Without doubt, the most desirable kind of coloring for extracts, essences and syrups is the juice of natural fruits. To these there can be no possible objection; the only trouble is the inconvenience in procuring them. The time of year in which the fruit is obtainable does not correspond with the opening of the soda water season. This may be overcome in two ways; either by purchasing them already prepared or preparing them yourself when in season.

German black cherry juice may be purchased and is well suited for such purposes. If you prepare the coloring yourself, the black raspberry is, perhaps, the best suited and most convenient. This can be accomplished in the same manner as directed under formulas for the preparation of fruit syrups, except that the amount of sugar may be very much reduced, and the precaution taken to put in dry, well cleaned (scalded), bottles and corked with new and perfect corks, well put in and securely sealed.

In the absence of these colorings, the following formulas may be used:

Solution of Carmine - N. F

Carmine.......................

1 ounce.

Water of Ammonia.............

6 fl. ounces.

Glycerin.......................

6 fl. ounces.

Water (enough to make)........

16 fl. ounces.

Triturate the Carmine to a fine powder in a wedgewood mortar, gradually add the Water of Ammonia, and afterward the Glycerin, under constant trituration; transfer the mixture to a porcelain capsule and heat it upon a water bath, constantly stirring until the liquid is entirely free from ammoniacal odor; then cool and add enough water to make sixteen (16) fluidounces.

Solution of Cochineal - N. F

(cochineal color)

Cochineal (No. 50 powder)......

1 troyounce.

Carbonate of Potassium ........

1/2 troyounce.

Alum.......................

1/2 troyounce.

Bitartrate of Potassium.........

1 troyounce.

Glycerin.......................

8 fl. ounces.

Alcohol.......................

1 fl. ounce.

Water (enough to make) .......

16 fl. ounces.

Triturate the Cochineal intimately with the Carbonate of Potassium and eight (8) fluid-ounces of water; then add the Alum and Bitartrate of Potassium successively; heat the mixture to boiling, in a capacious vessel, then set aside to cool; add it to the Glycerin and Alcohol, filter and pass enough water through the filter to make sixteen (16) fluidounces.

Tincture of Cochineal - Br

Cochineal (powdered), 2 1/2 ounces.

Proof Spirit.........1 pint, Imp.=20 fl. oz.

Mix, macerate for seven (7) days in a closed vessel, with occasional agitation; strain, press, filter, and add sufficient Proof Spirit to make one (1) pint (imperial measure).

This color is brightened by acids and deepened by alkalies.

Solution of Cochineal

(Cochineal color)

Cochineal (powdered)..........

1/2 ounce.

Alum.........................

1/2 ounce.

Cream Tartar..................

1/2 ounce.

Carbonate of Potash...........

1/2 ounce.

Alcohol.......................

1/2 fl. ounce.

Water........................

3 1/2 fl. ounces.

Dissolve the Salts in the Water, and when effervescence has ceased add the Cochineal and Alcohol; allow the mixture to stand twenty-four (24) hours, stirring frequently, and filter, adding through the filter enough water to make four (4) fluidounces.

This preparation is liable to spoil by fermentation, and should, therefore, be made in small quantities and kept in a cool place.

Tincture of Cudbear Compound - N.F

Cudbear.......................................

120 grains.

Caramel.....................

1 1/2 troyounces.

Alcohol and Water (of each enough to make)..........

16 fl. ounces.

Mix Alcohol, one (1) part, and Water, two (2) parts, and macerate Cudbear with twelve (12) fluidounces for twelve (12) hours; filter through paper and add caramel, previously dissolved in two (2) fluid ounces of water and add sufficient of the above menstruum, through the filter, to make sixteen (16) fluidounces.

Tincture of Saffron - U. S

Saffron...........................

3 ounces.

Dilute Alcohol (sufficient to make).

1 pint.

Moisten the Saffron with two and one-half (2 1/2) fluidounces of the menstruum, and macerate for twenty-four (24) hours; then pack firmly in a cylindrical percolator and gradually pour on the menstruum until two (2) parts of tincture are obtained.

Tincture of Safflower

(Tincture of american saffron)

Safflower.........................

3 ounces.

Dilute Alcohol (sufficient to make),

1 pint.

Proceed in the same manner as directed for tincture of saffron.

Tincture of Turmeric

Turmeric (in powder)...........

2 1/2 ounces.

Dilute Alcohol (sufficient to make),

1 pint.

Moisten the Turmeric with a small quantity of the menstruum and pack in percolator; pour on menstruum until one (1) pint of the tincture is obtained.

This is a beautiful yellow liquid, which is rapidly changed to reddish brown by addition of alkalies. Acids produce a light yellow color.

Solution of Caramel

(Caramel Brown - Sugar Color)

Caramel is manufactured from sugar by carefully applying heat, 400° to 420°; on cooling it is found to be in the form of a black, stiff paste or mass. In Europe it is made from starch sugar (glucose), either by a simple process of heating or heating with addition of carbonate of soda or carbonate of ammonia,

The caramel of the market may be produced by taking -

Sugar (granulated).............

16 ounces.

Water........................

6 fl. ounces.

Or a sufficient quantity.

Heat the Sugar as above directed, in a porcelain-lined iron vessel, on a sand bath, until entirely liquid and black; while still hot, gradually and carefully pour in the Water, stirring until thoroughly mixed; let stand until partially cooled; then add water enough to make one (1) pint, and strain through purified cotton placed in the neck of a funnel.