The commonest ailments in winter are rheumatism, bronchitis, cold in the head, influenza, pneumonia, and pleurisy. Many of these originate in " chill," which is not the cause of the ailment, but a predisposing agent in all winter ailments.

Children are peculiarly susceptible to chill, because they lose heat rapidly, and the mother who understands how to guard against chill, while not over-coddling, will go far to ensure health in the nursery.

One of the chief causes of chill with children is over-clothing, with the risk that the child becomes over-heated with exercise, and catches a chill as the result of the perspiration and damp clothing next to the skin. Wet feet is another frequent cause of chill. Damp-proof boots are absolutely necessary if children are to escape colds and other winter ailments. A mother should frequently inspect the soles of the children's foot-gear, and provide at least two pairs of boots in good condition, so that they may be worn on alternate days. This plan is more economical also, because boots last longer.

The third cause of chill is damp clothing which is not changed quickly enough. If a child gets wet out of doors, he will not catch cold so long as he is moving about. Chill only occurs when the child sits down, because rapid movement generates heat, and the temperature is then maintained at its normal level. If a child comes in wet with rain or damp with perspiration, the clothing should be removed, the body rubbed briskly with a rough towel, and the child dressed in dry clothes. These measures will often prevent a rheumatic attack or cold in the head.

The next article will deal with rheumatism in the nursery, because, in its slighter forms, it is dangerously apt to be neglected, and it is the main cause of heart disease in adult life.