Attention should first be given to the pans, which are of importance in the equipment of a kitchen, whether large or small. No kitchen should be considered complete without a stockpot of some description. The ideal one is made either of seamless steel or tin-lined copper, and possesses a tap, behind which is placed a grating to pie-ventpieces escaping when stock is drawn off. A "bain-marie" is invaluable, for in it can be placed various sauces, soups, etc., which can be kept hot for any length of time without any fear of their boiling over or drying up.
A stockpot of seamless steel with tap, by which the fluic contents can be drawn off
A strong block-tin fish-kettle should be found in every kitchen, and should be kept exclusively for fish.
Though doubtless every cook has her own particular favourite "make" and shape of saucepans, it is well to have one or two of each kind, beginning with two or more tin-lined or enamelled cast-iron or wrought-iron ones.
A bain-marie is invaluable, as by its use sauces, soups, and gravies can be kept hot without risk of spoiling
A double saucepan, in which to boil milk or cook porridge, prevents risk of burning
The lid of a braising-pan is sunk in order that hot coals may be placed on it to supply upper heat to the contents
An "oval boiler" or "leg of mutton
A useful and economical contrivance is the cast-iron saucepan with a block-tin steamer fixed over it. Two articles can be cooked in it at the same time; for example, potatoes might be boiling in the saucepan, while a pudding is being cooked in the steamer.
A frying-basket which fits into the outer pan is very con-venient when cooking small articles
A saute pan, though not essential, is most convenient
Double baking-tin with revolving grid. Water is poured into the outer tin when baking meat
Seamless steel pans are very strong and durable and not too heavy. They are of good appearance, can be easily re-tinned, are good, even conductors of heat, and do not destroy the colour and flavour of delicate foods.
A milk saucepan is a great convenience, and consists of a pan made either of tin, iron, or enamel ware, into which a china pan fits. The milk is placed in the china one, while water is put in the outer one. This arrangement prevents the milk from boiling over or burning. A porridge saucepan is much the same, and does away with the necessity of constantly watching and stirring the porridge.
A Dutch oven, game oven, and broiler will each be found very useful in the kitchen
A braising-pan, though most useful, is not absolutely essential. The centre of the lid is sunk, to allow room for hot coals to be placed in it, the idea being for the meat to be cooked between two fires. The pan is made either of copper or wrought iron.
The frying-pan is one of the utensils deemed by all an absolute essential to the well-being of the house. Though convenient, it is used much oftener in English homes than it ought to be, and is often substituted for the grill. A shallow pan is required for English or "shallow frying," but a deep frying-pan is necessary for the French or "deep frying " method; for example, when cooking rissoles, croquettes, or fritters.
Baking-tin for meat, with well and movable grid
Though not always necessary, a frying-basket is very convenient when frying whitebait, parsley, or any other small articles.
A saute-pan is most convenient, though not absolutely essential. If, however, there is not one, a frying-pan may be substituted without difficulty.
An omelet-pan is necessary for the making of good omelets. The rounded ones are the most convenient, as there is then no crevice in which the mixture can stick. Omelet-pans should be used only for omelet-making, and they should never be washed. They should merely be rubbed over with pieces of soft paper, using, if necessary, a little salt.
Baking-tins for meat are best made of tinned steel. They should have a well at one corner, and either an iron grating or a revolving grid. The latter does away with the necessity for turning the baking-tin itself in the oven, as the meat can be revolved on the grid, thus saving time and trouble. The best baking-tins are made double, the outer one having an inner lining. Water is poured into the outer one, and this prevents the fat from burning.
A Dutch oven, game-oven, and broiler are all useful adjuncts to the kitchen, while baking-tins of various shapes, sizes, and depths are absolutely essential.
A meat-screen made of wood and lined with tin is most convenient for keeping meat, plates, etc., hot, and for protecting articles from draughts. It is an excellent place in which to put bread to rise.
When roasting, a meat-screen is not only a convenience, but a great saving of heat. The bottle-jack is hung in it, the joint being suspended from it. The meat is thus protected from all draughts while it is being roasted. When much clear soup and clear jellies are made it is advisable to have a proper straining stand, but an excellent substitute may be made by placing a kitchen chair, seat downwards, on the table, and fastening a clean teacloth by the four corners to the legs of the chair.
To be continued.
A bottle-jack, to be hung inside the roasting - screen, from which the joint is suspended