But the correct, or normal, height, as intended by nature, is only secured by taking a mean. Thus, if 72,000 women were each measured separately, the largest number of the same height would represent the true normal height, and anything above or below this mean would represent deviations from the normal.
Appended is a copy of a table and diagram representing the heights from actual measurement of 430 English schoolboys of from eleven to twelve years of age, here given for the purpose of illustrating the method of securing a mean.
Table showing how to find mean height
To obtain the mean or normal weight of the mean or normal woman, an average has to be struck by first obtaining the sum of the weights of the women representing the mean weight, and then dividing this by the number of persons weighed. In the same way, the average weight of all the other women having similar heights would be struck, from which a table giving the average weight of the women of various heights would be shown.
The following measurements indicate the full developments to which any normal woman may safely attempt to attain by special exercises.
It will be found, however, that the ideals of the artist and sculptor, the physiologist and the physical culturist, vary considerably.
The relative physiological proportions of the human figure, as accepted by artists and physiologists, are based upon the length of the head; but, as a matter of fact, no rules can absolutely be depended upon.
According to Professor Carus, the length of the head, the length of the hand, the length of the sternum, or chest bone, and the length of the foot from the ankle to the tip of the big toe, are all equal one to another.
Another unhygienic position for sleeping
The circumference of the head equals three times the length of the hand.
The body, stood against a wall in the form of a cross with outstretched arms, is considered to be proportionately grown if the measurements either way are equal - that is, from head to feet, and from finger tip to finger tip; but this is only true up to the age when the increase of height ceases. After then the arm-stretch increases, and in men the breadth of the chest also increases, which causes the arm-stretch to measure relatively more with them than with women. The practical value of the understanding of the relative proportions of the human organism is that when deviations from the normal are found to exist, means can be taken to remove them.
The beauty culturist and the health culturist must work to a certain extent upon the same lines, though the developer of beauty would call a halt long before the developer of health, especially if carried out on athletic lines. While man seeks to beat records in strength and to develop abnormally large muscles, woman desires to add to the lissomeness of her limbs, to the grace of her carriage, and to her ability to take part in, and enjoy, outdoor sports without incurring over-fatigue. Her beauty is real; it is the sign, symptom, and outcome of leading a healthy and rational life, for which she need be none the less a womanly woman.
Whether a woman, on beginning to awaken to the need of physical culture, should begin by cultivating the beauty of her skin, the uprightness of her figure, or the acquirement of a beautiful bust, matters little, as the development of all goes more or less hand in hand.
The freshness, richness, and dainty tint of the skin depend upon the freedom of the circulation of the blood through the heart., arteries, capillaries, and veins; the graceful uprightness of the body depends upon the perfect condition of the vertebral column, and a beautiful chest depends upon the cultivation of deep breathing.
Man is physiologically constructed to respire by the nostrils. There is no greater destroyer of facial beauty than habitual mouth-breathing. The too familiar so-called "adenoid-face" is marked by its look of "gaping stupidity," and is the direct result of mouth-breathing. It causes the nose to lose its lineal definition, and the mouth the much-prized suggestion and indication of capability which add dignity and character to the face. A straight, long nose with large flexible nostrils has been described as a "longevity nose." Small and unused nostrils indicate physical weakness, and are described by Lavater as denoting "unenterprising timidity." Foggy air when passed through the nostrils is filtered and purified, over-dry air is moistened, contaminated air often becomes disinfected, and cold air is warmed before it enters the lungs. The power of the nose to limit the amount of air supplied during physical culture exercises is important, because, so long as the lips are closed, and breathing rhythmical, it is impossible to overstrain the heart, lungs, or blood-vessels. Thus physical culture and beauty culture go hand in hand. Mothers desiring to see their children unmarred in face, features and expression will give unremitting attention to the prevention of the mouth-breathing habit.
The following is an Eastern breathing exercise which gives control and strengthens the functions of nasal breathing. It should be practised in a pure atmosphere for at least five minutes night and morning: Inhale slowly and deeply, close the right nostril by pressing a finger against it, and while it is closed slowly exhale and inhale by the left nostril; then close the left, exhale and inhale by the right nostril, and so on alternately.
Single Nasal Drill. - Should there be a special difficulty in breathing by one of the nostrils, that one should be used for inhaling and exhaling some ten or fifteen times, or till free, during which time the other nostril should be kept closed by pressure. Then follow with the Eastern alternate nasal-drill. This exercise is one of the most valuable of any that can be devised for securing breathing control.
An exercise in "facial breathing" for developing the muscles of the outer sides or wings of the nose, to strengthen and enlarge small and weak nostrils, can be performed thus: Stand before a looking-glass, with closed lips, and inhale and exhale by the nostrils, causing them to visibly move while so doing.
Cir. of neck
Breadth of shoulders
Cir. of chest at rest
Cir. of waist
Cir. of fore arm
Cir. of upper arm
Cir. of upper arm
Cir. of hips
Cir. of thigh
Cir. of calf
See "Manual of Anthropometry," by Charles Roberts, F.k.c.s., etc.