Equal parts of beef and mutton, with the addition of a small portion of ham, or of very lean bacon, make excellent stock, especially for winter-soups. The necks of fowls, the bones of an undressed calfs-head, or of any uncooked joint, may be added to it with advantage. According to the quality of soup desired, pour from a pint to a pint and a half of cold water to each pound of meat; and after the liquor has been well-skimmed on its beginning to boil, throw in an ounce and a half of salt to the gallon, two small heads of celery, three mild, middling-sized onions, three well-flavoured turnips, as many carrots, a faggot of thyme and parsley, half a tea-spoonful of white pepper-corns, twelve cloves, and a large blade of mace. Draw the soup-pot to the side of the fire, and boil the stock as gently as possible for about six hours; then strain, and set it by for use. Be particularly careful to clear it entirely from fat before it is prepared for table. One-third of beef or veal, with two of mutton, will make very good soup; or mutton only will answer the purpose quite well upon occasion.

Beef, 4 lbs.; mutton, 4 lbs. (or, beef or veal, from 2 to 3 lbs.; mutton, from 5 to 6 lbs.); water, 1 gallon, to 1 1/2; salt, 1 1/2 oz.; mild turnips, 1 lb.; onions, 6 ozs.; carrots, 3/4 lb.; celery, 6 to 8 ozs.; 1 bunch of herbs; pepper-corns, 1/2 tea-spoonful; cloves, 12; mace, 1 large blade: six hours.

Observations:

Salt should be used sparingly at first for stock in which any portion of ham is boiled; allowance should also be made for its reduction, in case of its being required for gravy.