This largely used extract, perhaps, from its extensive manufacture and sale, has suffered more abuse and misrepresentation than all the others combined, excepting vanilla, although its preparation, if the fundamental rules laid down in this work are observed, is not difficult. Its sale, in some parts of the country, is much in excess of the universally admired vanilla, while in others the reported demand is not greater.

We give, under this head, two formulas for the above named extract. The first as spirit, sometimes called Essence (?) of Lemon, of the United States Pharmacopoeia; the second as Tincture of Lemon or Tincture of Fresh Lemon Peel, of theBritish Pharmacopoeia. Both are good preparations. The U. S. formula contains the oil and rind, while the Br. has only the rind added to the spirit. Each is given in the language of its particular authority.

Spirit of Lemon - U. S

(Essence (?) of Lemon) _

Oil of Lemon........................................

6 parts.

Lemon Peel (freshly grated)..................

4 parts

Alcohol, a sufficient quantity.

Dissolve the Oil of Lemon in ninety (90) parts of Alcohol, add the Lemon Peel, and macerate for twenty-four hours; then filter through paper, adding through the filter enough Alcohol to make the spirit weigh one hundred (100) parts. .

Tincture of Lemon - Br

(tincture or fresh lemon peel)

Fresh Lemon Peel (sliced thin)

.2 1/2 ounces.

Proof Spirit*..................

1 pint, imp.

Macerate for seven (7) days in a closed vessel, with occasional agitation; strain, press and filter; then add sufficient Proof Spirit to make one (1) pint, imperial measure.

"Concentrated tinctures1" of lemon and orange are now coming into use, which are sold as superior flavorings.

*Proof spirit (Br.), may be made by mixing alcohol (U. S.), 61 parts and water 42 parts, the mixture shrinking to 100 parts.

Note - A Tincture of Fresh Lemon Peel formula was published a few years since, in which it was directed to pare the fruit thinly and place it in a suitable vessel with deodorized alcohol, using four (4) ounces of peel to the pint. After standing for thirty (30) days, draw off and filter. This was called a saturated or stock tiucture, to be used in making the Flavoring Extract.

Extract of Lemon. * a

Rind of Lemon (exterior).......

2 ounces.

Alcohol (95 per cent), deodorized,

2 pints.

Oil of Lemon (recent) ..............................

3 fl. ounces.

Expose the Lemon Rind to the air until perfectly dry, then bruise it in a wedgewood mortar and add it to the Alcohol, with agitation, until the color is extracted; then add the Oil, and, if it does not immediately dissolve and become clear, let it stand, with occasional agitation, for a day or two, and filter.

The color for this extract may be obtained from safflower, but, for many reasons, it is best to use the natural lemon color. The object of exposing the rind is to avoid weakening the alcohol, which should be as pure as possible.

When materials used are the best, and the extract is well corked in a full bottle, it improves by standing a few weeks before filtering.

* Proctor.

Extract of Lemon. † b

Oil of Lemon (fresh)...........................

8 ounces.

Lemon Peel (fresh, grated) .......................

4 ounces.

Alcohol (Atwood's, diluted, q. s.). .

1 gallon.

Mix Oil and Peel of Lemon with seven (7) pints of the alcohol, then add a mixture of water and alcohol, one (1) pint, in such pio-portions that the mixture will be only slightly clouded; let stand seven days and filter for use.

Extract of Lemon - lmproved

Oil of Lemon (select)..........

8 fl. ounces.

Oil of Lemongrass (fresh)......

1 fl. dram.

Lemon Peel (fresh grated) from.......

1 dozen.

Alcohol (Atwood's)............

7 pints.

Water (boiled)................

1 pint.

Mix and macerate for seven days. If in a hurry for the product, percolate through the Lemon Peel and filter.

The addition of any other substance than the oil and rind of the lemon has not, so far as we know, been recommended. A circumstance that occurred some years since has led us, after the lapse of a decade, to the belief that an addition may be made with great improvement in the product. In this departure, we literally "go to grass" for our addition, but it is to Lemongrass. However, to use the words of Franklin, "for want of care in using this flavor, one may easily overdo the thing. As the result of our experience, we may venture the statement that after its value has become generally known, no extract of lemon will be considered perfect without it. It stands related to lemon extract as musk to perfumes. It is a fastener, a developer, and while not made from the lemon, it is pre-eminently the thing.*

†Parrish.

Extract of Lemon - Standard

Oil of Lemon..................

3 fl. ounces.

Spirit of Lemon...............

6 fl. ounces.

Tincture of Turmeric...........

1 fl. ounce.

Alcohol (middle run)..........

6 1/2 pints.

Water (boiled)................

20 fl. ounces.

Mix and filter, if necessary.

As was remarked under Standard Extract of Vanilla, this formula also may be taken as producing an average extract of the market.

*The lower the grade of spirit and lemon oil used, the greater its perceived virtue.