(a good common receipt.) Put into a basin a large teaspoonful of flour, and a little salt, then mix with them very gradually and very smoothly a quarter-pint of cold water; turn these into a small clean saucepan, and shake or stir them constantly over a clear fire until they have boiled a couple of minutes, then add an ounce and a half of butter cut small, keep the sauce stirred until this is entirely dissolved, give the whole a minute's boil, and serve it quickly. The more usual mode is to put the butter in at first with the flour and water; but for inexperienced or unskilful cooks the safer plan is to follow the present receipt.

Water, 1/4 pint; flour, 1 teaspoonful: 2 minutes. Butter, 1 1/2 oz: 1 minute.

Observations:

To render this a rich sauce, increase or even double the proportion of butter.

Rich Melted Butter

This is more particularly required in general for lobster sauce, when it is to be served with turbot or brill, and for good oyster sauce as well. Salmon is itself so rich, that less butter is needed for it than for sauce which is to accompany a drier fish. Mix to a very smooth batter a dessertspoonful of flour, a half-saltspoonful of salt, and half a pint of cold water; put these into a delicately clean saucepan, with from four to six ounces of well-flavoured butter, cut into small bits, and shake the sauce strongly round, almost without cessation, until the ingredients are perfectly blended, and it is on the point of boiling; let it simmer for two or three minutes, and it will be ready for use. The best French cooks recommend its not being allowed to boil, as they say it tastes less of flour if served when it is just at the point of simmering.

Cold water, 1/2 pint; salt, 1/2 spoonful; flour, 1 dessertspoonful: 3 to 4 minutes. Butter; 4 to 6 ozs.

French Melted Butter

Pour half a pint of good, but not very thick, boiling melted butter, to the well-beaten yolks of two very fresh eggs, and stir them briskly as it is added; put the sauce again into the saucepan, and shake it high over the fire for an instant, but do not allow it to boil, or it will curdle. Add a little lemon-juice or vinegar, and serve it immediately.

Norfolk Sauce, Or, Rich Melted Butter Without Flour

Put three tablespoonsful of water into a small saucepan, and when it boils add four ounces of fresh butter; as soon as this is quite dissolved, take the saucepan from the fire and shake it round until the sauce looks thick and smooth. It must not be allowed to boil after the butter is added.

Water, 3 tablespoonsful; butter, 4 ozs.

White Melted Butter

Thicken half a pint of new milk with rather less flour than is directed for the common melted butter, or with a little arrowroot, and stir into it by degrees, after it has boiled, a couple of ounces of fresh butter cut small; do not cease to stir the sauce until this is entirely dissolved, or it may become oiled, and float upon the top. Thin cream, substituted for the milk, and flavoured with a few strips of lemon-rind cut extremely thin, some salt, and a small quantity of pounded mace, if mixed with rather less flour, and the same proportion of butter, will make an excellent sauce to serve with fowls or other dishes, when no gravy, is at hand to make white sauce in the usual way.

Burnt Butter

Melt in a frying-pan three ounces of fresh butter, and keep it stirred slowly over a gentle fire until it is of a dark brown colour; then pour to it a couple of tablespoonsful of good hot vinegar, and season it with black pepper, and a little salt. In France, this is a favourite sauce with boiled skate, which is served with plenty of crisped parsley, in addition, strewed over it

Butter, 3 ozs.; vinegar, 2 tablespoonsful; pepper; salt

Clarified Butter

Put the butter into a very clean and well-tinned saucepan or enamelled stewpan, and melt it gently over a clear fire; when it just begins to simmer, skim it thoroughly, draw it from the fire, and let it stand a few minutes that the butter-milk may sink to the bottom; then pour it clear of the sediment through a muslin strainer or a fine hair-sieve; put it into jars, and store them in a cool place. Butter, thus prepared, will answer for all the ordinary purposes of cookery, and remain good for a great length of time. In France, large quantities are melted down in autumn for winter use. The clarified butter ordered for the various receipts in this volume is merely dissolved with a gentle degree of heat in a small saucepan, skimmed, and poured out for use, leaving the thick sediment behind.