucepan. (3) Place apples in the si...
-4. Apple Sauces
Apple Sauces. In the cooking of the whole apple you have all the principles and processes of apple cooking. You can now make apple sauce of your own invention, and need no printed directions. Answer t...
-Some Other Fruits
Pears and quinces develop pleasing flavors when baked. Cook the quinces sliced, as suggested for the apples, in the bean pot, using a little molasses for sweetening and you will have the delicious ...
-Prunes
We are dealing now with a dried fruit. If you compare the raisins with the grapes in Fig. 26, you will see how much water is lost in the drying process. The same difference would be evident if you had...
-Preservation of Fruit and Other Foods
The preservation of fruit and other foods has been a household industry for generations, and it is now an important commercial industry. The old-time farm had its smoke-house where hams and beef were ...
-The Control Of Microorganisms
With warmth, water, and food all living things flourish and grow; most organisms require air, but some of the microorganisms do not. Where these conditions are best met, the organism is most active an...
-Principles of preservation
Sterilization of food and all apparatus by the boiling temperature, 212 F. The removal of moisture by some drying process. The addition of a preservative. Sealing, to prevent the entrance of air....
-General Preservation Methods And Recipes
General Directions Thoroughly wash all the utensils, just before using. Sterilize the cans and glasses by placing them in a large kettle or boiler on the stove, covering them with cold water, and a...
-Canning
Method 1 Material cooked before it is put into the can. This is a good method for berries, and for fruit that will be served as a sauce. Proceed in the preparation and finishing according to the ge...
-Preserving
A good method for peached, apricots, and quinces. Select firm and handsome fruit and prepare it carefully. Allow a pound of sugar to a pound of fruit. (What is the measure of a pound of sugar?) Place ...
-Jam making, and fruit butter
This is the most economical of the preserving processes and the easiest for the novice. It is nothing more than a fruit sauce, with a larger amount of sugar than usual to assist in its preservation. ...
-Jelly Making
There is another principle involved in jelly making in addition to the principle of preservation. Fruit contains a substance known as pectose, one of the carbohydrates, that partially solidifies the f...
-1. Apple Jelly
Select tart, red-skinned apples, cut them in small pieces with the skins on, retain the cores, and put them in a kettle with cold water to barely cover. When thoroughly cooked and mashed, put this pul...
-2. Currant Jelly
Currant Jelly. The method is the same as with apple jelly. It is not necessary to remove the currants from the stem. Heat just long enough before the straining to make the juices flow well. Very ag...
-Chapter VII. Vegetables And Vegetable Cookery
The distinction between the fruit and the vegetable is purely arbitrary, since both are parts of plants and have the same general composition. Botanically the tomato is as truly a fruit as the apple; ...
-How To Buy Vegetables
Much interest is added to the study of vegetables by the examination of a seed catalogue easily obtainable from a firm selling seeds and plants. In this way, one may increase one's knowledge of variet...
-Uncooked Vegetables
Crisp vegetables with tender fiber are eaten raw. Their preparation includes freshening in cold water, thorough washing to remove grit and insects, thorough drying by shaking in a soft cloth or wire b...
-Cooked Vegetables
Vegetable cooking is an art much neglected, and in consequence vegetables are sometimes served lacking their proper flavor and their original nutrients. To cook vegetables in boiling salted water, thr...
-Principles Of Cooking Vegetables
Softening of the fiber. Opening of the starch granules, when starch is present, at a temperature of 212 F. Retaining mineral and flavoring matters. Cooking Processes These rank in va...
-Time Of Cooking Vegetables
The following table is a guide, but one must learn from practice, for the time depends upon the quality of the vegetable, whether tender or tough, and upon the size whether large or small. Test by gen...
-The Potato, A Starchy Vegetable
Make it your pride to serve a plain potato, mealy and inviting. Potatoes are new, fully ripe, and old. The new potato is in market in July and August, and may be recognized by its very thin skin. Th...
-1. Potatoes Cooked Whole
1. Steamed. a. With skin. b. Without skin. 2. Boiled. a. With skin. 6. Without skin. 3. Baked. a. With skin. b. Without skin. II. Potatoes, not whole. 1. From raw potatoes. ...
-1. Baked Potatoes
Method 1. The best method, for new potatoes. Select those of uniform size. When scrubbed, place them in a shallow pan, or upon the rack of the oven. The oven should be hot, about 450 F. or even a...
-2. Boiled Potatoes
The only way to prevent the loss of nutrients in using this process is to boil the potatoes with the jackets on. This is the best way with new potatoes. This method with ripe and old potatoes gives ...
-3. Mashed Potatoes
Mashed Potatoes. Some one devised this convenient method of serving, to save trouble at the table. Mashed potato can be very poor and unappetizing when wet and lumpy. Do not attempt it with new, poor,...
-4. Escalloped Potato
Escalloped Potato. The name escalloped is applied to any baked dish that is arranged in layers. Escalloped potato is a palatable dish and this is one of the most economical of methods. Wash, pare, ...
-5. Creamed Potatoes
Creamed Potatoes. Method 1, an easy way. Chop cold baked potatoes with the chopper. Allow one tablespoonful of butter to 1 pint of chopped potato. Melt the butter in a saucepan. Stir in the potatoes. ...
-6. French Fried Potatoes
French Fried Potatoes. Wash and pare small potatoes, cut in eighths lengthwise, and soak a few minutes in cold water. Take from water, dry between towels, and fry in deep fat. Drain on brown paper and...
-7. Stewed Celery
Stewed Celery. A green vegetable. Stalks of celery, too tough or coarse for serving uncooked, are delicious when stewed. The process is simple. Wash, scrape, and cut the stalks crosswise. Place them i...
-8. Cabbage
Cabbage. The method given makes cabbage a delicious and attractive vegetable, as delicate as cauliflower, and the odor in the kitchen is not noticeable. Select a small cabbage, with the ribs in the...
-9. Baked Beans
Baked Beans. A nitrogenous vegetable and a meat substi-tute. A dish known in old days in New England, baked to perfection in the old brick oven. Baked beans seem diffi-cult of digestion for some peopl...
-Laboratory Management
The last experiment is the only one not easily performed in the school kitchen. The process can begin perhaps on one day, and be finished the next. If there is some apparatus that cooks at a low tempe...
-10. Potato Puree
Ingredients. Potato Milk Flour Butter Salt Celery stalks, cut small Onion, chopped Pepper, Cayenne 1 cup 1 quart 1 tablespoonful 1 tablespoonful 2 teaspoonfuls 1 teaspoonful 1 tab...
-11. Cream of tomato soup
Ingredients. Tomato juice Milk Flour Butter Salt Bicarbonate of soda Pepper, Cayenne 1/2 cup 1 quart 2 tablespoonfuls 2 tablespoonfuls 2 teaspoonfuls 1/2 teaspoonful T...
-12. Chili sauce
Ingredients. Tomatoes Green pepper Vinegar Sugar Salt Clove Cinnamon Allspice Nutmeg 12, medium sized and ripe 1, finely chopped 2 cups 3 tablespoonfuls 1 tablespoonful 2 teaspoonfuls 2...
-Chapter VIII. Cereal Products
The common grains, sometimes called cereals,1 yield some of the most important of all the food materials. Those most widely used are wheat, maize, or Indian corn, oats, rice, barley, rye, and millet. ...
-Principles Of Cooking Cereals
1. Softening of the fiber by long-continued low temperature with a supply of water present. A. Fowler, Photographer. Fig. 38. - 100-Calorie portions of starches and cereals. ...
-I. Preparation of Breakfast Cereal
Ingredients. 1 part, by measure, flaked cereal to 2 of water. 1 part granular cereal to 3 to 4 of water. 1 cup of dry cereal will serve three or four people. Samp, cracked wheat, and coars...
-2. The Uses Of Cold Cereal
The Uses Of Cold Cereal. Never throw away cooked cereals. The cold cereal is useful in many ways. (a) Mold in small cups with dates or other fruit, and serve with sugar and cream for luncheon. ...
-Rice
Rice varies very much in quality and in the shape of the grain. Louisiana and Chinese rice are among those that have a firm and large grain keeping its shape well when cooked. Inferior varieties becom...
-Corn Products
Corn being our most abundant grain, it is the cheapest, and we should promote its use. Hominy and samp and Indian meal, when well cooked, are all most palatable. There is a difference between old and ...
-Pure Starches
These occur as food materials in several forms. Cornstarch is the starchy portion only removed from the grain of corn. Wheat starch is more largely used for laundry purposes than for food. Rice flour ...
-A. Starch experiments
Starch turns a characteristic blue color in the presence of iodine. This is an unfailing starch test, but must be used in the cold. 1. Grate a piece of potato into a small amount of water, and stra...
-5. Chocolate cornstarch
Milk Cornstarch Cocoa (Baker's) Sugar Salt Vanilla 1 pint 3 tablespoonfuls, level 3 tablespoonfuls, level 1/2 cup 1/4 teaspoonful 1 teaspoonful What utensils? You s...
-6. Tapioca And Sago
Tapioca And Sago. These materials make delicious desserts with fruit. They are also used with eggs and milk. (See Chapter XV (Salads And Desserts).) Macaroni, spaghetti, and vermicelli are valuable...
-7. Boiled macaroni
Ingredients. Macaroni Boiling water Salt Cream 3/4 cup, broken in inch pieces 2 quarts 1 tablespoonful 1/2 cup Method Cook macaroni in boiling salted water twenty minutes or until so...
-8. Macaroni Baked With Cheese
Macaroni Baked With Cheese. Cover the bottom of a baking dish with plain boiled macaroni. Sprinkle with grated cheese. Add another layer of macaroni and another of cheese. Repeat until the dish is ful...
-Chapter IX. Eggs, Milk, And Cheese
Eggs are a specially interesting food because they contain all the elements necessary to the development of the young chick within the shell. The structure of the egg is familiar, with its division in...
-Composition Of The Egg
Fig. 40. - Composition of eggs and cheese. Figure 40 gives the composition of the yolk and white taken together, and of the yolk and white separated. The protein content is high, and the fat ...
-Fresh Eggs And Cold Storage Eggs
The fresh-laid egg is always desired for its delicious flavor, and this flavor changes but little in a week or two if the egg is kept cool. It is desirable to preserve eggs, however, for future use at...
-The Cost Of Eggs And How To Buy Eggs
The demand for fresh eggs is great, and so many eggs are exported, that the price is high, even in the summer. Twenty-five cents a dozen is a reasonable price, but this is below the average at the pre...
-General Egg Cooking Methods And Recipes
I. Eggs used raw. - An egg, swallowed whole, followed by a cracker, is a quick lunch that is not harmful, and it is sometimes convenient to be able to take an egg in this way. A sprinkling of salt ...
-2. Beaten Eggs
Beaten Eggs. Beat the yolk and white separately. Add to the yolk a teaspoonful of sugar, a shake of salt, some flavoring, and 3/4 of a cup of milk. Beat the white gently into this mixture and serve in...
-A. An experiment with the egg
Apparatus And Materials A ring stand, wire net, Bunsen burner, glass beaker, test tube, chemical thermometer, white of egg. Method Put the beaker two thirds full of water on the wire net over...
-3. Jellied Or Coddled Eggs
Jellied Or Coddled Eggs. See that the shells are whole and clean. If the eggs are just taken from the refrigerator, lay them in warm water a few minutes. Make ready a double boiler, the lower part hal...
-4. Boiled Eggs
Boiled Eggs. Put one egg at a time from a tablespoon into boiling water. Allow the water to boil for three or four minutes, depending upon the preference of those served. Remove the eggs, and serve at...
-5. Poached Eggs
Poached Eggs. Make ready a frying pan by setting muffin rings in it, and filling it about half full of gently simmering water, with a teaspoonful of salt dissolved in it. Break the eggs one at a time ...
-6. Scrambled Eggs
Scrambled Eggs. As the name denotes, this is a process needing a quick motion. Allow an egg to each person. Have ready a frying pan heated, a broad bladed knife, and a tablespoonful of butter, or butt...
-7. The Omelet
The Omelet. The novice should see an omelet made, as there is a knack in the motion not to be conveyed by words. The omelet is a French dish, and is made to perfection by the French cook. A perfect ...
-Milk and Milk Products
Milk is the natural food of the young mammal, and contains all the foodstuffs in a form easily assimilable. Starch is not present, the carbohydrate being found in the form of lactose, or milk sugar, a...
-How To Buy Milk
Investigate by question and inspection, if possible, the available milk supply. Be sure to do this in the country in the summer. Always buy bottled milk. Where the income is small, good quality milk s...
-Principles Of Milk Cookery
Clean, sweet milk is an ideal food, which requires no cooking. Heating milk to 212 F. changes its properties in some way, so that it is not considered an ideal food for babies' regular diet. If i...
-1. How To Pasteurize Milk
This cannot be done accurately without a thermometer. The milk bottle should be placed upon a rack in a kettle of water, with a clean thermometer inserted through the cover of the bottle. Heat the wat...
-2. Rennet Custard
Rennet Custard. 1 quart milk, two tablespoonfuls of sugar, a shake of salt, flavoring, 1 rennet tablet. The flavoring may be: 1 teaspoonful vanilla, or a few tablespoonfuls of orange juice, or the van...
-3. Uses Of Sour Milk
Uses Of Sour Milk. Do not throw away any sour milk that is clean and not stale. Milk that has soured enough to set, is a delicious dessert, with cream and sugar. The acid is very pleasant, being the s...
-Cheese
Cheese is made from the curd of milk, and contains the most nutritive parts of the milk in highly concentrated form. In the process of manufacture, the milk is first curdled by rennet, and the whey st...
-2. Cottage Cheese
Cottage Cheese. Use sour milk that has set. Other ingredients: salt to taste, cayenne pepper or paprika, if liked. Quality and flavor are improved by the addition of a table-spoonful of butter or two ...
-3. Cheese Cooked With Other Food Materials
Cheese Cooked With Other Food Materials. A creamy cheese should be selected for cooking. Cheese may be grated and sprinkled on the top of potato on the half shell, or any other mashed potato ; or it m...
-4. Cheese Crackers
Cheese Crackers. Select crackers of a firm quality that will not crumble or flake easily, and of a small size. Spread very thinly with soft butter, put the crackers in a pan, and sprinkle grated chees...
-Chapter X. The Fats And The Sugars
Fats are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, but have much more carbon than the other kinds of foodstuffs. Notice in Fig. 46 that olive oil and lard are pure fats the other fat foods containing ...
-Fat As A Food
Beef fat, as it occurs with lean, is a digestible fat. If thoroughly browned in the cooking process, it is most palatable, and the taste for it should be cultivated. In gravy, it may be used with pota...
-Fat As A Cooking Medium
Fat is necessary for the saute, and for deep fat frying. For deep fat frying several prep-arations are made from cottonseed oil that are agreeable to use and of moderate price. Lard has been the mo...
-Cooking The Fats And The Sugars
Fat melts at a low temperature. At about 350 F. it begins to smoke. At a higher temperature, a chemical change takes place, and the fat finally burns, as the hydrogen and oxygen pass off....
-2. To Mold Butter
To Mold Butter. A pair of wooden butter pats is necessary for this. Dip these first into hot water, then into cold. Cut off a square piece of butter, enough for one person, make it flat or round with ...
-3. To Cook Bacon
To Cook Bacon. Bacon has alternate layers of fat and lean, but it is the fat that has chief consideration in the cooking process. The aim is to brown and crisp the fat without burning it and without c...
-The Making Of Sauces And Gravies
Many sauces and gravies are made from a fat, mixed with a starchy substance, the two mingled with a liquid. The fat gives flavor and nutriment, the starch is used for thickening, the liquid also gives...
-The Sugars
Sugars are of common occurrence in the vegetable world in the fruits and juices of many plants. Pure grape juice may contain as high as 25 per cent of glucose though usually it is not so concentrated....
-Candy, Homemade And Purchased
Candy, if not eaten between meals, is an allowable form of sugar. The best time for eating it is at the end of a meal, one or two pieces. Even in this case, however, it would be better for the body if...
-8. Peanut Brittle
Ingredients. Sugar Salt Peanuts 2 cups 1/4 teaspoonful 1 quart Method Shell the peanuts and chop them in small pieces. Put the sugar in a saucepan and place over a moderate fir...
-9. Fudge
Ingredients. Sugar Cream of tartar Chocolate Milk or water Vanilla 2 cups 1/8 teaspoonful 2 squares 1 cup 1 teaspoonful Method Mix the first four ingredients and place...
-10. Penocha
Ingredients. Brown sugar Butter Milk, cream, or water Cream of tartar Vanilla 2 cups 2 tablespoonfuls 1 cup 1/8 teaspoon or less 1 teaspoon Method As with recipe 9....
-11. Fondant for French creams
Ingredients. Sugar Cream of tartar Boiling water 2 cups 1/8 teaspoonful 2/3 cup Method Mix the sugar and cream of tartar. Add the boiling water and place over a moderate fire, stirri...
-Chapter XI. Muffins, Biscuit, Cake, And Pastry
Wheat flour is the important material in this group, but muffins and biscuit may be varied by the use of corn meal, rye, and Graham flour, and cooked cereals may also be utilized. The ingredients are ...
-Carbon Dioxide Gas
This is introduced in three ways. (1) By using an acid with a carbonate. (2) By yeast fermentation. (3) By machinery. Yeast fermentation is studied in the chapter on bread making (Chapter ...
-Baking Powder
The first baking powders were made of cream of tartar and bicarbonate of soda, mixed with a starch, to prevent the slight chemical action which would cause the powder to lose strength; and these two s...
-The Proportions Of The Main Ingredients
Attempts are made to define the degrees of stiffness of batters and doughs, but these distinctions are not very accurate. A pour batter is liquid enough to pour, and a dough batter soft enough to ...
-Methods Of Mixing
(1) For popovers, griddlecakes, muffins, and plain cake. Sift together the dry ingredients. Beat the eggs, without separating the yolk and white, and stir the eggs and milk together. Pour the...
-A. Experiments with baking powder
1. Dissolve half a teaspoonful of baking powder in two table-spoonfuls of water and heat in a test tube, or saucepan, over a flame; notice the effervescence when the bubbling is at its height, and hol...
-B. Oven experiments
If one oven in the school kitchen can be equipped with a chemical thermometer inserted in the oven, the following experiments are helpful. 1. Let each pupil test the oven by feeling, when it has re...
-I. Popovers, puffovers, or mahogany cakes
Ingredients for 12. Flour Milk Eggs Salt 1 pint 1 pint 1/2 teaspoonful Some rules give two eggs only. For baking, heavy earthen cups, hot and greased. Method of mixing is No. 1. ...
-2. Plain muffins
Ingredients for 12. Flour Baking powder Salt Eggs Milk Butter, or butter substitute Sugar, if desired 1 pint 3 teaspoonfuls 1/2 teaspoonful 2 or 1 1 1/4 cup 1 tablespoonful 1 tablesp...
-3. Baking powder biscuit
Ingredients. Flour Baking powder Salt Butter, or butter substitute Milk 1 pint 3 teaspoonfuls 1/2 teaspoonful 1 or 2 tablespoonfuls 1 scant cup For shaping, molding bo...
-4. Sour milk griddlecakes
Ingredients. Flour Salt Melted butter Sour milk Soda Egg 2 1/2 cups 1/2 teaspoonful 2 tablespoonfuls 2 cups 1 1/4 teaspoonfuls Method Mix dry ingredients. Add so...
-5. Sweet milk griddlecakes. Ingredients
Flour Baking powder Salt Sugar Milk Egg Melted butter 3 cups 4 teaspoonfuls 1 teaspoonful 1/4 cup 2 cups 1 2 tablespoonfuls Method Mix dry ingredients. Beat egg ...
-6. Cookies
Cookies. Cookies may be plain, or rich in butter; crisp and thin, or soft and thick. They may be sweetened with sugar, or molasses, and spiced in various ways. It would be an interesting exercise to t...
-7. Butter Cake
Butter Cake. A foundation recipe. Learn to make one cake well, and vary it by changing the forms and flavors. Ingredients. Butter Sugar Eggs Milk Flour Baking powder Salt 1/...
-8. Sponge Cake
Sponge Cake. The old-time sponge cake is given on page 173. Sponge cakes should be baked in a very moderate oven, below 380 F., the bread temperature. (See Fig. 50.) Fig. 50. - A loaf of...
-10. Plain gingerbread
Ingredients. Molasses Boiling water Flour Soda Ginger Salt Butter 1 cup 1/2 cup 2 1/2 cups 1 teaspoonful 1 1/2 teaspoonfuls 1/2 teaspoonful 4 tablespoonfuls ...
-Pastry
Pastry is a stiff dough with a large proportion of shortening, and is flaky when baked rather than porous. Pastry and pies should not be used as a staple food, but when well made and properly masticat...
-3. Method of Pastry Shaping
For Plain Crust Cut off 1/2 of the roll of crust. Roll out to about 1/8 inch thickness. Have a deep dish ready containing either the apple or meat fillings (see recipes below) and with the edge of ...
-12. Apple pie filling
Use juicy, tart apples. Pare, cut in quarters, core, and slice apples into pie dish, filling it heaping full. Add 1/4 cup water and 1/2 cup sugar. Any flavor desired may be used, lemon rind, or spices...
-13. Lemon pie filling
Ingredients. 1 heaping tablespoonful cornstarch mixed with A little cold water Large cup hot water Piece butter the size of walnut 1 cup sugar 1 egg whole, or yolks of 2 eggs Juice and rind of 1...
-14. Meat or chicken pie
Use left-over, cooked meat. Cut the meat into dice or small bits and fill the dish. Sprinkle with salt and moisten with gravy, if possible. If not, add 1 cup hot water and dredge lightly with flour. H...
-Chapter XII. Yeast Bread
Yeast bread when well made is a food of which the palate never tires, and it is usually recognized as a part of every well-planned meal. The quick breads are a convenient substitute at times, but they...
-Chapter XII. Yeast Bread. Continued
Note These two score cards are the average or the work or sixty students in judging bread in experimental cookery, Department of Foods and Cookery, Teachers College, Columbia University. See also B...
-The Cost Of Bread
The table in Chapter XVII (The Cost And Purchasing Of Food) states the amount of protein and energy obtained for ten cents from bread as compared with other common foods, and makes the fact clear that...
-The Ingredients Of Bread
The essential ingredients are flour, water, and yeast. The liquid may be milk, or milk and water, the milk changing the flavor slightly and increasing the nutritive value, while the cream in the milk ...
-The Characteristics Of Good Flour
The average composition of flour is as follows: Protein....... Fat......... Carbohydrate..... Fuel value...... 11.4 per cent 1.0 75.1 1610 Cal. per pound 100-Calorie portion 28 gr...
-Manufacture Of Flour
Modern machinery has taken the place of the old-time stones in the grinding of flour, although the two main divisions of the process remain the same, these being the crushing of the grain and the sift...
-Other Forms Of Flour
There has been much discussion of entire wheat flour versus white flour, and the practical conclusions are as follows: the bread from whole wheat flour compares favorably with that from white flour (s...
-Yeast In Bread
Yeast is put into bread dough in order to produce carbon dioxide gas to lighten the whole mass. It is studied in the chapter on preservation of fruit, but in bread making we need to foster its growth ...
-Proportions Of The Bread Ingredients
One part of water to three of flour, or one cup to three of flour for a loaf, is an average proportion. The practiced bread maker will vary this slightly to suit the variations in the flour from time ...
-Methods Of Mixing And The Rising Of Bread
Dissolve the yeast in a portion of the liquid, stir this mixture into the remaining liquid, add half the flour, and beat the mixture thoroughly at this stage. Add the sugar if any is to be used. When ...
-Baking The Bread
The temperature of the oven should be steady, and about 380 F. An authority recommends 180 C. (355 F.) when the loaf is put in, rising to 220 C. (425 F.).1 The amount of flour...
-A. Experiment with Gluten
Materials 1 cup of flour, a 10-inch square of cheesecloth, a piece of string, a pan or tin or granite plate. Method Tie the flour in the cheesecloth, and wash it, preferably under the faucet,...
-2. Milk bread
Proportions. Milk Butter Sugar Salt Yeast Sifted flour 2 cups 2 tablespoonfuls 1 tablespoonful 1 1/2 teaspoonfuls 1 cake dissolved in 1/4 cup luke warm water 6 cups Special Method...
-3. Entire Wheat Bread
Proportions. Scalded milk Sugar or Molasses Salt Yeast Entire wheat flour 2 cups 1/4 cup 1/3 cup 1 teaspoonful 1 cake dissolved in 1/4 cup luke-warm water 4 2/3 cups Special Metho...
-4. Parker House rolls
Proportions. Scalded milk Butter Sugar Salt Yeast Flour 2 cups 3 tablespoonfuls 2 tablespoonfuls 1 teaspoonful 1 cake dissolved in 1/4 cup lukewarm water Special Method ...
-5. Buns
Proportions. Scalded milk Butter Sugar Salt Raisins cut in quarters Yeast Ext. lemon 1 cup 1/3 cup 1/3 cup 1/2 teaspoonful 1 cup 1 cake dissolved in 1/4 cup luke...
-6. German coffee bread
Proportions. Scalded milk Butter Sugar Salt Egg Yeast Raisins stoned and cut in pieces Flour 1 cup 1/3 cup 1/4 cup 2 teaspoonful 1 1 cake dissolved in 1/4 cup lukewarm...
-7. Toast
Toast. Directions for making toast will be found in Chapter IV (Food Preparation, The Principles And Technique). To Serve Toast Toast should be served as soon as it is made, if possible, and...
-8. The Sandwich
The Sandwich. The sandwich is a convenient way of serving bread and other foods away from the table, for picnics, teas, and receptions. To Prepare The Bread Either white or brown bread may b...
-9. Croutons
Croutons. Cut a slice of bread a day old 1/2 inch thick. Spread with soft butter, cut off the crust, put the slices in a pan, cut in cubes and set the pan in the oven until the croutons are brown. ...
-Chapter XIII. Meats And Poultry
The meats that we commonly use are derived from the flesh of domestic and wild animals of herbiverous habits and from fowls. The flesh of carnivorous animals is seldom used as food. The various kinds ...
-Tough And Tender Meat
To understand the difference between the tough and tender cuts we must be familiar with the structure of the muscle (see Fig. 57). Each muscle consists of bundles of tubes held together by connective ...
-Meat Composition And Nutritive Value
Figure 64 shows you the composition of several common meats. Meat is valuable chiefly for its protein, fat, and mineral salts. The juices of the meat in the muscle cells contain nitrogenous extractive...
-Table Showing 100-Calorie Portions Of Raw Edible Meat
Meat Lean Medium Fat Weight, Ounces Weight, Ounces Beef, round..........................................................
-Dangers From Meat
Three dangers from meat must be recognized; (1) animal parasites, such as the trichina sometimes found in pork, (2) poisons developed in the meat by bacteria when it is kept too long or without suffic...
-The Effect Of Heat Upon Meat
The fat of meat is melted by heat. The meat fiber shrinks and hardens with intense heat; on the other hand it softens at a temperature somewhat below the boiling point of water. The structure of the m...
-Flavors Suitable With Meat
Herbs. All the pot herbs including savory, marjoram, thyme, sage, pot marigold. Vegetables. Onion, carrot, turnip, celery, celery root, parsley root and leaf. Spices. Clove, allspice, mustard, r...
-Meat Experiments And Recipes
Experiment A Chop finely a small piece of meat, squeeze out the juice with a lemon squeezer and heat this juice in a saucepan. Observe the coagulation that takes place. Experiment B (...
-Broiled Steak
(1) Wipe steak with a damp cloth. If a wood or coal stove is used, have a bed of glowing coals ready. If gas is used, have the gas broiler thoroughly heated. Grease the bars of the broiler. Place stea...
-2. Roast Of Beef
Roast Of Beef. Wipe roast with a damp cloth. Sprinkle with salt and dredge with flour. Place in a roasting pan, fat side up if it is a standing roast. Put the roast in a very hot oven and after fiftee...
-3. Bouillon
Shin of beef Cold water Peppercorns Cloves Bay leaf Thyme Marjoram 6 pounds 3 quarts 1/2 teaspoonful 1/2 3 sprigs 1 sprig Parsley Carrot Turnip Onion Celery ...
-4. General Directions For Meat Soups
Soup making is an art that is well worth cultivating. The expert soup maker will obtain delicious flavors by adding bits of many kinds of left overs - almost anything that is found in the refrigerator...
-5. Beef Stew With Dumplings. Lean Meat Potatoes
Turnip Carrot Onion Flour Salt Pepper 3 pounds 4 cups, cut in 1/4 inch slices 2/3 cup each, cut in half inch cubes 1/2 small one, cut in thin slices 1/4 cup Wipe meat, out i...
-6. Dumplings
Flour Baking powder Salt Butter Milk 2 cups 4 teaspoonfuls 1/2 teaspoonful 2 teaspoonfuls 7/8 cup Mix and sift dry ingredients. Work in butter with a knife, add milk gradually. Re...
-7. Uses Of Left Over Meat
(1) Rissoles Run meat together with small piece of onion through a chopper. Add salt, pepper, a little cold cereal, or bread crumbs, and beaten egg, allowing one egg to about a pound of meat. Shape...
-Poultry
In selecting poultry see that the flesh is firm, that there is a good amount of fat underneath the skin, and that the skin is whole and a good yellow. Notice the odor of the fowl particularly. The ski...
-1. Roast Chicken
Dress and clean a chicken. Fill the cavity with stuffing and sew edges together. Truss chicken and place on its back in a roasting pan. Rub surface with salt and spread breast and legs with butter. Dr...
-2. Chicken Fricassee
Clean and cut up a fowl. Cover with boiling water and let boil 5 minutes. Simmer until meat is tender. Remove chicken from kettle and place pieces in hot, greased frying pan. Saute until browned. Put ...
-Preserved Meats And Poultry
Smoked and salted meats are valuable foods, although the nutritive content is somewhat less available for digestion. The salted and smoked meats need long and slow cooking below the boiling temperatur...
-Other Parts Of Meat And Poultry
Some of the internal organs of the animals and fowl are used for food. Most of them are comparatively cheap, and may be made palatable. The liver and kidneys are organs having to do with the waste ...
-Chapter XIV. Fish, Shellfish, And Other Meat Substitutes
Fish and shellfish are valuable assets as food, so much so that the government has a Bureau of Fisheries, and has established stations at intervals on the coast and on inland lakes for the study and p...
-Quality Of Fish
Fish deteriorates and decomposes much more rapidly than meat, and is at its best when cleaned and cooked just after being caught. Ice will preserve fish for a short time only. If ever on a camping tri...
-Fish Methods And Recipes
The scaling and cleaning of fish are important first steps. In the city this may be done for you at the market, but sometimes on fishing expeditions when you are not a successful fisher you may make y...
-1. Boiled Fish
Use thick pieces of large fish for boiling, or if small fish are used they may be boiled whole. Add salt and vinegar to water in proportion of 1 tablespoonful of salt and two of vinegar to three quart...
-Mock Hollandaise Sauce
Butter Flour Eggs Milk Salt Lemon 3 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls 2 cups 1 teaspoonful 1/2 to 1. Make as for white sauce, adding the beaten eggs just before taking from fire and st...
-2. Left Over Fish
Left Over Fish. Fish may be picked apart, mixed with cream sauce, and served as creamed fish or served as an escallop. ...
-Escalloped Fish
2 cups left over fish, picked over and freed of bones. 1 cup thin white sauce, dried bread crumbs buttered. Butter a baking dish and line with crumbs. Add a layer of fish, using half, and cover wit...
-To Butter Crumbs
Melt a little butter in a saucepan and turn the crumbs in, stirring them over and over with a spoon until all the crumbs are coated. ...
-3. Baked Fish
Baked Fish. Almost any medium sized fish is suitable for baking. The favorites are bluefish, shad, haddock, and halibut, sliced. Clean the fish, seeing that all scales are removed. Stuff and sew. S...
-Fish Stuffing
Dried crumbs Melted butter Salt Pepper Onion juice Parsley Capers Pickles 1 cup 1/2 cup 1/4 teaspoonful 1/8 teaspoonful A few drops 1 teaspoonful each, finely chopped Mix...
-4. Creamed Codfish
Soak the fish in cold water, and pull it apart with knife and fork. Put it in a saucepan of cold water, allow the water to heat slowly, and stop the heating just before the water reaches the boiling p...
-5. Codfish Balls Or Cakes
Ingredients. Codfish, picked Potatoes, cut in cubes Egg Salt, if needed Flour for dredging 1 cup 2 cups 1 to taste Method. Put the fish and potatoes in a stewpan, cover with co...
-Shellfish
The shellfish are of two classes; the mollusks including clams, mussels (seldom used in this country), oysters, and scallops, and the crustaceans, - lobsters and crabs. None of the mollusks have high ...
-100-Calorie Portions Of Fish And Shellfish, Fresh Fish
Kind Weight of 100-Calorie Portion As Purchased (Entrails Removed) Edible Material Ounces Ounces ...
-Salt Or Smoked Fish
Cod, Salt...... 4.4 3.4 Herring, Smoked................. 2.2 1.2 Halibut, Smoked.................. ...
-Preserved Fish And Shellfish
Smoking and salting are two old-time methods that are still in use, and smoked salmon, herring, and finnan haddie furnish us well-flavored foods at a reasonable price. Small smoked herring are eaten u...
-Preserved Fish Methods And Recipes
General Directions All fish and shellfish should be thoroughly cleansed in cold water before using, and under running water when possible. Wash oysters, clams, and scallops in a colander or straine...
-2. Creamed Oysters
Creamed Oysters. Clean oysters of all pieces of shell. Cook them below the boiling point for a few minutes until plump and edges begin to curl. Drain and add to white sauce seasoned with celery salt. ...
-3. Sauted Oysters
Sauted Oysters. Clean one pint of oysters, sprinkle on both sides with salt and pepper. Lift by the tough muscle with a fork and dip on both sides in cracker crumbs and saute in butter until well brow...
-5. To Prepare Lobster And Crabs For Serving
To Prepare Lobster And Crabs For Serving. Make ready a large kettle of rapidly boiling water. Wrap a piece of paper around the lobster or crab, and plunge it head downward into the boiling water. Let ...
-Meat Substitutes
Among these, beans, peas, lentils, eggs, milk, and cheese have already been mentioned. Fish is classed also as a meat substitute. ...
-Nuts
These are a valuable meat substitute, some of them having a good protein content, and a high fat content as well. (See Fig. 66.) They may be served raw for dessert, with some fruit either fresh or dri...
-Fish Exercises
1. What is the chief food value of fish? 2. Compare the composition of fish and meat. 3. What are the causes influencing the flavor and quality of fish? 4. What precautions may be taken to pr...
-Chapter XV. Salads And Desserts
Salads and desserts are sometimes looked upon as luxuries, and something to be omitted where people must exercise strict economy, and as more or less indigestible forms of food to be avoided. As a mat...
-Salad Methods And Recipes
General Directions The two important points in the preparation of the material for salad are, first, that everything should be thoroughly dry, and, second, thoroughly chilled. The importance of the...
-1. French Dressing
Ingredients. Salt Pepper Vinegar Olive oil 1/2 teaspoonful 1/4 teaspoonful 2 tablespoonfuls 4 tablespoonfuls Method. Mix the salt, pepper, and vinegar and stir in the olive oil slowly. A f...
-2. Mayonnaise Dressing
Ingredients. Mustard Salt Powdered sugar A few grains of cayenne Eggs Lemon juice Vinegar Olive oil 1 teaspoonful 1 teaspoonful 1 teaspoonful Yolks of 2 2 tablespoo...
-3. Boiled Dressing
Ingredients. Eggs Mustard Salt Sugar Vinegar Hot water Butter 1/2 teaspoonful 1/2 tablespoonful 1/2 tablespoonful 3 tablespoonfuls 1/2 cup 1 tablespoonful A few grains of cayenne Method. M...
-4. Potato Salad
Ingredients. Potatoes, cold boiled or baked Parsley or onion juice Egg, hard boiled, olives, pickled beets, etc. French dressing Method. Cut the cold-boiled or baked potatoes into 1/2-i...
-5. Chicken Salad
Ingredients. Cold-boiled or roast fowl Celery, 1/2 as much as fowl French dressing Mayonnaise or boiled dressing Olives Method. Cut cold-boiled or roast fowl in 1/2-inch cubes. Add to this...
-6. Waldorf Salad
Ingredients. Apples, tart and juicy Celery, 1/2 as much as apples Mayonnaise dressing Lettuce leaves Method. Select tart, juicy apples. Cut in quarters, pare and core and cut in 1/2-inc...
-7. Stuffed Tomato Salad
Ingredients. Tomatoes, medium sized Boiling water Salt Cucumbers (or celery) Mayonnaise dressing Lettuce leaves Method. Cover medium sized tomatoes with boiling water for a minute...
-Desserts
The dessert in this country includes the sweet dish, or the fruit at the end of the meal. In simple meals the dessert is usually one of the two, although in more elaborate meals fruit is served after ...
-1. Boiled Custard
Ingredients. Milk Sugar Eggs Vanilla Salt 1 pt. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 1/2 teaspoonful 1/8 teaspoonful Method. Put the milk, sugar, and salt in a double boiler to scald. Separate the eggs a...
-2. Baked Custard
Ingredients. Milk Sugar Salt Eggs Lemon or Vanilla l pt. 2 tablespoonfuls 1/8 teaspoonful 2 1/2 teaspoonful Method. Scald the milk, sugar, and salt together. Beat the egg...
-3. Chocolate Sauce
Ingredients. Chocolate Sugar Boiling water Cream 1 square 1/4 cup 1/2 cup 1/2 cup Method. Mix the chocolate, boiling water, and sugar together and stir over the fire until smooth and th...
-4. Caramel Flavoring
Ingredients. Sugar Boiling water 2 cups 1 cup Method. Pour the sugar into a saucepan and stir over the fire until it becomes a thick brown sirup. Pour the boiling water on this and leave o...
-5. Shortcake
Ingredients. Flour Baking powder Salt Butter or One half butter and one half lard. Milk 1 cup 1 teaspoonful 1/4 teaspoonful 4 tablespoonfuls 1/2 cup Method. Mix dry ingre...
-6. Steamed Pudding
Ingredients. Suet chopped Raisins, currants, and citron sliced Egg Sweet milk Molasses Soda Salt Flour 1 cup 1 cup 1 1 cup 1/2 cup 1 teaspoonful 1/4 teaspoonful 3 1/2 ...
-7. Brown Betty Or Apple Scallop
Ingredients. Buttered crumbs Tart cooking apples Sugar Cinnamon A little water Teacher's Note Individual shortcakes may be made by using a stiffer dough and rolling and cutting them like bisc...
-8. Hard Sauce
Ingredients. Butter Powdered sugar Lemon extract or Vanilla Nutmeg 1/3 cup 1 cup 1/3 teaspoonful 2/3 teaspoonful Method. Cream the butter; add sugar gradually, and flavoring. G...
-9. Foamy Sauce
Ingredients. Butter Powdered sugar Egg Vanilla 1/2 cup 1 cup 1 teaspoonful Method. Cream the butter, add gradually the sugar, the egg well beaten, and vanilla. Beat while heating ove...
-10. Tapioca Cream
Ingredients. Pearl tapioca or Minute tapioca. Scalded milk Eggs Sugar Salt Vanilla 1/2 cup 1 1/2 tablespoonfuls 2 cups 2, or 1 1/3 cup 1/4 teaspoonful 1/2 teaspo...
-11. Apple Tapioca
Ingredients. Minute tapioca Lemon peel Boiling water Salt Tart apples Sugar 3/4 cup 2 1/2 cups 1/2 teaspoonful 1/2 cup Method. Cook the tapioca in salt water until ...
-12. Lemon Jelly
Ingredients. Shredded gelatin or Granulated gelatin Lemon juice Cold water Boiling water Sugar 1/2 box 2 tablespoonfuls 1/2 cup 1/2 cup 2 1/2 cups 1 cup Method. Soak the gelatin in cold...
-13. Snow Pudding
Ingredients. Granulated gelatin Cold water Boiling water Sugar Lemon juice Eggs 1 tablespoonful 1/2 cup 1 cup 1 cup 1/4 CUP Whites of 3 Method. Mix as for lemon jelly. Set aside i...
-Frozen Mixtures
There are some interesting principles to note here. The freezing is accomplished by using a mixture of chopped ice and rock salt. Can you explain how this reduces the temperature? Another interesti...
-Method of Freezing
There are many patterns of ice cream freezers that are well constructed and inexpensive. They are sold by the size, a 2 quart freezer giving you 2 quarts of the frozen cream. See that the crank is oil...
-14. American Ice Cream
(a) Ingredients. Cream Sugar Vanilla 1 quart 3/4 cup 1 tablespoonful Method. Mix ingredients and freeze. (b) Ingredients. Milk Flour Egg Sugar Salt-Cream Vanilla 1 pint 1 table...
-15. French Ice Cream
Ingredients. Cream Milk Eggs Sugar Vanilla 1 quart 1 quart 4 or 6 to 8 yolks 1 1/2 cups 2 tablespoonfuls Method. Make a custard of milk, eggs, sugar, and vanilla. Add ...
-16. Milk Sherbet
Ingredients. Milk Sugar Lemons 4 cups 1 1/2 cups Juice of 3 Method. Mix juice and sugar, stirring constantly while slowly adding milk. If the mixture should curdle, this will disappe...
-17. Raspberry Ice
Ingredients Water Sugar Raspberry juice Lemon juice 4 cups 1 2/3 cups 2 cups 2 tablespoonfuls Method. Make a sirup by boiling water and sugar twenty minutes, add raspberry juic...
-18. Strawberry Mousse
Ingredients. Cream Strawberries Sugar Granulated gelatin Cold water Hot water 1 quart 1 box 1 cup 1 1/4 tablespoonfuls 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Method. Wash and hull b...
-Chapter XVI. Preparation Of Meals And Table Service
The preparation of a number of dishes assembled for a meal requires a skill quite different from that necessary for the making of a single dish. A menu being decided upon, it needs an accurate sense o...
-Garnishing The Dish
All food must be neatly placed in the dish, and arranged or piled with some sort of symmetry, and this is the most that some people have time to do. Many foods may be served in the utensil or dish in ...
-Table Equipment And Service
This is a place where beauty is a large element, and most people understand the charm of a daintily laid table, as the family gathers for a meal. But many factors must be taken into account, for it is...
-The Dishes
Only a few practical suggestions can be given here. This is a topic for the art class. Buy from open stock. This means, not a single set, but a pattern that the manufacturer and retailer have alw...
-Setting The Table
The first principles here are to have everything clean and shining, and to lay everything straight. Have as little on the table as possible. It is not comfortable to have a large array of articles at ...
-Waiting On The Table
When we wait on ourselves, this should be done with cheerfulness, and all should take a share. After the food is on the table, one person can help one thing and one another. It is a good plan for t...
-Serving
Serve everything from the side table. Hold the dish to be served firmly in two hands with a napkin underneath, a tablespoon and fork being placed on the dish. Pass to the left of the guest, and hold t...
-The Number Of Courses
Two or three courses are enough for everyday comfort and health. In formal serving, it is good taste not to have too many. A first course of grapefruit or perhaps oyster cocktail, a soup, a fish cours...
-Carving
This is an art that used to be taught as an . accomplishment to girls, and it is not an easy matter to master. If not done at the table, it must nevertheless be well done. Watch a good carver, and ...
-Chapter XVII. The Cost And Purchasing Of Food
This is at all times an important matter, but the notable increase in food prices, during the last decade, has made it a matter of interest to all. The cost of food is one item only in the whole cost ...
-Chapter XVII. The Cost And Purchasing Of Food. Part 2
Demand And Supply The relation of demand to supply affects the price of food in a way not difficult to understand. Where the supply is permanently small and the demand widespread, the price of the ...
-Chapter XVII. The Cost And Purchasing Of Food. Part 3
Quality Of Food Poor food always costs less money than good food, but it may not be economy to buy it. There may be more usable material in one good apple at five cents than in three wormy ones for...
-Chapter XVII. The Cost And Purchasing Of Food. Part 4
Cost And Nutritive Value The discussion of cost has dealt so far with the cost of food materials as they are found in the market. What we are really seeking to learn is the amount of nutritive mate...
-Purchasing Food
In addition to the general principles of buying discussed in Chapter XXI (How To Shop And How To Buy) there are some details to be studied in purchasing food. Personal Attention In Buying Food ...
-Food Weights, Measures, And Packages
The buyer is at a disadvantage here in regard to quantities, for the baskets in which fruits and vegetables are sold do not always conform to the standard dry measures, and dishonest dealers evade the...
-Food Quality
Modern methods of manufacture, transportation, and storage make it difficult to determine the history and quality of food we purchase in the markets. Yet the consumer has a natural right to know if th...
-Ready-Cooked Foods
More and more cooked food, canned or otherwise, is taking its place in the market. When canned goods were first manufactured on a large scale they comprised fruits, vegetables, meats, and fish, but we...
-Chapter XVIII. Menus And Dietaries
When we have learned to choose and cook wholesome and appetizing food we have not solved the whole problem of successful feeding. It is possible to make people sick with good food, if it is badly sele...
-Energy Requirements Of Adults
We have also learned something about the foods which supply this energy; we must now find out how much fuel (in the form of food) it takes to do different amounts of work, just as the owner of an auto...
-Energy Requirements During Growth
In estimating food requirements of those who are under twenty-five years old, we must bear in mind that the same materials which serve for fuel serve in part for building material. Protein is used for...
-Protein Requirement
Since few of our foods consist of a single foodstuff, and we are not likely to make even a single meal on pure fat, or pure protein, or pure carbohydrate alone, we are sure to get some building materi...
-Ash Requirement
We are also assured of ash in any ordinary diet, but some attention should be paid to kind and amount, especially as many common foods have lost the parts richest in ash. Patent flour, for instance, m...
-Diet For Growth
Diets made in the chemical laboratory from mixtures of pure (isolated) protein, fat, carbohydrate, and ash to satisfy all the requirements which we have so far mentioned, do not behave alike when fed ...
-Diet For Growth. Part 2
The Number Of Meals In A Day Knowing how much and what kinds of food are best for each member of the family, we must next find out how to divide the total food for the day into meals. Few of us cou...
-Diet For Growth. Part 3
Balanced Meals Having determined how many meals to serve in the day and what their hours shall be, the next question is how to choose and distribute the constituents of the day's ration so as to pr...
-Diet For Growth. Part 4
Digestible Menus Some of our eating habits are worth preserving and cultivating. Fresh fruit for breakfast stimulates the appetite and helps to prevent or overcome constipation. A mild-flavored foo...
-Diet For Growth. Part 5
Food Requirements Members of Family Age Weight Pounds Total Calories Protein Calories Man...... 40 1...
-Diet For Growth. Part 6
Menu No. I Breakfast Oranges Flaked wheat Twice baked rolls and butter Milk for children Coffee for adults Luncheon Creamed salmon on toast Peas Graham bread and butter Stewed pea...
-Typical Breakfast Plans
Fruit Toast Beverage II Fruit Cereal Toast Beverage III Fruit Meat Toast Beverage IV Fruit Cereal Meat Toast Beverage Fruit Cereal Meat 1 other hot dish...
-The Cost Of The Dietary
The types of menu used will depend very largely upon the income of the family. * It is comparatively easy to plan attractive bills of fare if one does not have to consider the amount of work involved ...
-Feeding The Sick
When illness is serious enough for a physician to be consulted, he will give directions concerning the diet, and these should be scrupulously followed. If the case is so severe as to demand a trained ...
-Chapter XIX. The Household Budget
The divisions of the income for which we should provide are food, shelter, including taxes and operating expenses, clothing, and the higher life, including recreation, education, and savings. The si...
-Expenditure For Food
On examining the budgets of families having incomes from $500 to $5000, it is found that the percentage spent for food increases as the income decreases, amounting sometimes to at least 50 per cent of...
-Expenditure For Shelter
The increased cost of building and the general advance in rentals make the expenditure for shelter a large one. The question whether homes should be owned or rented is a vital one. Ownership is pos...
-Operating Expenses
The question of operating expense is closely associated with the selection of shelter and should be carefully considered with it in the division of the income. They are the expenses necessary to keep ...
-Clothing
A large proportion of the family income is spent on clothing. A knowledge of textiles and of purchasing is necessary in order to do this wisely and economically. Clothing is as necessary an expense as...
-The Higher Life
There are other needs of family life for which money must be spent besides the material ones of food, shelter, and clothing. In the division of some family incomes little thought is given to this phas...
-Savings
Something should be saved yearly even if at first it is but little. Small amounts put away regularly in a savings bank mount up to a considerable sum at compound interest, for regular saving is the on...
-Allowances
Each member of the family should have a personal allowance, even though it is small. One mother gave each of her children five cents a week, beginning at five years of age, and increasing a cent a wee...
-Suggested And Typical Budgets
In preparation for the division of one's income it is helpful to study the budgets of other families or individuals. Mrs. Richards in her book on The Cost of Living gives a theoretical division of i...
-Suggested Budgets
Family Income Percentage fob Food Rent Operating Expenses, Wages, Fuel, Light, etc. Clothes --------------------------- ...
-Suggested Budgets. Continued
Typical Budgets1 Average Income $650 Average Income $748 Average Income $846 Rent..........................................................
-Chapter XX. System In Management
The housekeeper should learn to use the labor-saving devices for her records that are now employed so largely in the world of business. This equipment should include a desk with fittings for systemati...
-Keeping Of Accounts
This has been called by many, drudgery and tedious routine. Many business men go through much such drudgery to attain their goals, why should not the housewife be willing to make a similar sacrifice i...
-Keeping Of Accounts. Continued
Form II Jan. Feb. March April Mat June Butcher . . . . ...
-Methods Of Payment
Payment is either immediate, known as spot cash, or deferred. If deferred, the articles purchased are charged by the dealer, and a bill rendered the first of each month. When a charge account is ope...
-The Bank Account And Check Book
Whether payment is immediate or deferred, payment by check is a great convenience. It saves time and is also a record of money paid. Select a bank, conveniently located, and recommended by a conser...
-Chapter XXI. How To Shop and How to Buy
The first rule in good buying is to know standard quality in your intended purchase, for then you need not be dependent upon the salesman. The second is to know your own needs, that you may not be beg...
-Purchasing Of Clothing And Household Textiles
Experience is a good teacher, but knowledge so gained is often paid for at high price. It seems an easier way, with much saving of time, money, and energy, for girls to learn beforehand what to guard ...
-Chapter XXII. Housewifery
This old-fashioned word is used here to include the methods and processes connected with the actual work of the house, excepting the cookery, sewing, and laundering, which have fuller treatment elsewh...
-Order In Work And Division Of Labor
This depends so largely upon the number of workers, and upon the equipment of the house that no definite plan can be made for all. The question must be differently answered for the woman who has a hel...
-Equipment
Brooms should be made of pliable straw (broom corn), be evenly made, with a light and comfortable handle. Brushes may include the whisk broom, soft brush of bristles both short and long handled for...
-Cleaning Cloths
Have a good supply of cheesecloth dusters, and heavier cloth for work on the floors. A sponge and chamois are useful. The mop, which is a cloth or fiber fabric on a handle, is something that we ought ...
-Methods Of Cleaning
We must first consider what the substance is that has to be removed. The fabrics and upholstery used in furnishing catch dust which contains lint, grit, organic material from our bodies, and bacteria....
-To Clean Fabrics
If you live in a suburb or in the country, brush, shake, and beat articles to be cleaned out of doors, noticing the way of the wind that the dust may not be carried back into the house. To cleanse ...
-To Clean Metals
Fine silver and plated ware should be kept polished by the daily careful washing, rinsing in hot water. Silver will spot and tarnish. Use whiting and alcohol, let it dry on, and rub off with a clean c...
-Care Of Rooms
The bedroom. - The daily care includes airing the room and its closets, airing and making the bed, dusting, removing lint and threads from the floor, and removing slops and bringing fresh water if bat...
-Care Of Lamps
If kerosene is used, this is an important feature of housework. Have a tray for holding necessary articles, soft cloth, paper, strong, sharp scissors, lamp chimney brush. When the lamp is to be cle...
-Household Insects
Keep out flies and mosquitoes by screens, but see first that your premises are clean, and do what you can in the whole neighborhood. Flies breed in dirty stables and mosquitoes in standing water. T...
-Precautions Against Fire
So many disastrous fires occur as a result of a careless act that we need to train ourselves in caution. The matches used should be of the safety type. They should be blown out, never shaken, and neve...
-Repairs
Too often in planning the budget, and the daily work, the housekeeper forgets to allow for the constant wear and tear on the house itself, and its furnishings; but to preserve the beauty and usefulnes...
-Chapter XXIII. Laundering And Dry Cleansing
Washing is a necessity, ironing a luxury. This terse sentence expresses very clearly the relative value of the two large divisions of the laundering process. The thorough washing of clothing is a mo...
-Cleansing Agents
Water is the great cleanser, and if it is not available in abundance and used freely, the washing is a failure. All other agents are merely aids to the water or substitutes for it. In primitive outdoo...
-Bleaching And Bluing Agents
The sun, as it bleaches white fabrics, may be counted in this group. Chemical bleaches are used to whiten clothes, but should not be re-sorted to unless clothes are yellow from poor washing, as in the...
-To Make Starch
For method of making, see starch experiments, Chapter VIII (Cereal Products). The starch must be perfectly smooth, and should be stirred while it is boiling for a few minutes, and strained. Proportion...
-Laundry Equipment
We are beginning to realize that a separate room for laundering purposes is an essential in a well-equipped home. Such a laundry will be light and well ventilated, will have washable floors, walls, an...
-Equipment For Forcing Water
The rubbing board is the old-time method, yet it wears the fabric and wears out the worker, and should be used as little as possible. If still considered necessary, it should be of glass set in wood. ...
-The Boiler
A portable boiler is convenient. It should be made of good quality tin with copper bottom and must be thoroughly washed and dried after using. The wringer is of great assistance to good work. It sh...
-The Drier
If clothesline or heavy wire is used, this must be of good quality, and well cared for. The clothesline should be taken in after each using. A revolving drier is convenient, and may even be used in ap...
-Irons
The hand iron is heated in several different ways. The old-fashioned iron heated on the stove, and the electric iron are the most satisfactory. In buying hand irons, select those of good weight, for t...
-The Mangle
Small mangles, used either cold or heated, are now made for family use, and are great labor savers in flat work. Towels and small flat pieces may even be put through the wringer, while they are still ...
-The Ironing Board
This should be firm, well padded, and covered with clean cloth. The cover may be made to tie on so that it can be easily changed. Ironing boards should be placed in a good light. Boards may be attache...
-Other Apparatus
A hamper or bag for soiled clothes, a basket for clean, pail and dipper, a clothes stick, a large pan, a small and a large saucepan, a teakettle for boiling water, a knife, wooden spoon, common spoons...
-Removing Stains
Mending and removing spots from fabrics are discussed in Shelter and Clothing. A few common stains are removed as follows : Fruit And Coffee Stains Hold the spotted fabric tightly over a b...
-Commercial Laundries
The convenience of these has been suggested already. When we can make them all sanitary, and when methods are used that will not injure the fabric, we can safely put this kind of work out of the house...
-Dry Cleaning
This is accomplished by gasoline, naphtha, or benzine, and should not be attempted by the city dweller. In the country or suburbs, it should be done out of doors, far from any source of fire. Use a ba...
-Appendix. Classification Of Foodstuffs
Elements required by the body Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Sulphur Phosphorus Iron Calcium Magnesium Potassium Sodium Chlorine Iodine (traces) Fluorine (traces) Sil...
-Digestion Of Carbohydrate
The simplest carbohydrate is a sugar which cannot be broken up into other sugars. Such a simple sugar is called a monosaccharid. There are two common in foods, glucose and fructose; a third, galactose...
-Digestion Of Fat
A fat is made up of two parts, one a fatty acid, the other glycerol. Fat cannot be absorbed by the body until it is split into these two parts. A fat splitting enzyme is called a lipase. There is none...
-Digestion Of Protein
There are no enzymes in the mouth acting on protein. In the stomach, the hydrochloric acid helps to make it soften and swell, and then pepsin begins its digestion. Protein, like fat and carbohydrate, ...
-Fats Of The Absorbed Foodstuffs
Carbohydrates, absorbed as glucose or other monosaccharids, are carried by the portal blood to the liver, and thence passed into the blood, to be burned in the muscles, if needed for fuel, or stored t...
-Table I Edible Organic Nutrients And Fuel Values Of Foods
Food Protein (N X 6.25) Per Cent Fat Per Cent Carbo-hydrate Per Cent Fuel Value Per Pound Calories 100-CalORIE P...
-Table I Edible Organic Nutrients And Fuel Values Of Foods. Continued
Note 1 Adapted from Table I, Appendix, Chemistry of Food and Nutrition, Sherman. See this volume for more complete list. Also Bulletin 28, Office of Experiment Stations, U. S. Department of Agric...
-Books
Chemistry and its Relations to Daily Life By LOUIS KAHLENBERG and EDWIN B. HART Professors of Chemistry in the University of Wisconsin Cloth, 12mo, illustrated, 393 pages. List price, $1.25 ...
-Books. Continued
Botany for Secondary Schools By L. H. BAILEY Of Cornell University Cloth, 12mo, illustrated, 460 pages. List price, $1.25 It is not essential nor desirable that everybody should become a b...









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