Hop Yeast

Place 1 handful of hops in a cheese-cloth bag, and boil in 2 quarts of water for fifteen minutes; then remove the bag, and pour the boiling tea over I pint of white Hour, to which has been added I tablespoonful of salt, pouring slowly at first in order to have it smooth and free from lumps. If at all lumpy, strain, and when lukewarm, add 1 cup of liquid yeast or 1/2 cake of compressed yeast, and set in a warm place to rise. When light, put in glass cans, and keep in a cool place.

Fruit Yeast

Take 1 cup of raisins, wash them well, and put them to soak in 1 1/2 pints of warm water, keeping them in a warm place for two or three days, or until fermentation takes place, which can be told by the bubbles on top of the water. Then make a potato yeast by boiling 4 good-sized potatoes until tender; mash fine, or sift through a colander or vegetable press. Add 1 teaspoonful of salt, 1 tablespoonful of sugar, and when cooled to blood-heat, add enough of the raisin water to make of the right consistency, which will be about 2 cupfuls. Let it rise until light, and then put in clean glass cans, and keep in a cool place. It is better to be a few days old before using.

Potato Yeast

Peel 4 good-sized potatoes, boil, and mash them. Add to them 2 tablespoonfuls of sugar, 1/2 tablespoonful of salt, 1 1/2 cups of water, and sift through a sieve to remove all lumps.

When lukewarm, add 1/2 cup of good yeast, and let stand until well risen; then put into sterilized glass cans, and keep in a cool place.

Graham Bread

It is always best to set the sponge with white flour, for the graham flour is more likely to sour, as it contains more gluten. When both kinds of bread are to be made, some of the white sponge may be taken for making the graham bread.

To I pint of the sponge, add 1 pint of warm water, 1 tea-spoonful of salt, and 1 of malt extract. Add enough graham flour to make a rather stiff dough. Pull or knead for half an hour. Form into loaves, oil with nut oil, and when they have risen to twice their original size, place in the oven and bake for one hour. The oven should be moderate for the first twenty minutes, to give the bread a chance to rise before a crust forms; then the oven should be hot for twenty minutes, that all the yeast germs may be killed; and then moderated at the last, so to not burn the crust. When done, remove from the tins, and set in a draft, on a tin or a plate, until cool.

Steamed Graham Bread

Take 3 1/2 cups of graham flour, 2 cups of corn-meal, 3 cups of nut milk, 1 cup of malt extract, 1 teaspoonful of salt. Mix the nut milk, salt, and malt together; then mix the corn-meal and flour, and stir into the liquid. Put into basins or baking-powder cans, and steam for two and one-half hours. Then brown in the oven for fifteen minutes.

Salt-Rising Bread

Take a perfectly clean bowl, and one that has not had any acid substance like cooked fruit in it. Put in it 1 cup of warm water, 1/2 teaspoonful of salt, 1 teaspoonful of corn-meal, 1 drop of ginger extract, and enough white flour to make a medium thick batter. Beat it very thoroughly, and set the bowl in a pan of warm water to secure a uniformity of temperature. It will rise in about five hours, sometimes more quickly. Much depends upon the flour. When it is light, take a pint of quite warm water, and add enough flour to make a rather stiff sponge. When lukewarm, add the rising, stirring it in well. If kept in a warm place, it ought to be light in one or two hours. When light, knead into loaves. It requires much less kneading than yeast bread. When the loaves have risen to twice their original size, bake in a moderate oven for nearly an hour.