A good plan is to first work in the shadows, leaving the lights very sharp and clear; then put on the half-tones, finally working up the high lights with Chinese white and alber-nine. By another method the shadows can be put in, then a light clear wash run over the whole, and the high lights added last. The latter method is preferable in black silk or satin, where the lights should be put in with grey (Chinese white and black), and only the most brilliant ones in pure white.
In velvet a wash of water should be put on first, then pure black paint run on while it is wet, not taking the colour to the edge, but allowing it to spread, so that it is lighter at the edges. The lights can be taken out with a brush and clean water and thin grey lines added at the edges of the folds.
This should be worked with the pen and Indian ink. The pattern should first be drawn, then a network of lines put in, and the folds and shadows should be washed in with paint. A crisp treatment should be sought.
Here the material is soft though transparent, and should be worked up with soft shadows with a sharp line here and there.
This should be worked like silk but with softer lights.
Work as soft as possible with thick edges, but with no sharp lines.
A careful study of the characteristics of all these fabrics is essential. Once having grasped the salient points of the material, though you may not immediately succeed in representing it, you will have gone more than half way towards doing so.
The most important detail in fashion work is lace. Its representation has been carried to great perfection, and in some originals it is marvellous to find how exactly and beautifully it is copied; yet there is need for caution here.
Some drawings, very beautiful in themselves, are entirely lost when reproduced. This is because an attempt has been made to portray too much. What is required is selection. Pick out the most important lines of the pattern, slightly exaggerate them, and keep the remainder in the background.
Method of Working Lace. - A good plan, especially for the beginner, is to draw the pattern in Indian ink, and, when dry, put a dark wash of black paint or ink and water over it. When dry the pattern can be seen through the wash, and can be painted in with white paint, albernine for the principal parts, Chinese white for the others. (See Fig. 1.)
Fig. 2. For embroidered muslin use a thin wash of Chinese white, and work in the pattern with albernine
When the lace is in folds, as in flounces, the folds should be first worked up in the same manner as black material, then the pattern put on in white. The parts in shadow should be worked in grey.
Embroidered Muslin. - This can be treated with a thin wash of Chinese white over the whole, then the pattern worked in albernine. (See Fig. 2.)
Broderie Anglaise. - Here the small holes should first be worked in ink, then outlined with albernine. (See Fig. 3.)
Black Lace. - This should be worked with pen and ink, and so should .sequined net. Put the sequins in solid, and add brilliant high lights with pure albernine.
Braid. - Draw the pattern with pen and ink; then put a clean wash of black over it, and finally touch up with grey. (See Fig.4.)
Patterns. - In representing patterned materials, a good idea of the whole pattern should be given; but it is often impossible to put in the whole of the pattern, this again being a case of selection.
Millinery is generally admitted to be somewhat " tricky," as so much depends upon the angle at which the hat is viewed. The chief object should be to select the best point of view for exhibiting its beauties, and also to see that the face over which it is worn is not only pretty, but one suited to the hat; in this case the face being suited to the hat, and not the hat to the face.
The technical part of millinery is perhaps easier than that of other parts of dress, as a certain amount of freedom is allowed, but the effect should be crisp and to the point.
For catalogue work the material of the shapes, straw, crinoline, etc., should be carefully defined; this may be done with pen and ink. The chief trimmings for hats are feathers and flowers. Ribbons are worked like silk, for which directions have already been given.
Fig. 3. For broderie anglaise, first work the small holes in ink, then outline with albernine
Feathers. - For these the most artistic method is to work up the masses of light and shade, merely touching up here and there with white.