books



previous page: The Home Cyclopedia Of Cooking And Housekeeping | by Charles Morris
  
page up: Household Books
  
next page: Miss Beecher's Housekeeper And Healthkeeper

The Profession Of Home Making | by Chicago American School Of Home Economics



A condensed home-study course on domestic science; the practical application of the most recent advances in the arts and sciences to the home industries prepared by teachers of recognized authority for home-makers, mothers, teachers, physicians, nurses, dietitians, professional home managers, and all interested in home, health and economy

TitleThe Profession Of Home Making
AuthorAmerican School Of Home Economics
PublisherChicago American School of Home Economics
Year1911
Copyright1911, American School Of Home Economics
AmazonThe Profession Of Home Making
-We Believe
We Believe... THAT right living should be the fourth R in education. THAT home-making should be regarded as a profession. THAT health is the duty and business of the individual; illness of ...
-Chemistry Of The Household. A Day's Chemistry
BEING an outline of the simplest and most evident chemical changes suggested by a day's work at home and a description of the various chemical substances of interest to the housewife. ...
-Water
The morning bath will introduce us agreeably to the wonderful chemical substance, water, and with this substance we will begin our study of a day's chemistry. The water for the house may come from the...
-Water. Continued
Lead pipes are much used in plumbing, and as a rule no evil results follow, since ordinary drinking water acts under most circumstances only very slightly upon lead. The pipes are soon coated with a l...
-The Atmosphere
When we leave the sleeping room, we open the windows to admit air. We may with advantage treat our lungs to an air bath by standing at the open window or by going out of doors for a few minutes to tak...
-Combustion
Very likely a fire must be built in the cook stove. In order that chemical combination may take place, the conditions must be right. The stove is so constructed that a current of air can pass from und...
-Combustion. Continued
In the making of coal if this distillation is complete, a substance called graphite is obtained. Graphite is the black lead used in lead pencils and in stove polish. It is a shiny, black mineral with ...
-Food
Having the fire well under way the housekeeper turns her attention to the breakfast. A great variety of chemical actions may here be considered. In the first place, why must we -eat to live ? Whe...
-Sugars And Starches
At breakfast some sugar from the sugar bowl may be added to the fruit. Many people add sugar to the oatmeal or other cereal eaten, although it is often held by teachers of dietetics that this is not a...
-Digestion
Digestion is primarily synonymous with solution. All solid food materials must become practically soluble before they can pass through the walls of the digestive system. Starch and like materials must...
-Cooking
Early man, probably, lived much like the beasts, taking his food in a raw state. Civilized man requires much of the raw material to be changed by the action of heat into substances more palatable and ...
-Fats
If cream instead of milk is used on the cereal or in the coffee, this with the butter on the bread, will add a considerable amount of another important food, fat. Fats form a large class of food stuff...
-Nitrogenous Foods
The animal body is more than a machine. It requires fuel to enable it not only to work but also to live, even without working. A part of the food eaten must go to maintain the body, for while the inan...
-Cooking Of Nitrogenous Food-Stuffs
Cooking should render nitrogenous food more soluble because here, as in every case, digestibility means solubility. Egg albumin is soluble in cold water, bu,-coagulates at about 1600 F. At this point ...
-Summary Of The Effects Of Cooking
The object of all cooking is to make the food-stuffs more palatable or more digestible, or both combined. In general, the starchy foods are rendered more digestible by cooking; the albuminous and fatt...
-Mineral Matter
The remaining ingredient of the food of our breakfast to be considered is the mineral matter which constitutes the ash when food-products are burned. There is only 5 or 6 per cent of mineral elements ...
-Decay
The clearing away of the breakfast introduces to the housekeeper two important problems: - (i) the preservation of the remaining food from decay; (2) the proper cleaning of the articles used during th...
-Chemistry Of The Household. Part I
Read Carefully. Place your name and address on the first sheet of the test. Use a light grade of paper and write on one side of the sheet only. Do not copy answers from the lesson paper. Use your own ...
-Chemistry Of The Household. A Day's Chemistry Part II. Cleaning
The cleaning of the dishes, silver, cutlery, and linen introduces a great variety of chemical problems. The subject of the chemistry of cleaning may well include with the daily task of dishwashing, th...
-Cleaning. Continued
Good soaps are nearly neutral substances because the alkali has been neutralized by the fatty acid. The coarser grades may contain more or less free alkali. All soaps are slightly decomposed when diss...
-Chemistry Of The Laundry
If the morning happens to be Monday, the washing is probably in progress in the average American family. The mistress should understand the chemical principles involved and every detail of the work, i...
-Order Of Ironing
Night Dresses: 1 - embroidery, 2 - sleeves, 3 - yoke, 4 - body. Drawers: 1 - trimming, 2 - tucks, 3 - body, 4 - band. Skirts: 1 - ruffle, 2 - hem, 3 - body. Shirt Waists: 1 - cuff, 2 - col...
-The Removal Of Stain
Whenever possible, stains should be removed when fresh. If the staining substance is allowed to dry on the cloth, its removal is always more difficult, and sometimes a neglected spot or stain cannot b...
-Bleaching
When the clothes are washed, the mistress likes to have them hang out of doors where the air and sunshine can dry them. She is glad when the white articles can be spread on the grass, knowing that the...
-Cleaning Woodwork
In the interior of the house woods are seldom used in their natural state. The surface is covered with two or more coatings of paint, varnish, etc., which add to the wood durability or beauty. The cle...
-Cleaning Metals
Most metals may be washed without harm in a hot alakline solution or wiped with a little kerosene. Stoves and iron sinks may be scoured with the coarser materials like ashes, emery or pumice; but copp...
-Part II
Read Carefully. Place your name and address on the first sheet of the test. Use a light grade of paper and write on one side of the sheet only. Do not copy answers from the lesson paper. Use your own ...
-A Day's Chemistry. Part III. Chemistry Of Baking Powder
We will suppose that after the strenuous course of cooking, washing, and cleaning outlined for the morning, that the housekeeper still has strength to make soda biscuits for tea, and we will study the...
-Lighting
By the time supper is over or even before, during a large portion of the year daylight has gone. Our grandmothers would have brought out the candles. Perhaps we shall use a candle to light our way whi...
-Lighting. Continued
The gases are then passed on through numerous other devices to remove remaining traces of impurities, and are finally collected in a circular chamber known as the gas-holder, from which they are distr...
-Lime
One of the common chemical substances found about the country house at least is quick lime, used for whitewash and as a deodorizer. The term lime usually means the oxide of the element calcium. Its...
-Chemistry And Electricity
In most houses electricity is used for operating the door bell, table bell and perhaps the electric gas lighters. We have learned how stored up chemical energy is changed into heat and force in the st...
-Plants
Most housekeepers have at least a few house plants and many have gardens which occupy part of the time each day. All foods are directly or indirectly produced by plants and it is well to consider also...
-Chemical Terms
To explain various chemical and physical phenomena the scientists consider that matter consists of certain small molecules and atoms. If a drop of water be divided and sub-divided indefinitely, it ...
-Table Of Common Elements
Aluminum Al Iodine I Oxygen O Arsenic As Iron Fe Phosphorus ...
-The Housekeeper's Laboratory
All modern science is based upon experiment. Chemistry was hardly a science until experimental research began. It must be confessed that the average housewife seldom thinks of making experiments. She ...
-Table Of Common Substances And Their Formulas
SUBSTANCE FORMULA SUBSTANCE FORMULA Water......... H20 Calcium Oxide (Lime) Per...
-Table Of Common Substances And Their Formulas. Continued
A few of these simple tests are given with the chemicals needed. Directions for Using the Housekeeper's Laboratory. When directed to make a solution acid or alkaline, always test it by means of ...
-Part III
Read Carefully. Place your name and address on the first sheet of the test. Use a light grade of paper and write on one side of the sheet only. Do not copy answers from the lesson paper. Use your own ...
-Supplement Chemistry Of The Household
By Margaret E. Dodd, S. B. In reading many hundreds of test papers Written. by our students I have found that additional coin ments suggest themselves frequently, and it may be of interest to bring...
-Impurities In Water
By the term impurities, we mean substances out of place. Pure water is oxide of hydrogen, HaO. If water has salt dissolved in it, for instance, the salt is an impurity for the water, though we do not ...
-Laundry Work
Satisfactory water for laundry work must not only be clear and soft but it must be free from iron, from ;he discoloration due to decaying vegetable matter, clayey soil, and so on. It should also b...
-Bluing
There are three kinds of bluing now on the market. The action and disadvantages of Prussian Blue have been described. It gives a better color, however, than either of the other two . A second kind is ...
-Home Soap Making
All fats and oils are compounds of certain fatty acids combined with glycerine. Glycerine is easily separated from this combination by strong alkalis, and thus soaps are made. The glycerine is a by-pr...
-Dish Washing
The washing of dishes takes so much time in every house that it is evidently a subject calling for close attention. Nothing is more desirable than that this work be done thoroughly and well; still, it...
-Latent Heat
The subject of latent heat, described on page 12, has proved very puzzling to many. It is certainly a strange idea at first, that heat does anything more than make things warm. Still, a moment's consi...
-Use Of The Thermometer
A kitchen thermometer may be bought of any dealer in the better class of kitchen goods. The floating dairy thermometers are convenient. One to register 2120 F, may be obtained from the School for 50 c...
-Bread Making
The composition and manufacture of bread are subjects which have been given much study. The carbon dioxide which serves to lighten the dough raised with yeast is produced at the expense of some of the...
-Making Baking Powder
Several students have sent me recipes they like to use for making baking powder. The claim is made that these cost rather less than the kinds that can be bought, and also that they are much more effec...
-Distillation
A few more words might be said on the subject of distillation. I am sometimes asked to explain more fully the term destructive distillation. When a complex substance like wood or coal is heated some...
-Composition Of Gas
The complex nature of coal gas is shown by the following table, which represents an average sample: Hydro-carbon vapors............... 0.6 Heavy hydro-carb...
-Spontaneous Combustion
We often hear of fires apparently starting themselves. Such cases are due to accumulation of heat produced by slow oxidation. If a pile of oily rags, cotton waste, etc.,be allowed to stand for a tim...
-Conservation Of Energy
An interesting and important principle, explained on page 23 of Part I, and again on page no of Part III, is Conservatism. This principle has been established by countless experiments, but it is not o...
-Bibliography
Chemistry of Cooking and Cleaning, Richards and Elliott, ($1.00, postage 8c.) Chemistry of Daily Life, Lassar-Cohn. ($1.50, postage 10c.) Chemistry of Plant and Animal Life, Snyder. ($1.25, post...
-U. S. Government Bulletins
Industrial Alcohol: Sources and Manufacture. Farmers' Bulletin No. 268 (free). . Industrial Alcohol: Uses and Statistics. Farmers' Bulletin No. 269 (free). Modern Conveniences for the Farm Home....
-Supplemental Program Arranged For Class Study On Chemistry Of The Household
By Maurice LeBosquet, S. B. Director, American School of Home Economics As in the study of chemistry and physics so much emphasis is placed on laboratory work, the following supplementary program i...
-Chemistry Of The Household: Meeting I
(Study pages 1-29) Water To show that ordinary water has gases dissolved in it. See experiment on page 2. The gas dissolved in water is not exactly of the same composition as air. It usually contai...
-Chemistry Of The Household: Meeting II
(Study pages 29-55) If the Food Course is being taken, some of the experiments here suggested might better be postponed until the lessons on Principles of Cookery or Food and Dietetics. Starch ...
-Chemistry Of The Household: Meeting III
(Study pages 55-65) Cleaning: Acids, Alkalies, and Salts Strips of litmus paper may be obtained at a drug store or will be sent from the School on request. Moisten the blue paper in vinegar, lem...
-Chemistry Of The Household: Meeting IV
(Study pages 66-88) Laundry Work Bluing May Yellow Clothes: On page 70 is the statement that the repeated use of ordinary bluing may stain the clothes yellow. To prove this, dip a piece of white mu...
-Chemistry Of The Household: Meeting V
(Study pages 89-111) Baking Powder Perform experiments suggested on pages 90 and 91. Reference: Baking Powders. Bulletin No. 119, Maine Agricultural Experiment Station. (Loaned for 2c.) Light...
-Chemistry Of The Household: Meeting VI
(Study pages 111-122) Chemical Formulas Reference: Chemistry of Cooking and Cleaning, by Richards and Elliott. Pages 9-30. ($1.00, postage 10c Elementary Chemistry. Text book of Americ...
-Principles Of Cookery
A Natural starting point in the art of cookery is the fire, since cookery without heat is an impossibility. Human beings everywhere use fire to prepare their foods and by such applications of heat man...
-Fire
Among the ancients fire was regarded as a gift from the gods, to be protected in every way, and all civilization, forms of religion, civil ordinances, and family life have been traced to the care prim...
-Fire. Part 2
A portable range is one that may be moved if necessary, while the set range is built into the chimney. The fire box is lined on the sides with a kind of brick above which the fire should never co...
-Fire. Part 3
Dial of a Gas Meter, (a) At the Beginning of a Month, (b) After Registering the Amount of Gas Used for the Month. The housekeeper should learn to read a gas meter. Each space on the right hand circ...
-Water in Cooking
Water is not always considered to be strictly a food in itself, but by its aid many foods and flavors are put in forms more acceptable to the palate and more readily absorbed by the body than they cou...
-Methods Of Cooking In Water
Water is as essential as fire in all processes of cookery. No food can be cooked without water and unless it naturally contains a large proportion of the fluid, more must be added during the cooking p...
-Ice
Ice is becoming more and more essential to civilize man, not only for summer use but for the year around The future promises many improvements along this line, in more rigid inspection of the sources ...
-Preparation And Preservation Of Foods
All processes of cooking are the result of gradual evolution. Nature ripens fruits and seeds in the sunlight. Dry nuts and seeds are stored by squirrels and other creatures. Primitive men were but lit...
-Choice Of Food
Primitive man made use of anything near his hand to satisfy his need and accidents and extreme hunger made many foods appetizing to our ancestors which might not appeal to us today if we had not inher...
-Milk And Its Products
Milk is a complete food for the young animal because it contains the five fundamental types of food material - water, mineral matter, fat, carbohydrate, and protein. The analysis of average milk is...
-Butter
Butter is one of the most digestible forms of fat. An ounce of butter a day is a fair allowance for each person when meats, lard, olive oil, and cream are used. To test this in your own case, divide o...
-Cheese
The origin of cheese is probably more ancient than that of butter. It is a form of dried or condensed milk convenient for transportation. Milk is nine-tenths water, while cheese contains but a trifle ...
-Principles Of Cookery. Part I
Read Carefully. Place your name and address on the first sheet of the test. Use a light grade of paper and write on one side of the sheet only. Do not copy answers from the lesson paper. Use your own ...
-Principles Of Cookery. Part II. Eggs
Since the egg is similar to milk in composition, both containing water, fat, and protein, without starch, and as there are many simple dishes in which milk and eggs are combined, it is natural that th...
-Combination Of Eggs With Other Foods
Any fundamental food, like the egg, must be served in a variety of ways or we tire of them. Foods having short seasons should be prepared in the simplest fashion. The nutritive value of the food is...
-Fish, Fowl, And Flesh
Two important animal products, milk and eggs, have been. studied, and we come now to a consideration of the sh of animals as food. The cooking of the flesh in any way is a comparatively simple matter ...
-Fish, Fowl, And Flesh. Continued
Tender muscles may be cooked quickly - steaks and roasts - and should be exposed to intense heat at first. Tougher portions may be made more palatable by pounding to separate the connective tissue,...
-Choosing Fish
Fresh fish have full lifelike eyes, red gills, silvery, not slimy skin and scales, firm tail, not flabby and drooping, and firm flesh. Plump short fish are better than long thin ones of the same varie...
-Choosing Poultry
Young birds are to be chosen for broiling and other quick cooking, but full grown fowls are more nutritious for broths and stews. A fowl is usually fatter than a chicken, the skin is tougher, and the ...
-Vegetables And Grains
Like the foods already studied, vegetables are mainly water, but all the five food principles may be obtained from the vegetable kingdom. Here we secure our supplies of starch and sugar, or the carboh...
-Vegetables And Grains. Continued
Split peas have the skins removed and thus are more readily digested. The skins of the larger beans may be rubbed off after soaking and parboiling. Salad plants-cucumber, Parsley, Radishes, Cab...
-Soups
Mashing is a form of preparation suited to squash, turnip, parsnip, and potatoes. A seasoning of cream, or butter, and salt and pepper, is usually added. Fritters and croquettes usually have mashed ve...
-Grains
The grains or cereals are the main dependence of the human race for food and have been known from very early times. Some member of this family of plants is found in every section of the world. Rice, w...
-Principles Of Cookery. Part II
Read Carefully Place your name and address on the first sheet of the test. Use a light grade of paper and write on one side of the sheet only. Do not copy answers from the lesson paper. Use your own w...
-Principles Of Cookery. Part III. Bread And Other Doughs
Having considered the whole grains we must learn how to use them when ground into flour. Although some forms of bread like hoe cake and tortillas can be made from cracked grain without making it into ...
-Bread
The essential ingredients in bread making are yeast, liquid, and flour; the proportions may be varied according to conditons. Sugar and shortening are commonly used, but if they were omitted wholly...
-Bread. Continued
To shape biscuits or rolls,first make smooth round balls, then by gentle rolling and pressure make the finger rolls - then farther extend till the strips can be twisted or left as sticks for soup. Thu...
-Pastry And Cake
Shortcake and pastry are illustrations of the use of much fat in doughs and the result is brittle and tender. Success in pastry-making depends more upon keeping the ingredients cold and handling the d...
-Cooking Of Doughs
Doughs are steamed, baked in the oven, or on a griddle on top of the stove. Such mixtures of many different ingredients are more difficult to cook than the separate substances of which they are compos...
-Form And Flavors
Thus far we have studied the fundamental principles of cooking and have seen that some knowledge of the chemical composition of each food is necessary before we can secure the best result through the ...
-Flavor
The art of cooking shows us many ways of developing the appetizing flavor of foods. First, by the removal of whatever might produce bad flavors, such portions as skin and tainted bits of meat, deca...
-Food For The Day
In the preceding pages the most important foods, heir composition and preparation for the table have been considered. Our study would be incomplete with-out some reference to their best combinatio...
-Principles Of Cookery. Bibliography
Boston Cooking School Cook Book ($2.00). Fannie M. Farmer. Boston Cook Book ($2.00). Mary J. Lincoln. Catering for Two ($1.25). Alice J. James. Century Cook Book ($2.00). Mary Roland. Home...
-Government Bulletins
Free, of the Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 34. Meats: Composition and Cooking - Charles D. Woods. 85. Fish as Food - C. F. Langworthy, Ph.D. 93. Sugar as Food - Mary Hinman Abe...
-Principles Of Cookery. Part III
Read Carefully. Place your name and address on the first sheet of the test. Use a light grade of paper and write on one side of the sheet only. Do not copy answers from the lesson paper. Use your own ...
-Supplement. Principles Of Cookery In Application To Daily Life
By Anna Barrows Director, Chautauqua School of Cookery; Lecturer, Teachers, College, Columbia University, and Simmons College. The conditions of life in the households represented by the pupils ...
-Comparative Value Of Fuels
Every householder and housekeeper should have more definite knowledge regarding the amount of heat available from a given bulk of each of the stand ard fuels. One cord of wood is approximately equal t...
-Coal
The price of coal varies according to quality and distance from the mines, and may cost from three to twelve dollars a ton. A hodful or scuttle of coal may weigh from fifteen to thirty pounds, but aft...
-Gas
Gas is available in comparatively few sections of the country outside of the large cities, but wherever it is used, housekeepers soon learn to plan their cookery to save fuel. This usually results in ...
-Alcohol
The removal of the tax on fuel alcohol, January, 1907, may mean much to the housekeeper as well as to the manufacturer. Every one who has used a chafing dish or alcohol lamp has wished that alcohol wa...
-Kerosene
The small oil and gasoline stoves are not used as much as they deserve. With intelligent care and high-grade oil, a well-made oil stove is safe. Fire in any form is not a plaything. Every househol...
-Fireless Cookers
The Norwegian Cooking Box or Fireless Cook Stove is described and illustrated on pages 12-13. This device has been exploited so much of late that it deserves further description. The new interest i...
-Co-Operative Cooking
But there are certain household traditions which hold many intelligent women in a firm grasp, and these traditions may be traced to the generations behind us, when no money value was placed upon woman...
-Kitchen Furnishing
Where many people are to be fed, a few good tools like a bread-mixer (Seep. 105), meat-chopper, etc., are often more helpful than another pair of hands, unless they are especially efficient ones. O...
-The Housekeeper's Library
Quite as important as helpful utensils to the housekeeper are the right kind of books. When we remember that cooking schools have been established for a generation in all our large cit and that the...
-Card Catalog Of Foods
The up-to-date housekeeper is ready to accept modern ideas and adapt methods from other departments of life to her business of housekeeping. She finds a card catalogue one of the simplest means for ke...
-Cookery A Fine Art
In cookery, quite as much depends upon the order and manner of combining the materials as upon the ingredients themselves. The manipulation of the cook-stove has something in common with that of a mus...
-Cake Making
The mixing of cake often has more to do with its texture than the proportion of materials used, though both have their influence. It is an interesting experiment to make a good cooky dough and bake...
-Menu Making
Through the test questions, the attention of our pupils has been called to the planning of meals for a household, for this is an important part of the housekeeper's duties. Under Part I we asked for m...
-Use Of Fats
Perhaps there is no one thing more often wasted in the average household than fat, yet this is essential to our health, and we pay high prices for it in cream, olive oil, and butter, when cheaper form...
-Table Service
The desirability of careful table service for the simplest foods is shown by this incident told by one pupil. My aunt had great difficulty in getting us to eat cereal for breakfast, so she bought ...
-Menus For Special Occasions
Every housekeeper occasionally has to plan a special menu for home or club or church society, and consideration of this matter may be helpful here. It is of first importance that we do not undertak...
-Supplemental Program Arranged For Class Study On Principles Of Cookery
Ample material for a course of six or more lessons may be secured from the lesson books on Principles of Cookery and from the Government Bulletins. The Farmers' Bulletins may be obtained without charg...
-Meeting I
(Study pages 1-39) Fuels and Appliances for their Use Work of Count Rumford: - Rumford Kitchen Leaflets, No. 1. ($1.00, postage 8c.) Work of Benjamin Franklin. See encyclopedias: Aladdin Oven...
-Meeting II
(Study pages 39-54) Milk Make sour milk cheese and junket. (See page 44.) Show how acid may be used with milk without curdling. (See page 45.). References: Farmers' Bulletin No. 42, Facts about ...
-Meeting III
(Study pages 55-82) Eggs See experiments on cooking of eggs in water, page 57. Try similar experiments in frying eggs with fat at high and low temperature. See Question 6. Show egg mixtures as cu...
-Meeting IV
(Study pages 83-97) Vegetables See experiments, pages 83-84. Get up an exhibit of uncommon vegetables. Illustrate the effect of overcooking vegetables by boiling a peeled potato, - one until ...
-Meeting V
(Study pages 99-122) Bread Demonstration: Illustrate proportion of flour and liquid for (1) Batters, (2) Muffin Mixtures, (3) Soft Dough, (4) Pastry Dough. See pages 99 - 100. See experiments...
-Meeting VI
(Study pages 122-138) Food and its Appeal to the Senses The importance of flavor, etc., as an aid to digestion: See The Work of the Digestive Glands, by Pawlow, the Psychic or Appetite Juices. ($...
-Freehand Cooking
THE purpose of this Bulletin is to tabulate the material in Principles of Cookery and to give the comparatively few fundamental recipes in cooking which are capable of infinite variation. Exact pro...
-Weights And Measures
3 teaspoons=l tablespoon 2 pints=l quart 16 tablespoons=l cup 4 quarts=l gallon 2 cups=l pint 1 cup=8 ounces (volume) A gallon of water weighs 8 1/3 pounds - a cup of water, 8 1/3 ounces (avoird...
-Approximate Measure Of One Pound
2 cups milk 2 5/6 cups granulated cornmeal 2 cups butter 2 2/3 cups oatmeal 2 cups chopped meat 6 cups rolled oats 2 cups granulated sugar 4 1/3 cups rye meal 2 2/3 cups brown sugar 1 7/8 ...
-Methods Of Applying Heat
Broiling - Cooking before or over glowing coals or under gas. Radiant heat. High temperature at first to sear outside, thus developing flavor and retaining juices; then lower temperature for the he...
-Composition Of Raw Foods
Parts in 100 (approximate). Wheat Flour - 12 water, 12 gluten, 75 starch, 1 fat. Cornmeal - 12 water, 9 protein, 75 starch, 2 fat. Beans and Peas, dry - 13 water, 24 legumen, 60 starch, 2 fat...
-Effect Of Heat On Food Materials
Starch absorbs water, swells and becomes partially soluble in water. This begins at about 150 F. Dry starch begins to change to dextrine at about 320 F. Cellulose itself is not affected b...
-Temperature And Time Of Cooking
All food materials are poor conductors of heat - it takes time for the heat to penetrate. The correct time and temperature depends on (1) what is to be accomplished, (2) size to thickness, i. e., t...
-Time Tables
Boiling Time Table Meats (4 to 5 lbs.) - 2 to 5 hours. (Tough meats should be kept below boiling, 180 F.) Fish (2 to 5 lbs.) - 30 to 45 minutes. Ham (12 to 14 lbs.) - 4 to 5 hours. Co...
-Processes
In addition to the methods or processes of applying heat, there are a few fundamental processes in cooking, i. e. thickening, leavening, shortening and flavoring. ...
-Thickening Agents
The common thickening agents are flour, corn starch, eggs, gelatin, sea moss, junket for milk, and pectin of unripe fruits for jellies and freezing. One level tablespoon of flour will thicken one c...
-Leavening Agents
Doughs are made light or porous in the following ways: (a) By the production (and expansion by heat) of carbon dioxid gas from the baking soda in baking powder or baking soda, combined with some ac...
-Shortening
Fats are added to doughs to make the product brittle - friable - short, and to enrich the mixture. The fat counteracts the adhesive properties of the gluten and starch in flour. Pastry flours con...
-Flavoring
The flavoring materials most commonly used are salt, sugar, spices and extracts. The fine art of cookery consists of developing the full natural flavor of the foods themselves and in combining them in...
-Recipes #2
The following recipes were furnished by Miss Anna Barrows, teacher of cookery, Columbia University, author of Principles of Cookery, or adapted by the editor from the various standard recipes used in ...
-Restoring Water
Dried Fruits and Vegetables Pick over, cover with cold water, leave for half an hour, then wash thoroughly, inspecting each portion and drain. Again cover with cold water and soak 12 to 24 hours, a...
-Thickening Sauces
Methods of mixing: (1) Melt butter (or other fat) in saucepan, stir in dry flour, cook and stir until frothy all over, then add liquid slowly, hot or cold, while stirring; cook again until thick, stir...
-Thickening Sauces. Continued
Baked Custards Scald one pint milk. Beat two eggs till smooth, add one-fourth cup sugar, a bit of salt, and blend with the hot milk. Strain into buttered molds, set in a pan of hot water and bake u...
-Thickening And Leavening
Omelets There are but two types of omelet to which special names are given from the garnish added. French Omelet Beat an egg slightly. Add one tablespoon water or milk, season with salt and a...
-Quick Doughs - General Proportions
Flour Baking Powder Liquid Shortening Sugar Eggs Pop Overs...... i cup ...
-Leavening And Shortening
Biscuit Two cups sifted flour, three teaspoons of baking powder, one-half teaspoon of salt; sift together, rub in one tablespoon of shortening - butter, oleo, lard, cottolene or drippings. Mix to a...
-Yeast Doughs - General Proportions
Sugar Shortening Liquid Yeast Cake Flour Eggs Bread..... 1 tsp. 1/2 oz. + ...
-Meats
Broiled Meats, Chops, Steaks The meat should be cut in convenient pieces, and some of the bone, gristle and fat removed. Sections one inch thick will be more juicy than thinner ones. Wipe the meat ...
-Cereals And Vegetables
Breakfast Foods Usual proportions - one-half cup flakes or one-fourth cup granules to one cup water, one-fourth teaspoon salt to one cup water. The denser the cereal, the more water and the long...
-Sugar
Caramel Put sugar in a smooth iron pan over a hot fire and stir constantly with an old wooden spoon until melted to a light brown syrup. Scrape off any sugar that forms in lumps. When all is melted...
-Miscellaneous
French Dressing for Salads One-fourth teaspoon salt, speck pepper, one tablespoon vinegar, two or three tablespoons oil. Blend thoroughly and pour over the salad. . Mayonnaise Dressing One...
-Household Management
IN THE study of Economics there are two great divisions - production and consumption. Until within a few years, by far the lion's share of time and study has been given to the first of these divisions...
-Housekeeping A Profession
Housekeeping ranks among the professions as truly as any other occupation. It is more than a trade, since one who works at a trade performs each day the task assigned, the work being planned and direc...
-Home Expenditures
Whatever the condition of a family, whether large or small, in city or country, in private house or apartment, the successful expenditure of money to supply the family with needed comforts depends vas...
-Home Expenditures. Continued
The most important reason for attempting to classify our wants and our provision for their gratification, is that thereby we may provide ourselves with a definitely recognized standard which can be re...
-Rent
The question of buying or renting a house which shall offer shelter and make a home for the family is often a difficult one in these days. Formerly private possession was much more universal than at t...
-Operating Expenses
Operating expenses consist, for the most part, of the necessary expenditure to keep a house warmed, lighted, clean and in repair. The skill with which these expenses are managed is the supreme test of...
-The Influence Of Food Upon The Welfare Of The Household
The influence of food upon the welfare of the household must be first considered in apportioning the share of income rightly devoted to it. In referring to the budgets we find that as the income decre...
-Clothing
Clothing, like food, should be considered first of all in its relation to the possible increase of health and efficiency. Like the function of food, this is too much lost sight of at the present time ...
-Higher Life
The preceding divisions have to do chiefly with those things which support and protect the physical well-being. The fifth important provision should be for the higher life, or the demands of the intel...
-Household Accounts
The management of the money affairs of a family is usually the most perplexing part of its domestic problem. Yet, in spite of this fact, the least candid study and thought are given to it. The value o...
-Household Accounts. Part 2
Table I Cards and Envelopes Journal 1904. Received. Paid. Jan. l Cash in hand............................. ...
-Household Accounts. Part 3
Table IV Cr. Dr. Income for year 1902............................ $2,500 Expense for year....... ...
-Household Accounts. Part 4
Table II Classification of Personal Expenses {in family). 1. Clothing a. New clothing, Foot wear, and Furnishings b. Repairs to clothing and Foot wear 2. Transportation (street car,railroad, ...
-The Bank Account
Comparatively few women appreciate the advantage and convenience of having a bank account. There is a mistaken idea current that banks are solely for those who have a balance to invest. This is true o...
-Household Management. Part I
Read Carefully, Place your name and address on the first sheet of the test. Use a light grade of paper and write on one side of the sheet only. Leave space between answers. Read the lesson paper a num...
-My Symphony
To live content with small means To seek elegance rather than luxury, and refinement rather than fashion To be worthy not respectable To be wealthy, not rich To study hard, think qu...
-Household Management. Part II. Organization And Division Of Labor
Few things in life are more pathetic than a household in which no organization exists, no systematic direction of activities, no appreciation of Heaven's first law, order. The haphazard, aimless livin...
-Domestic Service in Household Management
Even the most fortunate housekeeper recognizes in the present situation of domestic service a state of affairs sadly chaotic, perplexing and deplorable. Merely to cry out against it is futile and woul...
-Domestic Service. Part 2
Opportunities for promotion and advancement, which play a very important part in stimulating to effort in other employments, are almost wholly lacking in the present methods of conducting domestic ser...
-Domestic Service. Part 3
Pleasant surroundings do much to lighten labor and make it attractive, whatever kind of work it may be. This fact large manufacturers and merchants have recognized and utilized to their great advantag...
-Domestic Service. Part 4
Secondly, that housekeepers should bring themselves to a willingness to adopt the hour plan, the worker coming in, and work being done and paid for by the hour according to kind or skill involved in a...
-Domestic Service. Part 5
Whatever solution the future may hold, employers are beginning to realize that it is not through greater individual indulgences, more equality or higher wages that the problems are to be solved. Emplo...
-Buying Supplies
Women, as a usual thing, spend such small sums of money at a time in their purchases for the house, that they are apt to lose sight of the size of the total amount expended in a year. Not realizing th...
-Buying Supplies. Continued
It is only the very poor who have an excuse for being too limited in ready money for such advance purchasing. It is but thrifty to see to it that there is at least a small capital which may be used fo...
-Kitchen Utensils
Range.... $30.00 and up Coal hod............... .75 Shovel, poker, lifter........................................ .50...
-Laundry Equipment
Tubs, 1 or 2............................ .......... $3.00 soapstone.................... 7.00 or $8.00 each Washboard...............
-Dining Room Furnishing
Rug 9 x 12 ft............................................. $10.00 to $100.00 up Shades .................................................. .90 per w...
-Bed Room Furnishing
Matting................................................ $10.00 up Rugs........................................................ 5.00 ...
-Kitchen Furnishings
In selecting kitchen furnishings it will be found that a linoleum covering for the floor will give the greatest satisfaction, preferably one which is entirely plain or with a pattern which extends all...
-Table And Bed Linen, Towelling, Etc
In buying cotton and linen material for the various needs of the house, one must consider the use to be made of it and select accordingly. Towelling suitable for glass and silver is not suitable for c...
-Bed Linen
Sheeting was formerly woven in narrow widths only one yard wide, necessitating laborious seaming in the middle of a sheet. At the present time it is possible to secure sheeting woven for single, two-t...
-Table Linen
Most of the material sold as table linen is imported. Its manufacture has been attempted in this country, but the temperature is unfavorable, so that the result is an inferior quality. There are th...
-Carpets And Rugs
A square of carpet with a border of hard wood brought to a high polish, or even a painted border or denim or some similar material is preferable to a carpet covering the entire floor and tacked down. ...
-Household Management. Part II
Read Carefully. Place your name and address on the first sheet of the test. Use a light grade of paper and write on one side of the sheet only. Leave space between answers. Read the lesson paper a num...
-Household Management. Part III. Marketing
A practical knowledge of marketing on the part of the housewife affects to a marked degree both the comfort and expense-book of the family. Intelligence and skill in buying are only secured by careful...
-Beef
The quality of beef depends upon several conditions. The age of the animal when killed, the breed, the manner of fattening, the amount of exercise and the length of time the beef is allowed to cure be...
-Beef. Part 2
The Chuck lies just behind the neck, including the first five ribs. This cut may be used in a variety of ways, as cheap steak, roast, pot roast or stew. Several of the cheaper cuts indicated as possib...
-Beef. Part 3
The Round is divided into top and bottom, so called because of the way in which the leg is laid upon the block to be cut up. The outside, being laid down, is called the bottom round, while the inside,...
-Veal
While veal is in season all the year in many markets, it is best in spring and summer, being at its prime in May. The quality of the veal depends to a considerable extent upon the age and manner of fe...
-Mutton And Lamb
Mutton is, for most, a most nutritious and easily digested meat when of good quality and properly prepared, but it may. be very uninviting through carelessness in cooking and serving. For this reason,...
-Pork
Pork is good only in autumn and winter. A large part of the animal is so fat that instead of being sold fresh it is salted and sold as salt pork. The ribs and loin are the most desirable fresh cuts, b...
-Poultry
There is perhaps no other kind of meat in which there is more need of skill and care in selecting than poultry. Great care is necessary in handling, as the flesh easily becomes tainted or rendered unh...
-Fish
Fish deteriorates and becomes injurious sooner than any other animal food. Great care should be taken to select that which is strictly fresh. It is impossible to transport it a great distance and keep...
-Vegetables
Vegetables are classified according to their form as follows: In buying one should watch the market for the season, as it will vary somewhat. Vegetables which were formerly confined...
-Animal Products
Butter, milk and eggs are all of a nature to require the utmost care in purchasing and in storing before use. They are easily tainted so as to be spoiled for one of sensitive taste, while milk, especi...
-Dry Groceries
While most of what has been discussed in the previous pages relates to food which must be purchased as needed, because perishable, there is a class in buying which much time and thought may be saved b...
-Conclusion
The household manager should learn to think in percentages. One cent less on a ten cent article seems a trivial saving, yet it is ten per cent-ten dollars in every hundred. It is fair to state that th...
-Bibliography #2
Art of Right Living ($0.50), Ellen H. Richards. Cost of Living ($1.00), Ellen H. Richards. Cost of Food ($1.00), Ellen H. Richards. Domestic Service ($2.00), Lucy M. Salmon. Economic Funct...
-Household Management. Part III
Read Carefully, Place your name and address on the first sheet of the test. Use a light grade of paper and write on one side of the sheet only. Leave space between answers. Read the lesson paper a num...
-Supplemental Program Arranged For Class Study On Household Management
By Bertha M. Terrill, A. B. Meeting I Place of Home and Home-maker in the Economic World. (Study pages 1-8.) 1. Economic Function of Woman, Divine. ($0.15, postage 2c.) Cost of Living, Ellen H. ...
-Supplement Household Management
By Bertha M. Terrill, A. B. A rare opportunity is afforded us, through these correspondence courses, of sharing the experiences of many different housekeepers of widely differing loca-ations and co...
-Differing Opinions
In some points there has seemed to be universal agreement. In others, there have been flatest contradictions of opinions, amusingly so, sometimes, if one could forget the trials and struggles involved...
-Division Of Income
There is less material contributed on Household Accounts than I could wish, less, I hope, than may be in a few years, if all the housekeepers who have registered resolves to know more of this side of ...
-Menu For A Week
Sunday (Breakfast) Fruit-Oranges (Two cut in half) Sliced Ham (broiled) Scrambled Eggs (two) Hot corn bread (two eggs) Coffee (with cream ) (Dinner) Roast of Beef Mashed potato...
-Division Of $4,500
Family in Providence, R. I., physician, wife, two children, two maids, laundress one and a half days a week: Rent 10 Per cent $4 50 Food, 14 per cent.... ...
-Details Of Operating Expenses
Services (including wages of 2 maids, laundry, ashes removed, snow shoveled, rugs beaten, windows washed, etc .............. $5 50 Fuel.......... 1...
-Food Economy
The practice of wise economies has been so success-ful and gratifying in one family of my acquaintance within the past few years that I must share some of the details with those interested. The mot...
-Domestic Service
And now we come to the perplexing, annoying problems of Domestic Service! We wish we had some effective solutions to offer! Some women, in discussing the condition, have contributed valuable hints reg...
-Help By The Hour
Here is an interesting experience of help by the hour contributed by the Director of the School. After our raw boned, unprepossessing, though faithful Irish girl married a German with four children (...
-Systems Of Work
Two systems of work for the week have seemed especially suggestive. In the first the housekeeper does her own work. I am particularly impressed with the wisdom of the plan for Monday. It is always har...
-Schedule
Monday-Pick-up day after Sunday. Brush Sunday clothes and put away. Clean bath room and put clothes to soak for washing. Tuesday-Washing and cleaning kitchen. Wednesday-Ironing, and arranging cl...
-Value Of The Individual Home
The home is the center of all that is best in life. It is the greatest moulder of character. All the qualities of Christian manhood and womanhood, love, reverence, unselfishness, forbearance, order, ...
-Home Care Of The Sick
It is the minority, not the majority of people, who I can afford the luxury of a trained nurse, especially in cases of protracted and chronic illnesses. These lessons are intended to help those who...
-First Symptoms In Some Of The Most Common Diseases. Contagious Diseases
DISEASE PERIOD OF INCUBATION SYMPTOMS TIME OF ISOLATION Mumps Days 14-21 average 18 Swelling of the glands between...
-Not Contagious Diseases
Colic. Give castor oil, then a few drops of peppermint in hot water (never soothing syrup) ; keep the baby warm and lying on his abdomen. Gentle rubbing in a circular direction, and the application of...
-The Choice, Furnishing And Care Of The Sick Room
Sunshine, pure fresh air, and freedom from noise and odors are the principal things to be considered in choosing the sick-room. When possible it is advisable to have a room with a southern exposure. I...
-Care Of The Patient
A few essential points to be remembered in caring for the sick may be stated briefly. To properly care for a patient those undertaking the responsibility of the nursing must take proper care of the...
-Changing The Bed Of A Helpless Patient
Before starting to change the bedding be sure that you have everything necessary near at hand, and that the bed clothes are all well aired, perfectly dry and warm. First take off the spread, fold i...
-Lifting And Handling The Patient
When lifting a patient it is important to stand firmly; to do this the feet should be placed well apart, bracing one foot against the leg of the bed Try to bend the back as little as possible, make th...
-How To Change The Mattress With The Patient In Bed
To the uninitiated this seems an almost impossible feat. In reality, if done according to rule, it is not much harder than changing the under sheets. If the patient is heavy four people will be requir...
-The Prevention And Cure Of Bed Sores
A bed sore is gangrene, or death of the tissue of the affected parts. The bony prominences such as the lower part of the spine, the shoulder blades, elbows, and heels are the parts most likely to be a...
-Convalescence
The most anxious moments in nursing are certainly when the disease is at its height, but by far the most trying are, as a rule, during the time of convalescence. It is then that the greatest exercise ...
-Care Of The Hair, Mouth, Teeth
While caring for the hair protect the pillow-case with a towel. When the hair is tangled always hold it between the tangle and the head to avoid pulling it. Rubbing a little vaseline into the scalp wi...
-Baths And Bathing
Perhaps there is nothing that will give greater refreshment to the invalid, obliged to lie in bed day after day, than a bath. Unless contrary to the physician's orders, one should be given every day. ...
-Sick Room Methods
Taking and Recording Temperature, Pulse and Respiration Observation and Recording of Symptoms The heat of the blood is ascertained by means of the clinical thermometer. These thermometers are self ...
-The Giving Of Medicine
A few rules to be remembered in giving medicines are: 1. Always give exactly what the doctor orders, neither more nor less. 2. Always give medicine on time-if a dose is due at twelve, give it at...
-Purgative, Enemata, Douches And Catheterization
The purgative, or as it is also called, cleansing enema, is given as its name indicates for the purpose of washing out the intestines. It is generally resorted to when cathartic medicine fails to act,...
-Poultices And Fomentations
Poultices and fomentations are applied for the relief of localized pain, when caused by inflammation. The heat, by dilating the superficial blood vessels, draws the blood from the congested area. T...
-Home Care Of The Sick. Part I
Read Carefully, Place your name and address on the first sheet of the test. Use a light grade of paper and write on one side of the sheet only. Do not copy answers from the lesson paper. Use your own ...
-Home Care Of The Sick. Part II. Contagion; Disinfection-Nursing In Contagious Diseases
We have learned in our study of Household Bacteriology that nearly all diseases, especially those coming under the head of infectious and contagious, are caused by certain species of bacteria. If w...
-Making Disinfectant Solutions
A bottle of blue bichloride tablets can be bought at any chemist's; this is the safest form to use it in the home, as the tablets make a blue solution. The bichloride is perfectly odorless, and if the...
-Contagious Diseases
Measles, scarlet fever, smallpox and diphtheria are not only infectious but also contagious, and can be taken by touching the person or anything that has come in contact with the patient. Anyone wh...
-Disinfection At The Termination Of The Disease
Even after the fever has abated it is necessary to keep the patient isolated, or in quarantine, as it is called, for some days. A rough estimate of the time required for quarantine in the different ...
-The Disinfection Of The Room And Its Contents
The use of sulphur fumes as a disinfectant has been proved to be practically useless, and formaldehyde has almost entirely replaced it. The easiest form of using this is the Pure Formaldehyde Gas pu...
-Personal Precautions To Be Taken By Those Nursing Contagious Diseases
(1) Take sufficient sleep and rest; never in the patient's room. It is when the muscles are relaxed, as they are when resting, that the greatest danger of infection comes. (2) A daily walk in the f...
-Surgical Operations At Home
For twenty-four hours previous to operation the patient should be given broths every two hours, but neither milk nor solid food. A cathartic is given, if possible, thirty hours prior to operation, and...
-Obstetrics
The average duration of pregnancy is 28I days. The most accurate way of calculating the probable date of confinement is by counting back three months from the date of the cessation of the last menses ...
-Obstetrics. Continued
The signs of beginning labor are pains in the lower part of the abdomen and back, occurring at regular intervals, about once every half hour, and a discharge of mucus tinged with blood from the vagina...
-The Care Of The Child
After its birth the child's eyes and mouth are cleansed with 2 per cent boric acid solution and its whole body greased with sweet oil or sterilized vaseline. It is then wrapped in warm flannel, put in...
-Food For The Sick
In many diseases, especially those accompanied by fever, the powers of digestion are much impaired. For this, as well as other reasons, it is necessary that all food given should be in a liquid form. ...
-Recipes
Milk In warming milk for drinking never allow it to boil, and always keep it covered. It is the coagulation of the casein by boiling, and the evaporation of certain gases, that renders it indigesti...
-Emergencies. First Aid To The Injured
In all emergencies one of the chief requisites is coolness. Do not get excited, or you will be perfectly useless. When the doctor's services are necessary send him a written statement of the case, tha...
-Foreign Bodies In The Eye, Ear, Nose, Throat
The Eye. If anything gets under the lower lid, draw the lid down by the lashes, direct the patient to turn the eyeball toward the nose, and the offending body can then be wiped out with a soft handker...
-Poisons And Antidotes
The treatment has three objects in view: to remove the poisonous substance, neutralize its further action, and remedy the ill effects already produced. An emetic is the first consideration. A tablespo...
-Bandages And Bandaging
The materials most commonly used for making bandages are either unbleached muslin or gauze. Muslin bandages are best when necessary to keep a splint in place, or make firm pressure. Gauzes are infinit...
-Home Care Of The Sick. Part II
Read Carefully Place your name and address on the first sheet of the test. Use a light grade of paper and write on one side of the sheet only. Do not copy answers from the lesson paper. Use your own w...
-Supplemental Program Arranged For Class Study On Home Care For The Sick
Meeting I (Study pages 1-13) Symptoms of Disease See Care of Children, pages 153-159, for children's diseases. (Vol. XI of the Library of Home Economics.) The Sick-Room. See Household Hygiene...
-Complete Course In Home Economics
This course covers, systematically, in an interesting and practical way, the new Profession of Home-making and Art of Right Living. It is divided into forty lesson pamphlets of fifty to one hundre...
-Partial List Of Instructors
Isabel Bevier, Ph. M. Professor of Household Science, University of Illinois S. MARIA ELLIOTT Instructor in Home Economics, Simmons College, Boston BERTHA M. TERRILL, A. M. Professor of...









TOP
previous page: The Home Cyclopedia Of Cooking And Housekeeping | by Charles Morris
  
page up: Household Books
  
next page: Miss Beecher's Housekeeper And Healthkeeper