This section is from the book "The Potato: A Compilation of Information from Every Available Source", by Eugene H. Grubb, W. S. Guilford. Also available from Amazon: The Potato: A Compilation Of Information From Every Available Source.
In "Popular Bulletin No. 11" of the Washington State Experiment Station A. G. Craig says:
There are often different strains of a single variety of potatoes which differ from each other in their characteristics - especially yield - more than do the different varieties. Many varieties possess more characteristics in common than do two different strains of the same variety. Hence, the importance of a well-bred strain of any given variety for seed purposes. Select only such varieties for late potatoes as will mature early enough to give ample time for digging in the fall under normal conditions. A few of the best of the many hundred varieties which have been grown on the station farm and at other places in the state are described below. They are arranged in groups according to their habits of growth, and in each group the varieties are placed in the order of preference - yield, shape, color, character of eyes, etc., being taken into consideration - as judged by the results of our two years' tests.
Group 1: Varieties that produce new potatoes early, and mature early in the season: New Queen, White Ohio, White Rose, Pick's Early, Irish Cobbler, New Early Standard, Six Weeks, White Star, King of Michigan, Early Thoroughbred, New Century, New Climax, Early Ohio, Early Rose.
Group 2: Varieties that produce new potatoes early and mature early in September: Sweet Home, Champion of the World, Early Excelsior, Rural Red, Crine's Lightning, White Victor, Early Hamilton.
Group 3: Varieties that produce new potatoes early but mature late: Burpee's Extra Early, Arcadia, Crown Jewel, Bovee, Algoma.
Group 4: Varieties that produce good, marketable tubers and ripen early in the fall; promising for localities where potatoes have a tendency to grow too late in the fall': New Burbank, American Wonder, White Lily, Medium, Carman No. 1, Sir Walter Raleigh, Green Mountain, Vermont Gold Coin.
Group 5: Varieties that yield heavily, maturing late in season: Governor Folk, Ross Favorite, Rural New Yorker No. 2, Snowflake Junior, Carman No. 3, Burbank, White Beauty, White Mammoth, North Pole Easterly, Great Divide, North Pole Stinnett, Harvest King, North Pole.
Group 6: Heavy yielding varieties; undesirable for market purposes, but may be grown for stock feed: Johnson's Seedling, Purple and Gold, Pin-gree, Red Jacket, Empress of India."