- The particle almost invariably lodges under the upper lid, adhering to it. If that lid is grasped by the thumb and finger, drawn outward and then downward, and then released, the lashes of the lower lid act as brush, and sweep off the intruder. If, however, it adheres to the eye-ball, it may be removed by rolling the upper lid over a knitting-needle, and holding it there in such a position as to expose the surface, when the particle can be removed by the corner of a handkerchief. Sometimes it may become imbedded in the membrane which covers the eye-'ball, or eye-lid, and require the aid of a surgeon. Never use any of the eyewaters, lotions, or salves, advertised as popular. A particle of lime in the eye is very dangerous, and vinegar diluted with water should be applied at once; even when done immediately the eye will be seriously inflamed.
Shock or Collapse from lightning, sudden and severe injuries, burns extending over a large extent of surface, or powerful emotions, produces something analogous to fainting. Place the patient flat on the back, with the head raised not more than an inch, and give a tea-spoon of brandy in a table-spoon of water, every minute for six or eight minutes. If the temperature of the body has been raised, and the action of the heart is restored, enough has been given. Application of heat to the stomach and extremities is useful. The nausea and vomiting that sometimes accompany it. may be allayed by swallowing whole small chips of ice. split off by standing a piece with grain upright and splitting off a thin edge with the point of a pin. Ammonia applied to the nostrils is often useful, and cologne on a handkerchief is sometimes of service.
Punctured Wounds need a pad at the surface to cause clotting of the blood in the wound, but are otherwise treated like cuts. If pain follows and inflammation ensues, the pad must be removed to permit the results of the inflammation to escape. Thorns or splinters, when run into the flesh, should be removed by cutting in far enough to get hold of and draw them out. Slivers under the nail, when not reached from the end, should be removed by scraping the nail thin, and cutting through it to the foreign body, and so withdrawing it; the part should then be tied with a cloth wet with water, in which a few drops of laudanum have been mixed. A puncture, by a rusty nail or some such substance, of the finger, toe, hand, or foot, frequently causes inflammation, and yet there is not room for the foreign matter left in the wound to escape through the tough skin, and lock-jaw results; in all such cases the wound should be cut open to provide a way of escape for the blood, etc., and a piece of linen wet with laudanum inserted. Wounds from bruises and lacerations especially demand careful treatment, on the same general principles given above.