The world's production of various food crops for 1908 is as follows:

Bushels

Potatoes...........4,927,576,000

Cora............3,478,328,000

Wheat...........3,176,479,000

Barley...........1,267,561,000

Rye............ 1,587,733,000

A comparison between potatoes and rice given in pounds:

Pounds

Potatoes..........334,431,840,000

Rice...........135,186,068,000

The Year Book of the Department of Agriculture gives the potato crop of the principal potato-growing countries as follows:

(No statistics for Switzerland, Portugal, Argentina, Transvaal, Egypt and some other less important potato-growing countries.)

North America

Year 1904 Bushels

Year 1908 Bushels

United States ...............

332,830,000

278,985,000

Mexico ........................

527,000

469,000

Newfoundland .................

1,350,000

1,350,000

Canada .......................

55,436,000

74,746,000

Total...........

390,143,000

355,550,000

South America

Chile................

6,131,000

8,063,000

Europe

Austria-Hungary.....

520,461,000

639,407,000

Belgium ....................

91,632,000

82,846,000

Denmark ...................

24,214,000

29,752,000

Finland ................

15,465,000

20,432,000

France..............

451,039,000

375,000,000

Germany............

1,333,326,000

1,702,803,000

Italy................

29,000,000

29,000,000

Malta...............

733,000

692,000

Netherlands.

94,421,000

96,695,000

Norway...

17,253,000

28,030,000

Roumania...........

3,001,000

4,310,000

Russia (European).. ..

893,908,000

1,060,135,000

Servia .................

718,000

645,000

Spain. . ..

84,000,000

84,000,000

Sweden .......................

51,314,000

78,020,000

potato statistics - continued.

Europe

Year 1904 Bushels

Year 1908 Bushels

Great Britain ..................

133,961,000

146,258,000

Ireland ...................

98,635,000

119,455,000

(Total Great Britain and Ireland).......

(232,596,000)

(265,713,000)

Total...........

3,843,081,000

4,497,480,000

Asia

Japan ...............

11,274,000

21,023,000

Russia (Asiatic) ..................

18,800,000

22,588,000

Total.............

30,074,000

43,611,000

Africa

Algeria ....................

1,655,000

1,803,000

Cape of Good Hope...

1,942,000

1,304,000

Natal...............

451,000

405,000

Total.............

4,048,000

3,512,000

Australasia

Australia .............

16,777,000

14,021,000

New Zealand ...............

7,795,000

5,339,000

Total.............

24,572,000

19,360,000

Grand Total.......

4,298,049,000

4,927,576,000

A comparison of the total value with that of other 1909 crops in the United States is interesting:

Acreage

Production

Value

Potatoes ..............

3,525,000

376,537,000

206,545,000

Corn ...............

108,771,000

2,772,376,000

1,652,822,000

Wheat...............

46,723,000

737,189,000

730,046,000

Oats.................

33,204,000

1,007,353,000

408,174,000

Barley ................

7,001,000

170,284,000

93,971,000

Rye..................

2,006,000

32,239,000

23,809,000

Buckwheat...........

834,000

17,438,000

12,188,000

Rice.................

720,225

24,368,000

19,341,000

While of increasing importance in the United States, there are other crops that outclass it here. This is due to the fact that this is one of the great grain-producing countries of the world, and that the potato industry is capable of almost unlimited expansion here. In Europe its relative importance is very much greater than in the United States. A resume of the potato industry in the United States from 1866 to 1909 shows the increase in its importance and volume:

Acreage, Production, Value, Prices, etc.

Year

Acreage planted and harvested

Average yield per acre

Production

Aver.

farm price per bu.

Dec. I

Farm value Dec. Ist

Imports during fiscal year beginning

July I

1866

1,069,000

100.2

107,201 000

47.3

50,723,000

198,265

1867

1,192,000

82.0

97,783,000

65.9

64,462,000

209,555

1868

1,132,000

93.8

106,090,000

59.3

62,919,000

138,470

1869

1,222,000

109.5

133,886,000

42.9

57,481,000

75,336

1870

1,325,000

86.6

114,775,000

65.0

74,621.000

458,758

1871

1,221,000

98.7

120,462,000

53.9

64,905,000

96,259

1872

1,331,000

85.3

113,516,000

53.5

60,692,000

346,840

1873

1,295,000

81.9

106,089,000

65.2

69,154,000

549,073

1874

1,310,000

80.9

105,881,000

61.5

65,223,000

188,757

1875

1,510,000

110.5

166,877,000

34.4

57,358,000

92,148

1876

1,742,000

71.7

124,827,000

61.9

77,320,000

3,205,555

1877

1,792,000

94.9

170,002,000

43.7

74,272,000

528,584

1878

1,777,000

69.9

124,127,000

58.7

72,924,000

2,624,149

1879

1,837,000

98.9

181,626,000

43.6

79,154,000

721,868

1880

1,843,000

91.0

167,660,000

48.3

81,062,000

2,170,372

1881

2,042,000

53.5

100,145,000

91.0

99,291,000

8,789,860

1882

2,172,000

78.7

170,973,000

55.7

95,305,000

2,362,362

. 1883

2,289,000

90.9

208,164,000

42.2

87,849,000

425,408

1884

2,221,000

85.8

190,642,000

39.6

75,524,000

658,633

1885

2,266,000

77.2

175,029,000

44.7

78,153,000

1,937,416

1886

2,287,000

73.5

168,051,000

46.7

78,442,000

1,432,490

1887

2,357,000

56.9

134,103,000

68.2

91,507,000

8,259,538

1888

2,533,000

79.9

202,365,000

40.2

81,414,000

883,380

1889

2,648,000

77.4

204,881,000

35.4

72,611,000

3,415,578

1890

2,652,000

55.9

148,290,000

75.8

112,342,000

5,401,912

1891

2,715,000

93.7

254,424,000

35.8

91,013,000

186,871

1892

2,548,000

61.5

156,655,000

66.1

103,568,000

4,317,021

1893

2,605,000

70.3

183,034,000

59.4

108,662,000

3,002,578

1894

2,738,000

62.4

170,787,000

53.6

91,527,000

1,341,533

1895

2,955,000

100.6

297,237,000

26.6

78,985,000

175,240

1896

2 767 000

91.1

252.235 000

28.6

72,182,000

246,178

1897

2,535,000

64.7

164,016,000

54.7

89,643,000

1,171,378

1898

2,558,000

75.2

192,306,000

41.4

79,575,000

530,420

1899

2,581,000

88.6

228,783,000

39.0

89,329,000

155,861

1900

2,611,000

80.8

210,927,000

43.1

90,811,000

371,911

1901

2,864,000

65.5

187,598,000

76.7

143,979,000

7,656,162

1902

2,966,000

96.0

284,633,000

47.1

134,111,000

358,505

1903

2,917,000

84.7

247,128,000

61.4

151,638,000

3,166,581

1904

3,016,000

110.4

332,830,000

45.3

150,673,000

181,199

1905

2,997,000

87.0

260,741,000

61.7

160,821,000

1,948,160

1906

3,013,000

102.2

308,038,000

51.1

157,547,000

176,917

1907

3,128 000

95.4

298,262,000

61.8

184,184,000

403,952

1908

3,257,000

85.7

278,985,000

70.6

197,039,000

8,883,969

1909

3,525,000

106.8

376,537,000

54.9

206,545,000

The variation in price is worthy of notice, and the fact that the average yield per acre is practically the same now as forty years ago shows the possibilities of advanced work and methods. The acreage has been increasing gradually with the development of the country.

The annual imports from Europe bear a direct relation to the total home production.

The acreage, production, and value of potatoes in the United States in 1909 follow:

State, territory or division

Acreage

Production

Farm Value December Ist

Maine ...............

130,000

29,250,000

$13,748,000

New Hampshire ..............

21,000

2,730,000

1,747,000

Vermont .......................

30,000

4,650,000

2,046,000

Massachusetts ...................

34,000

4,250,000

3,358,000

Rhode Island ...................

6,000

750,000

600,000

Connecticut ...................

36,000

4,320,000

3,586,000

New York............

438,000

52,560,000

26,280,000

New Jersey ...............

80,000

7,200,000

5,904000

Pennsylvania .......................

305,000

23,790,000

15,464,000

North Atlantic ..................

1,080,000

129,500,000

72,733,000

Delaware .............

9,000

864,000

622,000

Maryland ................

35,000

2,800,000

1,848,000

Virginia ...................

60,000

5,520,000

3,864,000

West Virginia ....................

39,000

3,822,000

2,599,000

North Carolina ................

25,000

1,850,000

1,498,000

South Carolina ................

9,000

765,000

880,000

Georgia .......................

10,000

810,000

810,000

Florida...............

5,000

475,000

570,000

South Atlantic ...................

192,000

16,906,000

12,691,000

Ohio..................

182,000

16,926,000

9,479,000

Indiana..............

95,000

9,025,000

4,693,000

Illinois...............

164,000

14,924,000

9,104,000

Michigan.............

348,000

36,540,000

12,789,000

Wisconsin............

262,000

26,724,000

10,155,000

N.C.E. of Miss. River..

1,051,000

104,139,000

46,220,000

Minnesota ...............

160,000

18,400,000

6,440,000

Iowa ..................

145,000

12,905,000

7,098,000

Missouri ....................

88,000

7,480,000

5,012,000

North Dakota.........

40,000

4,400,000

1,908,000

South Dakota ..................

50,000

4,000,000

2,520,000

Nebraska ................

105,000

8,190,000

4,914,000

Kansas .........................

91,000

7,189,000

5,679,000

N.C.W. of Miss. River.

679,000

62,564,000

33,643,000

State, territory or division

Acreage

Production

Farm Value December Ist

Kentucky....................................

40,000

3,680,000

2,355,000

Tennessee..................................

30,000

2,250,000

1,598,000

Alabama.....................................

17,000

1,360,000

1,333,000

Mississippi...............................

9,000

783,000

744,000

Louisiana................................

16,000

1,200,000

1,092,000

Texas..................................

60,000

3,000,000

3,180,000

Oklahoma..................................

27,000

1,890,000

1,796,000

Arkansas.........................................

33,000

2,310,000

2,215,000

South Central....................................

232,000

16,473,000

14,223,000

Mentana..............................................

25,000

4,500,000

2,295,000

Wyoming......................................

10,000

1,600,000

1,008,000

Colorado.............

65,000

10,400,000

5,928,000

New Mexico..........

1,000

85,000

86,000

Utah.................

15,000

2,700,000

1,161,000

Nevada..............

3,000

540,000

459,000

Idaho......................................

25,000

5,000,000

2,400,000

Washington...................................

41,000

6,970,000

3,276,000

Oregon..........................................

46,000

7,360,000

4,416,000

California.......................................

60,000

7,800,000

6,006,000

Far Western.............................

291,000

46,955,000

27,035,000

United States.........

3,525,000

376,537,000

206,545,000

It will be noted that the states rank as follows:

New York......... 52,560,000 bushels

Michigan.......... 36,540,000 "

Maine........... 29,250,000 "

Wisconsin......... 26,724,000 "

Pennsylvania........ 23,790,000 "

The importance given Idaho, Colorado, California, and other Western states in this book is because of the quality of their product and the possibilities in developing and enlarging the industry.

The average production of wheat and potatoes in different countries covering a period of ten years is given: