The Lady Curzon fund has also given large financial aid for the training of dais.

The trustees of the Arthington fund, realising the future of the work, have generously contributed 500 for the anatomy laboratory and 1,000 for enlarging dormitories.

Many gifts have also been received from individual friends in England, Ireland, Scotland, America, and Canada.

Grateful patients and their friends have also expressed their thanks in substantial form, a well and a telephone being among the presents received from them.

The husband of one patient, finding that, in order to visit his wife, he had to go through a bathroom, this being the only entrance to her room, since, of course, it was not permissible for him to pass through the women's apartments, generously presented the hospital with two private wards with outside entrances.

Different missionary societies have cooperated in order to make the school a success. The students from the mission schools are sent to Ludhiana to train, and then return to work in connection with the society which has sent them. It is naturally a very great advantage to the missions to be able to employ qualified Indian Christian women in their hospitals in place of the very meagre supply of English doctors before available. It also lessens very considerably the strain upon the heads of the staff to have working under them reliable assistants who are fully trained in both the missionary and medical aims of the work.

The Problems Of Caste

The position of the school is, unfortunately, unique, as it is the one school in India which trains only women for the medical profession. There are, of course, schools of medicine where both men and women are trained together; but Indian women, owing to generations of seclusion, are not, perhaps, yet fitted to enjoy the same liberty as their English sisters. It cannot be said at present that mixed schools are, certainly as regards the women students, an entire success. The Indian woman, at the end of her medical training in a school exclusively for women, is, from every point of view, better fitted to go out into the world as a doctor than the student who has been trained in a mixed school, who has had little opportunity of studying the diseases of women. The very large majority of cases in hospitals attached to schools of medicine are men; therefore, it is difficult for a woman doctor to gain the requisite experience for a practice among women.

The hospital attached to the North India School of Medicine is exclusively for women, and many women of the highest caste avail themselves of the opportunity of receiving medical and surgical assistance without losing caste. Every care is taken to respect the wishes of the patients in this respect. Due notice is given when the Government inspector pays his periodical visits, in order that the women may veil themselves, and if the husband of a patient arrives to visit her, he is enveloped in a blanket before being allowed to cross the courtyard.

All the water is drawn by a Brahmin, and the cook is also a Brahmin. She not only cooks the food, but carries it round to the patients. She is accompanied by a nurse in order that each patient may receive the food intended for her, but the nurse must not touch it, nor even let her shadow fall upon it, nor must she touch the patient until the meal is concluded-or the food would be defiled.

The Influence Of Religion

All patients will eat food prepared by Brahmins, as their caste is the highest. Great tact and patience is needed with regard to the food itself. There is often a difference of opinion on this subject between a doctor and a patient, as will easily be understood by those who know that dried violets, silver and gold paper, crushed pearls, and similar delicacies are looked upon as highly nutritive by Hindus, who refuse to touch meat, soup, or eggs. Their feelings in other respects also have to be considered. An operation must not be performed on an "unlucky day." A widow must not be asked to wear anything white, which is supposed to render her liable to the attacks of evil spirits. A strict Mohammedan may feel that She is breaking her fast if her ear is syringed, and arrangements must be made to give her medicine only in the night during the fast of Ramazan. All these peculiarities still further emphasise the importance of training Christian native doctors, dispensers, and nurses, most of whose relatives, if not themselves, once held similar beliefs. They are, therefore, better fitted to deal with such cases than any foreigner, however excellent her intentions.

A Pressing Need

Already one fully qualified woman doctor is on the staff of this hospital, Dr. Maga Das, and it will probably not be long before others join her. But much remains to be done. The school is but the pioneer of the numbers which it will be necessary to establish before a doctor even a day's journey distant can be provided for each of India's 150 million women. Like gold in a mine, the doctors in embryo are to be found all over India, but a mine is useless until it is worked. Here again, as in the matter of education (dealt with in Part 12, page 1515), there is the possibility of secular Government schools of medicine for women being opened, and so one of the openings for the advance of Christianity will be closed.

Already the need is felt; so much so that the Government has approached the committee on behalf of non-christians who wish to obtain training. It has been decided to admit them when there is room for them, and as soon as they have acquired a sufficiently good knowledge of English. It is necessary to conduct the classes in English, as it is the only language which all the students understand. At the present time they represent many different races, and speak nine different languages. They come to the school from all parts of India.

The size of the present school is most inadequate, but funds do not yet permit of the necessary additional buildings. The establishment of scholarships (15 to 20 a year) for students, the majority of whom are quite unable to pay their own fees, and the maintenance of beds in the hospital {10 a year or an endowment of 250) are also greatly needed.

Infant Mortality

Besides the training of doctors, dispensers, and nurses, the training of native midwives has been undertaken in the school. A most successful attempt has been made to get the hereditary dais (a special caste who undertake this work) to attend classes, with the cheering result that the death rate of both mothers and babies has been considerably reduced. But there is at present no midwives' register such as we have in England. It is impossible to describe the barbarous treatment experienced by expectant mothers under present conditions.

The dispensary practice is very large. Sometimes over 200 patients are seen in one morning, the total attendance in 1909 being over 62,000. Bible-women read to the waiting patients. These Bible-women are supported by grants from the British and Foreign Bible Society (the work of which was described in Part 3, page

It will be readily understood that if this most valuable work is to prosper and spread to other parts of India, not only are funds needed, but also workers. English women doctors and nurses are urgently required willing to devote themselves to training the native women, who in the future will be able, not only to do the work themselves, but to train their fellow countrywomen. This few are at present sufficiently advanced to undertake, although accounts of the work being done by old students in various parts of the country are most encouraging. The mission hospitals are loud in their praise, and they are much sought after in Government hospitals.

One old student has been for nearly two years in full charge of the Victoria Memorial Hospital at Delhi without any doctor over her, and has done splendidly. In October, 1910, the committee gave her a present of Rs.400 in recognition of her good work. She receives Rs.100 a month and house and servants, and gets from Rs.50 to over Rs.200 extra by private patients. This is about twice as much as the salaries which missionary doctors receive.

A Lucrative Employment

There is no doubt that, looked upon only as a lucrative employment, the study of medicine commends itself to would-be students, but when, added to that, there is the assurance of being enabled to lessen the suffering of their fellow-women, it only needs the opportunity to cause many to come forward and offer themselves for training. And it is the most earnest prayer of all who are desirous of spreading the knowledge of Christianity that this training shall be given through Christian institutions such as the North India School of Medicine, further particulars of which can be obtained from the secretary in England, Miss L. M. Hill, 36, Fairfield Road, Bromley, Kent. patients in the courtyard of the hospital. The North India School of Medicine aims at meeting the terrible need for skilled medical attendance for women by training native women as doctors, dispensers, and nurses