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A Textbook Of Domestic Science For High Schools | by Matilda G. Campbell



This textbook has been compiled in response to an ever increasing demand from instructors of Domestic Science for a book which can be placed in the hands of the student to use as a laboratory manual in the school, and as a practical cookbook in the home.

TitleA Textbook Of Domestic Science
AuthorMatilda G. Campbell
PublisherThe Macmillan Company
Year1913
Copyright1913, The Macmillan Company
AmazonA textbook of domestic science for high schools

By Matilda G. Campbell Instructor In Home Economics, Jesup W. Scott High School, Toledo Ohio, Lecturer On Home Economics, University Of New York

A Textbook Of Domestic Science
-Preface
This textbook has been compiled in response to an ever increasing demand from instructors of Domestic Science for a book which can be placed in the hands of the student to use as a laboratory manual i...
-Chapter I. The Relation Of Food To The Body
Foods are substances which, when taken into the body, provide it with heat and other forms of energy, and furnish it with material for growth and repair. In the case of a grown person, foods supply th...
-The Relation Of Food To The Body. Part 2
Note Student make a list of physical changes. A chemical change is one that causes a change in the composition of a substance, as, for example, the burning of sugar, when it loses all its physic...
-The Relation Of Food To The Body. Part 3
Organic And Inorganic Matter All matter may be classified as organic or inorganic. All organic substances contain carbon. All substances that are formed during the processes of life are organic and...
-Chapter II. Air And Combustion
Air Air is necessary for the support of life and combustion. It is a mixture, not a compound; that is, the substances of which it is composed are not chemically combined. It has definite weight....
-Air And Combustion. Part 2
Products Of Combustion Experiment 5 Hold a saucer in a candle flame. Note the black deposit that forms on it. What element is present in the candle? What is smoke? Do we get the maximum heat...
-Air And Combustion. Part 3
Note Student explain the steps in fire building by which hard coal may be raised to its kindling point. Flash Point The temperature to which a fat or oil must be raised before an inflamma...
-Air And Combustion. Part 4
Note What is the principle of heating a building with a hot-water system? How should a room be ventilated? Radiation: Experiment 10 When you hold your hand in front of a fire, heat tra...
-Air And Combustion. Part 5
Experiment 12 Let water boil gently. Note temperature. Let it boil rapidly. Note temperature. Does water get hotter than its boiling point in an ordinary kettle? What becomes of the excess heat? Wh...
-Table Of Abbreviations
Ts. - Teaspoonful Qt. - Quart Tb. - Tablespoonful Lb. - Pound C. - Cupful Oz. - Ounce ...
-Equivalent Weights And Measures
Measurements All measurements in this book are level. Accurate measuring is necessary to insure uniform success in cookery and to eliminate the element of luck. The standard measuring cup is ...
-Chapter III. Classification Of Foods - Carbohydrates
Classification of Foods and their General Uses in the Body: A. Organic Foods. 1. Carbohydrates. Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Examples. - 1. Starch in cereals, etc. 2. Sugar. 3...
-Solubility Of Starch
Experiment 16 Mix 1/4 tsp. starch in 1/4 c. cold water. Filter through filter paper. Test the filtrate and also the residue on the paper with iodine for starch. Did the starch pass through the filt...
-Methods Of Using Starch As A Thickening Agent
Experiment 22 Method 1. a. Mix 1 tb. flour with 1 tb. water. b. Mix 1 tb. flour with 2 tb. water. c. Mix 1 tb. flour with 3 tb. water. Stir each mixture until it is smooth, noting the time...
-Proportion Of Flour For Soups And Sauces
1 tb. flour (1/2 to 1 tb. butter) to 1 c. liquid for cream soups. 2 tb. flour (2 tb. butter) to 1 c. liquid for ordinary white sauce. 3 tb. flour (2 to 3 tb. butter) to 1 c. liquid for white sau...
-Cereals
The grains used chiefly in the United States for breakfast foods are corn, oats, wheat, and rice. Corn is a native American grain and is the most abundant food product grown in the United States. I...
-General Method of Cooking Cereals
In the upper part of a double boiler put the required amount of water and salt. When the water boils, add the cereal slowly, stirring constantly. Cook for five minutes directly over the fire. Place th...
-Chapter IV. Vegetables
Composition Of Vegetables (Atwater) Refuse % Water % Protein % Fat % Carbohydrates % Ash % ...
-Vegetables. Continued
Amount Of Nutrients Obtained For Ten Cents (To Be Prepared By Student) Price Vegetable per lb. No. of Lbs. for 10 cts. Protein % of lb. Total Amounts ...
-General Method Of Cooking Vegetables
Most of the fresh vegetables should be put into boiling salted water to cook, the amount of water used varying with the amount present in the vegetable to be cooked. Tomatoes do not require the additi...
-Potatoes
Potatoes are native to South America and were brought from there to North America. They were introduced into Europe by the Spaniards in the sixteenth century, into Ireland by Sir John Hawkins in 1565,...
-Potatoes. Continued
Stewed Potatoes 1 pt. cold boiled potatoes, diced 1/2 c. milk 1/2 ssp. pepper 1 or 2 tb. butter 1/2 is. salt 1 ts. chopped parsley Heat the milk, add the butter and seasoning and the po...
-Turnips
Turnips are at their best in the fall and early winter; toward spring they become tough and fibrous and are only good for flavoring and for stews. The flat purple-topped turnip, the rutabaga, a large ...
-Carrots
When carrots are boiled in water, large amounts of their carbohydrate, in the form of sugar, and of their protein, in the form of albumen, are lost in the water. They are of value as a food because of...
-Tomatoes
The tomato is probably a native of Mexico or Peru. There are several varieties, some having red and others having yellow fruit. While the tomato is largely water and hence has a low nutritive value, i...
-Onions
Experiment 28 Test onion with iodine for starch; with Fehling solution for sugar. In what form is the carbohydrate found in onions ? The onion is a native of the Himalaya Mountains. It contains ...
-Cabbage
Boiled Cabbage Remove outer leaves, cut cabbage in quarters and soak one-half hour in cold water with 1 tb. salt. Put into a large kettle nearly filled with rapidly boiling water, add 1/4 ts. soda....
-Beans
Beans and peas being richer in protein than any other vegetable food are often used as substitutes for meat; being deficient in fat, salt pork or some other fat may be added in the cooking. Dried bean...
-Succotash
1 pt. fresh lima beans 1 pt. corn cut from cob 2 tb. butter or 2 oz. salt pork salt and pepper 1 c. milk Cook beans and pork in boiling water thirty minutes, add 1/8 ts. soda, boil one minute...
-Macaroni
Macaroni is served as a vegetable. It is made from a wheat flour rich in gluten. When cooked with cheese and milk, it forms a highly nutritious food. It is the staple food of the Italians. As a prelim...
-Chapter V. Sugar And Fruits
Plants store their carbohydrates in part in the form of sugar. Cane sugar, or sucrose (C12H22O11), was formerly obtained almost entirely from the sugar cane, but now the largest amount of sugar on the...
-Sugar And Fruits. Part 2
Identification Test For Glucose Fehling solution will change from a blue color to a copper brown when boiled with glucose; it will not so change when boiled with sucrose or cane sugar. Exper...
-Sugar And Fruits. Part 3
Care And Preparation Of Fruits The decay of fruits is due to the action of bacteria, their wilting to the loss of water; they should, therefore, be kept in a cool, dry place. Large fruits, as pears...
-Apples
The apple is a native of Asia, the crab apple being the original or wild apple. The Romans used apples centuries ago. The apple is one of our most wholesome fruits, eaten either raw or cooked. Some of...
-Cranberries
Cranberries are the fruit of a small shrub which grows in marshy ground. They ripen in October and are valuable because of their excellent keeping qualities. Some of the best varieties are grown on Ca...
-Chapter VI. Food Preservation
Classification Of Plants 1. Green plants contain chlorophyll grains in their leaves, which give them the power of converting the carbon dioxide of the air and water from the ground into carbohydrat...
-Classification Of Fungi
1. Higher fungi include mushrooms, toadstools, wood fungi, etc. 2. Molds consist of a dense mass of fibers. They produce spores or reproductive bodies which sometimes float in the air, settle upon ...
-Sterilization And Pasteurization
Sterilization is the com-plete destruction of bacteria. When a thing is free from bacteria and other forms of life, it is sterile, no matter how the condition is brought about. The purpose of paste...
-Canning And Preserving
The purpose of canning is to destroy by heat germs already present in the food and to exclude the entrance of other germs. The purpose of preserving is to destroy by heat germs already present and to ...
-Canned Tomatoes
Cover tomatoes with boiling water, remove skins and hard stem end; slice and cook twenty minutes or until soft. Skim during the cooking. Fill sterilized glass jars to overflowing and seal securely. ...
-Preserved Peaches
The skins may be removed more easily from ripe peaches if boiling water is poured over them, allowing them to stand a few minutes and then placing them in cold water. Make a syrup as directed and eith...
-Jelly
Only those fruit juices which contain at least one-half per cent of acid and one per cent of pectin will form a jelly when cooked with sugar. Almost all fruits contain the requisite amount of pectin, ...
-Pickles
Sweet Pickles 7 lb. fruit 3 c. vinegar 3 1/2 lb. brown sugar 3/4 c. spice (whole cinnamon, cassia buds, cloves, and allspice) Tie spices in a cheesecloth bag, boil with the sugar and vinegar ...
-Chapter VII. Soups
There are in general two types of soup, - those made with meat or fish stocks and those made with milk or cream; some soups, however, contain both kinds of liquid. Cream Soups Cream soups ar...
-Soup Stock
The cheapest and toughest cuts of meat may be used in making soups. The hind shin of beef or the rump bone, the knuckle of veal, the neck of mutton, may be used. Left-overs of meats and vegetables may...
-Soups
Tomato Soup 1 pt. stewed and strained tomatoes 1/4 ts. sugar 1 pt. stock Salt and pepper to taste Add tomatoes to boiling stock; season, and serve with croutons. Vegetable Soup 1...
-Chapter VIII. Protein - Eggs
Protein holds an important place among the food principles, for it is the only one which supplies the nitrogenous materials necessary for the building and repair of the tissues of the body. As the tis...
-Classification Of Proteins
All proteins contain nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur; some contain also phosphorus and iron. However, there are many forms of protein, all possessing widely varied chemical and physical pr...
-How To Preserve Eggs In Water Glass (Sodium Silicate)
Boil ten to twelve quarts of water, rain water if possible. When cold, add one quart of water glass. Place clean, strictly fresh eggs in crocks, small ends down, and cover them with the water glass mi...
-Egg Recipes
Soft-Cooked Eggs Put eggs into boiling water to well cover them. Remove kettle from stove and place where it will keep warm. Leave the eggs in the water from six to eight minutes. Hard-Cooke...
-Omelets
General Rules For Omelets The pan for an omelet should be very clean and smooth. Allow one tablespoonful of water or milk to each egg used. For creamy omelets, beat the eggs slightly; for beaten om...
-Chapter IX. Composition And Preparation Of Meats
Average Composition Of Meats Farmers' Bulletin No. 142, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture REFUSE : Water PROTEIN Fat Carbo-hydrates ...
-Structure Of Meat
Experiment 44. - Pick apart with needles some of the fibers of uncooked meat. Examine fibers under a microscope. Make drawings, noting the stripes (striae) on fibers. Describe fibers of meat. The f...
-Beef
The best beef is obtained from steers, four to six years old, which are raised in the West and shipped alive to Chicago or some other packing center. After slaughtering, the animal is dressed and divi...
-Veal
Diagram Showing Bones and the Various Market Cuts (Williams and Fisher) Names Of Cuts Food Uses 1. Loin. 2. Leg. 3. Knuckle. 4. Ribs. 5. Shoulder. 6. Neck. 7. Breast....
-Mutton And Lamb
Mutton is the name applied to the meat of sheep. The best mutton comes from a heavy animal about three years old. The flesh should be of a bright red, Mutton And Lamb Diagram Showing Bones And ...
-Pork
Pork is the meat of the hog. It contains more fat than that of any other animal. The lean should be fine-grained and of a pale red color, the fat white, and the skin clear and smooth. Reject the meat ...
-General Methods of Cooking Meats
1. Application of intense heat to keep in the juices and develop flavor. This is suitable for tender meats only. Broiling, roasting. 2. Cooking in water at low temperature. This is suitable for...
-Stewing
Stewing is a form of boiling or cooking for a long time, in a small amount of water, at a low temperature. The long-continued action of gentle heat will soften the coarsest fibers and connective tissu...
-Braising, Pot Roasts, Etc
Braising is a form of stewing in the oven. Pot roasting is cooking in a kettle on top of the stove, using only a small amount of water. The less tender cuts of meat may be cooked by either method. The...
-Roasting
Roasting is the process of cooking by the radiant heat of an open fire. It is seldom used now as a method of cookery, as few kitchens are supplied with the necessary apparatus. Roasting has been super...
-Broiling
Broiling is derived from the French word bruler, meaning to burn. It is cooking directly over a fire, and is the hottest form of cooking. Only the most tender portions of meat and fish are suitable ...
-How To Cook Chops
Lamb and mutton chops may be broiled in the same manner as beefsteak. Veal chops must be more thoroughly cooked than is possible in broiling, so they must be rolled in some form of fat-proof coating a...
-Ham
Wipe ham, remove the rind. Place ham in a hot frying pan and cook ten minutes or till brown on both sides. Put on a platter and keep warm. Make a gravy by adding 2 tb. flour to the fat in the pan and ...
-Bacon
Remove rind from thin slices of bacon. Put bacon in a fine wire broiler, place over a dripping pan and bake in a hot oven until bacon is crisp and brown, turning once. The fat which has dripped into t...
-Meat Recipes
Lemon Butter 2 tb. butter 1/2 ts. salt 1/2 tb. lemon juice 1/2 tb. minced parsley 1/2 ssp. pepper Mix well and spread on hot broiled steak, chops, or fish, after placing them on the platte...
-Chapter X. Poultry. Chicken
Composition Of Poultry (Atwater) Refuse Water Protein Fat Ash Per ct. Per ct. Per ct...
-Fish
Composition of Various Fish (Atwater.) Refuse Proteid Fat Mineral Matter Water Black Bass .... 54.8 ...
-Fish. Continued
Baked Fish Clean, wash, and dry the fish. Do not remove the head or tail. Rub all over with salt, stuff, and sew up. Put two strips of cotton cloth in pan (if you have not a fish sheet), to help re...
-Chapter XI. Milk And Milk Products
Average Composition Of Milk (Snyder) Water Fat Casein Albumen Lactose Ash 87.0 % 3.5% 3.2...
-Milk And Milk Products. Continued
Experiment 45 Put a drop of cream on filter paper; when dry, note the characteristic grease spot. This is a test for fat. Experiment 46 Fill a tall cylinder with milk, and determine the s...
-Cheese Recipes
Cheese Average Composition Of Cheese (Atwater) Water Protein Fat Carbohydrates Ash 34.2 % 25.2 % 33....
-Chapter XII. Water And Beverages
Water is composed of hydrogen and oxygen, its chemical formula being H20. Water is very widely distributed in nature; it covers three-fourths of the earth's surface, and is present in the soil and roc...
-Sources Of Water
1. Rainwater. 2. Springs. 3. Rivers and lakes. 4. Surface wells. 5. Deep or artesian wells. Rain water takes up the dust and gases from the air, and organic matter from the roofs over which it is c...
-Methods Of Purification Of Water
1. Boiling. 2. Filtration. 3. Distillation. Boiling is a certain method of destroying bacteria. If there is the slightest doubt as to the purity of the water, it should be boiled for twenty minutes...
-Beverages
Pure water ranks as the first and most important of beverages. An adult should drink about three pints of water a day. Tea and coffee are stimulants, furnishing no real nutriment to the body, as they ...
-Coffee
The coffee tree is native to Abyssinia, but is now grown in all tropical countries. The coffee bean is the seed of the tree and is found in the cherry like fruit. When the fruit begins to shrivel on t...
-Tea
Black tea comes from China, India, and Ceylon. Some of the familiar brands are Oolong, English Breakfast, Formosa, and Orange Pekoe. Black tea is made from the leaves which have been allowed to fermen...
-Cocoa And Chocolate
The cocoa tree is a native of Mexico ; it also grows in Central and South America and the West Indies. Cocoa and chocolate are both prepared from the seeds of the cocoa bean. The fruit is shaped like ...
-Chapter XIII. Leavening - Batters And Doughs
Methods Of Making Mixtures Light 1. Incorporation of Air. Physical change. - Air expands when heated. Methods: (a) By beating mixture. (b) By adding beaten eggs. 2. Steam. Physical Cha...
-Baking Powders
Baking powder is composed of bicarbonate of sodium, NaHC02, which has in its composi-tion carbon dioxide and some acid. When the mixture is wet, the acid serves to liberate the carbon dioxide from the...
-Batters And Doughs
A batter is a mixture of flour and some liquid. A thin batter is made in the proportion of 1 scant measure of liquid to 1 full measure of flour. A drop batter or muffin mixture is in proportion ...
-Baking Recipes
Scones Make as baking powder biscuit, using 4 tb. shortening, and adding 1 beaten egg to the milk. Roll dough thin, cut, brush the top of each scone with a little melted butter, and sprinkle with s...
-Baking Recipes. Continued
Brown Nut Bread 1/2 c. molasses 1 ts. soda 2 c. milk 2 c. graham flour 1 ts. salt 1 ts. cream of tartar 1/2 c. sugar 1 c. nuts, chopped \\ c. white flour Add the soda to the...
-Chapter XIV. Breads
Note Student write a paper giving the history of bread making; varieties of bread used by different nations; primitive and modern methods of milling; commercial importance of wheat, of flour, and o...
-Wheat
The wheat plant belongs to the grass family. The part that is used for food is the fruit or seed. This consists of three parts: (1) The germ, or embryo, which is the part of the seed that reproduce...
-Yeast
(Review plant classification, page 50.) Yeast Plant (magnified), showing method of reproduction. Yeast is a single-celled plant that grows by budding, and requires sugar, some protein, and...
-Kneading
Bread is kneaded twice, the first time to incorporate the ingredients thoroughly, thus insuring an even texture, and also to make the gluten elastic so as to retain the carbon dioxide formed during fe...
-Baking Of Bread
Bread Is Baked: (1) To kill the yeast plant. (2) To hydrolize the starch granules. (3) To soften the cellulose. (4) To drive off the alcohol, C02, and excess of moisture. (5) To dextrin...
-Bread Recipes
Raw Potato Yeast 1/4 c. flour 1/4 c. sugar 1 tb. salt 1 to 2 qts. boiling water 1 cake compressed yeast or 1 c. liquid yeast 3 raw potatoes Pare potatoes and keep in cold water. Mix flour,...
-Chapter XV. Fats - Frying, And Pastry
Sources of Fat 1. Adipose tissue of animals, as beef fat, suet, etc. 2. Bone marrow. 3. Milk. Fat globules are held in suspension in the milk serum. (See Milk, page 108.) 4. Some vegetable...
-Emulsion
When fat is divided into minute globules which are held in suspension in a liquid, it is said to be in emulsion. This is a physical state and is readily broken down. The most perfect example of an emu...
-Saponification
When fat is heated with a strong alkali, it is split up into fatty acid and glycerine, the alkali uniting with the acid and forming a soap, and the glycerine being set free. This reaction is called sa...
-Frying
Frying is cooking by immersion in hot fat at a temperature of from 350 to 400 F. Lard, olive oil, beef suet, beef drippings, or some commercial forms of fat may be used. The fat should be so...
-Burning Point
The higher the burning point of a fat, the more valuable is the fat for frying purposes, as it will retain a greater amount of heat before it carbonizes. Butter has a low burning point, hence carboniz...
-Frying Recipes
Fried Potatoes Wash and pare potatoes. Slice thinly on a vegetable slicer into a bowl of ice water. Let stand an hour, drain, and dry between towels. Fry in hot fat, stirring while frying to make t...
-Pastry
While the materials which are used in making pastry are wholesome and nutritious, they are combined in a form which makes them somewhat difficult to digest, so pastry should be used sparingly in the d...
-Pies
Pies baked without an upper crust should have a double rim. Roll paste into long pieces, and cut strips about one inch and a quarter wide; fit neatly on the rim of under crust before filling the pie. ...
-Chapter XVI. Cakes And Puddings
Cakes may be classified under two heads : 1. Cakes without butter, or sponge cakes. 2. Cakes with butter. Powdered sugar makes a fine-grained cake. Coarse granulated sugar makes a coarse-grai...
-Baking
The baking is the most critical part of cake making. Test the oven with a piece of white paper. If it turns a light yellow in 5 minutes, it is ready for sponge cakes; if a dark yellow in 5 minutes, it...
-Baking. Continued
Flour Add soda to molasses and beat well, add milk, shortening, spice, salt and flour enough to roll. Put on a floured board and roll 1/4 inch thick. Cut and bake. Sponge Drops 4 eggs ...
-Frosting Recipes
Plain Frosting White of 1 egg 2 ts. cold water 1/2 ts. vanilla or 1/2 tb. lemon juice 3/4 c. confectioner's sugar Beat egg stiff. Add water and sugar and beat well. Add flavoring and more sug...
-Puddings
Puddings are more wholesome than pastry and should be more frequently served. They may be divided into three general classes - boiled, baked, and steamed puddings. Cottage Pudding 2 heaping ...
-Cake Sauces
Prune Whip Wash 1/2 lb. prunes. Soak. Cook in a little water till soft. Remove stones and rub through a colander. Add 3/4 c. sugar. Beat the whites of 4 eggs stiff. Add the prunes, a spoonful at a ...
-Chapter XVII. Mineral Foods - Salads
Use of mineral matter in body: 1. Form bone. 2. Essential part of protoplasm. 3. Necessary for body fluids, etc. An average man excretes between twenty and thirty grams of mineral matter p...
-Lime
Three fourths of the mineral matter of the body is calcium phosphate, which is found in the bones, soft tissues, and in solution in the body fluids. Blood will not clot without lime salts, and they ar...
-Iron
Iron is found in the body chiefly in the red coloring or hemoglobin of the blood. In this form it acts as an oxygen carrier, carrying oxygen from the lungs to all parts of the body. A deficiency of ir...
-Mineral Foods - Salads
Salads are mixtures of fish, fruits, vegetables or meats, with a salad green and some form of salad dressing. The food value of salad greens is not high, as they are composed largely of water, but the...
-Lettuce
Lettuce should be carefully washed to remove any dirt and bacteria which may cling to it and also small green insects which are sometimes found on the under side of the leaves. Wash each leaf separate...
-How To Mix Salad
Put alternate layers of salad ingredients and dressing in a bowl. Lift from the bottom with a fork and spoon and toss lightly until well mixed. How To Marinate A Salad Cut materials for a sa...
-Salad Dressing
Salad dressings are of many varieties, but may be classed under the following heads : 1. Cooked salad dressing. 2. Mayonnaise. 3. French dressing. 4. Cream dressing. All dressings, with...
-Salads
Potato Salad Cut cold potatoes into one-fourth inch cubes, sprinkle lightly with salt and, if liked, marinate with French dressing. Add chopped onion, celery, cucumbers cut in cubes, chopped parsle...
-Sandwiches
The bread for sandwiches should have a fine, even texture and should be twenty-four hours old. The loaf should be of a size to cut the sandwiches with as little waste as possible. All crusts trimmed f...
-Chapter XVIII. Gelatine And Frozen Desserts
Gelatine is a protein and is classed as an albuminoid. It is derived from the collagen of connective tissue, cartilage, and bone, which is converted into gelatine by boiling with water. Unlike albumen...
-Gelatine And Frozen Desserts. Continued
Snow Pudding \ box gelatine 1 c. cold water 1 pt. boiling water 1 1/2 c. sugar Juice of 3 lemons Whites of 3 eggs Soak the gelatine in cold water, add the sugar and lemon juice, and pour over...
-Ices And Sherbets
Ices and Sherbets are prepared from various fruit juices, crushed fruits, or other flavorings which are dissolved in water. The frozen mixture will have a smoother texture if the sugar used is cooked ...
-Chapter XIX. Invalid Cookery
Liquid Diet 1. Milk. 2. Broths, beef tea. 3. Albumen drinks. 4. Eggnog. 5. Gruels. 6. Cream soups. 7. Beverages, etc. Light Or Soft Diet 1. Cream soups. 2. Soft-cooke...
-Liquid Diet
Milk As milk forms a clot by the action of the enzyme, rennin, as soon as it reaches the stomach, it should be regarded as a solid food and not a beverage. When taken, it should be sipped slowly th...
-Gruels
Gruels are a liquid preparation of some cereal and water or milk. They must be cooked thoroughly that the starch may be well hydrated, and then be strained to remove any cellulose. Milk should be adde...
-Albumen Drinks
Add the white of egg, beaten only enough to break the fiber slightly, to any liquid, as milk, water, fruit juices, adding sugar to taste. Eggnog 1 egg beaten separately 1 tb. sugar Few grain...
-Light Diet
Toast Bread for toast should be at least 24 hours old. It is toasted to extract moisture, to dextrinize the starch, and to make it more palatable and digestible. The slices should be cut thin and t...
-Chapter XX. Table Service
In setting the table, arrange all dishes with system; never place them carelessly upon the table. An asbestos covering may be placed on the table to prevent warm dishes from injuring its polish. Cover...
-Order Of Courses For A Formal Dinner
1. Canapes. 2. Raw oysters or clams, served on the half shell on crushed ice with lemon and grated horseradish. Wafers. 3. Soup. Crackers, croutons, or toast sticks. 4. Fish. Potatoes (boiled, m...
-Chapter XXI. Diet And Nutrition
The amount of food required by an individual will necessarily vary with the age, occupation, and temperament of the individual, and the climate in which he lives. However, by many series of experiment...
-Heat And Energy Requirement
Foods which contain carbon and hydrogen in a form in which they can be oxidized by the body yield heat and other forms of energy to the body. The fuel value of a food is estimated by the amount of hea...
-Protein Requirement
The cells of the body are constantly breaking down and in the growing body new cells are forming, hence food must furnish material for growth and repair. As the cells contain nitrogen, a food which...
-Average Composition Of Foods
Percentage Composition Bulletin 142, U. S. Dept. Agriculture. Food Materials as Purchased Refuse Water Protein Fat Carbo-hydrates ...
-The "100 Calorie Portion" Method
To make the methods of determining food value more graphic and more easily ascertained in everyday life, tables have been prepared stating the weight of various foods required to furnish 100 calories...
-The "100 Calorie Portion" Method. Continued
Table Of 100-Calorie Portions Food Values Food and Dietetics, Norton, Published by American School of Home Economics, Chicago Food Portion Containing 100 Calories (ap...
-Reference Books
Physiological and Pathological Chemistry G. Bunge Chemistry of Food and Nutrition . . Henry C. Sherman, Ph.D. Practical Dietetics..... Robert Hutchinson Elementary Study of Chemistry . . McPh...
-Practical Physics For Secondary Schools
By N. HENRY BLACK of the Roxbury Latin School Boston, and Professor HARVEY N. DAVIS of Harvard University. Cloth, I2mo, illustrated, 488 pages. List price, $1.25 In preparing this book, say th...
-A Textbook Of The Household Arts
By HELEN KINNE, Professor of Household Arts Education, and ANNA M. COOLEY, Assistant Professor of Household Arts Education, Teachers College, Columbia University. Cloth, I2mo, illustrated, 377 page...
-Chemistry And Its Relations To Daily Life
By LOUIS KAHLENBERG and EDWIN B. HART Professors of Chemistry in the University of Wisconsin Cloth, 12mo, illustrated, 393 pages. List price, $1.25 If the contributions of chemical science to...









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