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Experimental Cookery From The Chemical And Physical Standpoint | by Belle Lowe



The principal function of this volume is to present our newer knowledge of food preparation and cookery processes from a chemical and physical basis, particularly that of colloid chemistry. In doing this, many results secured from experimental work along these lines at Iowa State College have been included. A condensed arrangement of the data on cookery, which are found in widely scattered sources, has been included also.

TitleExperimental Cookery From The Chemical And Physical Standpoint
AuthorBelle Lowe
PublisherJohn Wiley & Sons
Year1937
Copyright1937, Belle Lowe
AmazonExperimental cookery

By Belle Lowe, Professor, Foods and Nutrition Iowa State College With A Laboratory Outline.

Second Edition.

To Elizabeth Miller Koch with acknowledgment of help, inspiration, and encouragement.

-Introduction
The principal function of this volume is to present our newer knowledge of food preparation and cookery processes from a chemical and physical basis, particularly that of colloid chemistry. In doing t...
-Chapter I. The Relation Of Cookery To Colloid Chemistry
The early lines of food work cannot be expressed better than in the words of Ostwald (1922). Scientific study of the field still contents itself with chapters on analysis and the recognition of adult...
-Increasing And Lessening The Degree Of Dispersion Of Substances In Food Preparation
In food preparation many of the methods used and many of the ingredients added to foods bring about increased or decreased dispersion. Heat. Increasing the temperature may bring about a greater or a ...
-Classification And Properties Of Colloids Based Upon Physico-chemical Relationships In Liquids
Each colloidal solution as well as each true solution has its own peculiar properties. These depend upon the nature of the particles in solution and the dispersing medium. But a large group of colloid...
-Classification And Properties Of Colloids Based on Physico-chemical Relationships In Liquids. Continued
Effect of added substances upon swelling of gels. The addition of such substances as acids, alkalies, mineral salts, and sugar may increase or inhibit the degree of swelling. Many such combinations ar...
-The Action Of Electrolytes Upon Proteins Is Given As Follows By Buchanan And Fulmer
1. Those electrolytes which bring about a reversible precipitation in high concentration. These include the salts of the alkalis, K, Na, NH4, Li and possibly Mg. Ammonium sulphate is commonly used in...
-Boundary Phenomena
Because of the size of micelles, surface phenomena assume an important place in colloidal reactions. Surface tension, the formation of foams, inter-facial tension, adsorption, formation of surface ski...
-Boundary Phenomena. Continued
Rahn has shown analytically the results of the application of the law of Gibbs and Thomson which states that substances which cause a depression of surface tension will accumulate in the surface. In ...
-Coagulation Of Proteins
The term denaturation is used more frequently than coagulation by scientific investigators at the present time to denote certain changes in proteins. Definite characteristics of the proteins are chang...
-Peptization Of Proteins
Peptization is the reverse process of coagulation. It increases dispersion and solubility. Means of bringing about peptization. Peptization may be brought about by chemical, electrical, and mechanica...
-Bound And Free Water
Water plays a very important role in both plant and animal life as a solvent for sugars, electrolytes, etc., and thus in the translocation of food material and metabolism products. But in addition to ...
-Fluidity, Viscosity, And Plasticity Of Colloidal Systems
Fluidity and viscosity. Bingham uses the term fluidity to express the opposite of viscosity. A fluid like water yields readily to any force that tends to change its form, whereas a viscous substance s...
-Energetics
Burns states, Energy is the underlying cause of all changes in matter. This does not seem a very satisfactory definition, but, so far, it is the only one possible. . . . Energy, then, is that which p...
-Literature Cited And References 1
Alexander, J. Colloid Chemistry. An Introduction with Some Practical Applications. Van Nostrand Co. (1924). Alexander, J. Colloid Chemistry, Theoretical and Applied. By International Contributors. Co...
-Chapter II. Sugar Cookery Classification Of The Carbohydrates
The carbohydrates are divided into three groups: the monosaccharids, disaccharids, and polysaccharids. The monosaccharids are composed of one saccharid or sugar group. They are sometimes called simple...
-Sources Of The Common Sugars
Dextrose or glucose, for it is known by both names, is widely distributed in fruits, honey, and some vegetables. The sugar known by the trade name Cerelose is practically a pure crystalline dextrose...
-Relative Sweetness Of The Sugars
Sweetness is a quality that is detected by taste, but there is no exact test for it. Much depends upon how the test is conducted, whether the tongue is dry or moist, upon what part of the tongue the s...
-Effect Of Acid Upon Sugars And Hydrolysis Of Sugars
Strong concentrated acids decompose all the sugars producing humus or caramel substances. The weak acids, malic and citric in fruits, lactic in sour milk, acetic acid, and salts with an acid reaction ...
-Effect Of Alkalies Upon Sugars
Strong alkalies, like strong acids, decompose the sugars. Weak alkalies or salts with alkaline reaction, like sodium bicarbonate, common baking soda, also act upon the sugars. Even alkaline salts foun...
-The Melting Point Of The Sugars And The Effect Of Heat
When sugars are heated without the addition of water a point is reached at which they change from a crystalline to a liquid state. This is called the melting point. Mackenzie states that the melting ...
-Solubility Of Substances In Solution
Solubility means the amount of a specific substance that will dissolve in a given volume of a specified solvent. If the solvent is not mentioned it is understood to be water. Solubility is generally e...
-The Solubility Of The Sugars
The solubility of the sugars determines their use to a certain extent. It is obvious to one who does a great deal of cooking that a sugar that requires 6 pounds of water to dissolve 1 pound of sugar, ...
-Solubility Of Maltose In Water (gillis)
Temperature, degrees C. Grams of maltose in 100 grams of solution, or per cent Grams of maltose dissolved by 100 grams of water 0.6 36.1 56.5 21.0 44.1...
-Properties Of Solutions
A solute dissolved in a solvent affects the properties of the solvent or in other words alters certain of its constant characteristics. No discussion of osmotic pressure is given; the effect on the fr...
-The Boiling Point Of Water And Solutions
Water standing in an open vessel gradually evaporates, so that eventually all the water disappears in the form of vapor. We know that evaporation takes place more rapidly on warm days than on cool one...
-Crystallization
In making icings, frostings, or candy like fondant and fudge, it is necessary to crystallize the sugar solution. For crystallization to occur, nuclei must form in the solution. To these nuclei the mat...
-Crystallization. Continued
Adsorption and impurities in the solution. Freundlich states that in the vast majority of cases the foreign substance lowers the rate of crystallization. The rate of crystal growth is retarded becau...
-Stages Of Cookery Of Sucrose Solutions In Candy Making
The cold-water test. In the cold-water test, one can tell, from the firmness or hardness of a portion of the sirup which has been dropped into cold water, whether the sirup has reached a concentra...
-Fondant
Fondant is made when sucrose is cooked with water to a definite temperature, the sirup is cooled and beaten, and the mass crystallizes. According to accepted standards for good fondant, it should be s...
-Fondant. Continued
Fig. 9. - Crystals from divinity which was beaten until a piece dropped from a spoon would hold its shape, yet still appear glossy. Magnification approximately x 200. Fig. 10. - Crystals from d...
-Fudge
The factors that control the size of the crystals in fondant making also determine the size of the crystals formed in fudge. Fudge is often made of brown sugar. Brown sugar contains a higher percentag...
-Caramels
Caramels, taffy, and brittles are types of candy that are firm but not crystallized. To prevent crystallization larger quantities of dextrose, levu-lose, corn sirup, or other substances are added than...
-Taffy
Taffies or pulled candies have vinegar, lemon juice, or cream of tartar added during cooking. These substances cause inversion of the sucrose, which prevents crystallization. Dextrose, corn sirup, or ...
-Brittles
Brittles are much harder than caramels or taffies and are cooked to high temperatures. At the temperatures to which they are cooked carameli-zation of the sugar may take place, and this as well as add...
-Literature Cited And References 2
Ayers, S. H., Williams, O. E., and Johnson, W. T., Jr. Sugar Substitutes in the Ice Cream Mix. Ice Cream Trade J. 14: No. 4, 29 (1918). Bancroft, W. D. Supersaturation and Crystal Size. J. Physical C...
-Sugar Cookery - Laboratory Outline
Keep a record of the experiments performed in a permanent note book. The experiments should be written up under the following headings. The object of the experiment, what happens, the results, and mos...
-Sugar Cookery - Laboratory Outline. Continued
B. Sucrose and corn sirup. Dissolve 1/2 cup (100 grams) of sucrose and 1/2 cup (162 grams) of commercial corn sirup in 1/3 cup of water. Repeat directions under 4A. What is the effect on the stage of...
-Results And Conclusions
Suggestions for Variation of Experiments and Additional Experiments Repeat Experiment 4C, using one-half sucrose and one-half sorghum. Repeat using molasses for the sorghum. Repeat 4B, using 2 parts...
-Sugar Corn Sirup Butter Milk
2 cups 1 cup 2 tablespoons 3 cups 400 grams 328 grams 28 grams 732 grams Prepare one-quarter or one-half of the recipe. 1. Combine all the ingredients and stir while cooking to prevent scorch...
-Fondant. Results and conclusions
Experiment 7 To determine the factors which influence the rate of crystallization of sucrose and the size of the crystals. Dissolve 1 cup of sucrose (200 grams) in 1/2 cup of water. (Increase or dec...
-Fondant. Results and conclusions. Continued
Compare the texture and consistency of each fudge. What temperature is most desirable for fudge that is not kneaded? For fudge which is kneaded? If granular fudge is desired and the sirup is stirred w...
-Chapter III. Freezing
A pure liquid has a definite freezing point. In freezing the fluid changes from a liquid to a solid state. Water freezes at 0C. or 32F. Just as sugar solutions in cooling may give supersatur...
-The Freezing Point Of A Liquid
The freezing point of a liquid cannot be defined as the temperature at which the liquid becomes a solid, for supercooled liquids are cooled below the freezing point. The freezing point and the melting...
-Lowering Of The Freezing Point
When a soluble substance is dissolved in a liquid the freezing point is lower than that of the pure solvent. A gram-molecular weight (mole) of a non-ionized substance in a liter of water lowers the fr...
-Freezing Mixtures
When a crystalline substance is added to a liquid its freezing point is lowered. However, as a solution freezes it separates into crystals of the solvent and crystals of the dissolved substance. Supp...
-Proportion Of Ice And Salt For Freezing And Packing
Rate at which the temperature is lowered. The rate at which the temperature of the brine and thus also that of the mix to be frozen is lowered depends on the proportion of ice and salt, and on the fin...
-The Composition Of Ice Cream
A simple home-made ice cream may be made with cream, sugar, and flavoring. Flavoring is added to increase the palatability. The flavoring may be extracts, fruit, or nuts. Sometimes egg is added to hom...
-The Flavor Of The Ice Cream
Fat. The flavor of the ice cream is influenced by the ingredients that go into it. They should be free of foreign odors and flavors. Ambrose states that increase in butter fat gives the richness of f...
-The Body And Texture Of Ice Cream
By body, the whole mass of ice cream is referred to - its firmness, its resistance; texture refers to the finer particles of the ice cream. Effect of fat on texture. High butter fat produces a firm b...
-The Factors Affecting The Viscosity Of Cream And Ice Cream
Aging. Sherwood and Smallfield have reported that in some cases aging shows an increase in viscosity of the cream whereas in others it does not. When the viscosity is increased the fat globules are la...
-The Use Of Gelatin In Ice Cream
Gelatin is used in ice cream to prevent the formation of coarse crystals, during softening and hardening of ice cream packed in an ice-and-salt mixture, while it is held for selling. Holdway and Reyno...
-Sugar In Ice Cream
Sugar is used for sweetening the ice cream. It increases the total solids, thus improving the body. Too high a percentage lowers the overrun and gives an ice cream that is too sweet. Sucrose is used ...
-Making Ice Cream In Refrigerators At Home
Ice cream may be held as well as frozen in mechanical refrigerators. When frozen in them the ice cream often does not have a good texture because it is not stirred sufficiently during the freezing pro...
-Classification Of Ice Creams
Various classifications of frozen products have been proposed. Sommer gives the following classification of ice cream and related frozen products: 1. Plain Ice Cream 2. Nut Ice Cream 3. Fruit Ice C...
-Literature Cited And References 3
Ambrose, A. S. Milk Solids in Relation to the Quality of Ice Cream. Ice Cream Trade J. 20: No. 3, 78 (1924). Anonymous. Acidity Factor in Manufacture of Ice Cream. Ice Cream Trade J. 19: No. 8, 39 (...
-Conclusions And Applications
Ice Cream Experiment 12 To determine the effect of the rate of turning on the texture of ice cream. Directions for freezing experiments: The freezers for the following experiments should be in goo...
-Ices And Sherbets
Experiment 14 To determine the best proportions of ice and salt to use in freezing an ice. Recipe: Water Sugar Lemon juice 1 cup 1/2 cup 1/4 cup 240 grams 100 grams 60 grams Dissolve the sugar...
-Chapter IV. Fruits And Vegetables. Losses In Cooking Vegetables
The losses that occur in cooking fruits and vegetables are of three types: first, the losses due to volatile substances; second, the losses due to the solubility of some of the substances of the fruit...
-The Plant Acids
The plant acids, the plant pigments, and the cellulose are constituents of the vegetable less often considered than the other food nutrients. Knowledge of the common reactions of these constituents re...
-The Plant Acids. Continued
Mineral salts of organic acids may be formed during the cooking of fruits in metal containers. Very unpalatable flavors are developed in this way, and the color of the cooked product is darkened. This...
-Plant Pigments
Chlorophyll. Chlorophyll, the green pigment of plants, plays an important role in their synthesis of carbohydrates. The cells of the mesophyll of the leaf contain chloroplasts or chlorophyll-corpuscle...
-Plant Pigments. Part 2
Heat decomposes chlorophyll, an olive-green color being produced. The extent of decomposition depends upon the time of heating and the temperature reached. With a very short cooking period little dest...
-Plant Pigments. Part 3
All the anthocyanins so far isolated have fallen into one of three groups. They are illustrated as the chlorides. The number of hydroxy groups attached to the side benzene ring is made the basis of th...
-Plant Pigments. Part 4
If red cabbage is served raw with a salad dressing containing acid it is bright red or blue-red in color. If cooked in distilled water, it is violet or violet-blue in color, but often becomes blue aft...
-Plant Pigments. Part 5
2. They give blackish-blue or blackish-green colors with ferric salts, a fact made use of in the manufacture of ink. 3. In alkaline solution the tannins and many of their derivatives readily absorb o...
-Enzymes
Enzymes control many of the complex chemical processes of plant metabolism. They accelerate reactions which would otherwise take place very slowly, and though they may initiate the reaction, do not fo...
-Sulfur Compounds Of Plants
Sulfur compounds are present in the plant in three forms: in the amino acids of proteins, i.e., cystine, methionine, and others; volatile compounds; and sulfates. It is known that a portion of the pr...
-Flavor
The flavors of fruits and vegetables are due to several constituents, sugar, organic acids, mineral salts, and aromatic compounds. Sugar is found in fruits and vegetables. Beets, carrots, onions, pea...
-Cellulose
Cellulose forms the structural, fiber, or woody part of the plant. Other substances such as pectic substances may occur in combination with cellulose. In the young plants or the new growth of older pl...
-Cellulose. Continued
Crisping pickles. Calcium chloride is used to make pickles crisp or firm. It is used either in the last soaking water, when the brine is being removed, or added directly to the sweetened vinegar. The ...
-Potatoes
What constitutes quality in potatoes? For baking and boiling it is usually accepted that the best potatoes are those that yield a white, comparatively dry, and mealy texture. The homemaker does not li...
-Cooking Of Dried Legumes
Different varieties of beans and peas belong to the legume family. The dried legumes commonly used for food are navy, lima, kidney, soy, other varieties of beans, lentils, and dried peas. The dried le...
-Cooking Of Dried Legumes. Continued
Masters's results with legumes. Masters, using London tap water (temporary hardness 12 parts per 100,000 parts of water and permanent hardness 5 parts per 100,000 parts of water) and cooking butter be...
-Literature Cited And References 4
Anderson, R. J. A Contribution to the Chemistry of Grape Pigments. III. Concerning the anthocyans in Seibel Grapes. J. Biol. Chem. 61: 685 (1924). Atwater, R. Cherry Juice and Its Uses. The Canner, C...
-Literature Cited And References 4. Part 2
Peterson, W. H. Forms of Sulfur in Plant Materials and Their Variation with Soil Supply. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 36: 1290 (1914). Peterson, W. H., and Hoppert, C. A. The Loss of Mineral and Other Constitue...
-Literature Cited And References 4. Part 3
2a. To 1 1/3 cups of boiling distilled water add 1/4 cup of rice washed in distilled water. Add boiling distilled water during cooking if necessary. When the rice is tender remove about 1/2 of the coo...
-Literature Cited And References 4. Part 4
A. Use 300 grams of carrots cut into cubes of the same size. Mix well and use 100 grams in each experiment. Use distilled water. 1. Cook until tender in a steamer. Save the water. Partially evaporate...
-Chapter V. Jelly
The earliest work on jelly from a school laboratory is that of Gold-thwaite. Since that time many valuable contributions have been made dealing with jelly making. Probably the most extended recent inv...
-Fruits Used For Jelly
For a fruit juice to make a good jelly by boiling with the addition of sugar only, the juice must contain a sufficient amount of a substance called pectin and also sufficient acid. Some fruit juices w...
-The Pectic Substances
Nomenclature of the pectic substances. The different names used in the literature for pectin and its related compounds have been numerous. To avoid confusion, the Committee on the Nomenclature of the ...
-The Role Of Pectin In Jelly Formation
According to Spencer's theory, the precipitation of pectin forms the jelly. Sugar, glycerin, or alcohol may be used as precipitating agents. Spencer states The successful making of alcohol jellies re...
-The Effect On Jelly Strength Of Boiling The Pectin With Acid Previous. To Adding The Sugar (tarr)
Time of boiling pectin and acid, minutes Time of boiling pectin, acid and sugar, minutes Jelly strength, pressure in centimeters of water Top Bottom 0.0 19....
-The Role Of Acid In Jelly Formation
Although acid is not essential for jelly formation its presence in fruit jellies is very important. Singh has reported that between certain limits the greater the acidity of the juice the lower the a...
-The Relation Of The Time Factor To Optimum Acidity. (olsen)
(The time indicated is the interval between the pouring of the pectin solution into the sugar sirup and the pouring of the mixture into glasses. Jellies contain 60 per cent of sugar, 2.5 grams of appl...
-The Effect Of Temperature To Which Pectin Is Heated On Jelly Strength
Olsen states that the abnormally high jelly strength with pectin heated to only 55, shown in Table 22, is not the result of the time factor alone. To prove this he recovered the pectin from dupli...
-The Role Of Salts In Jelly Formation
The role salts play in jelly formation is not emphasized as much as that of pectin, acid, and sugar, but it is an important one. All fruit juices contain salts of the acids found in the fruit. In addi...
-The Role Of Sugar In Jelly Formation
Sugar, if its concentration and that of acid and pectin is sufficient, precipitates the pectin. Spencer explains this precipitation as follows. When a pectin sol is formed, an equilibrium is reached ...
-Total Maximum Solubility With Cane Sugar And Invert Sugar
(Tarr and Baker) Temperature, C. Grams of cane sugar per 100 grams solution Grams of invert sugar per 100 grams solution Grams of water per 100 grams solution 20 ...
-Kinds Of Sugar Used In Jelly
Most jelly is made with sucrose. There are two sources of sucrose: one, the sugar beet; the other, sugar cane. Cane or beet sugar. For some unexplained reason many persons believe that jelly cannot b...
-Syneresis
Syneresis occurs in some fruit jellies. It is probably more common in cranberry jelly than in other fruit jellies. Tarr found that, with a hydrogen-ion concentration greater than pH 3.1, fluid exuded ...
-Temperature For Boiling Sirup For Jelly
If the boiling point of sugar solutions is referred to, p. 49, it is found that a sugar solution containing 60 per cent of sugar boils at 103.0C, and a 70 per cent solution boils at 106.5C. ...
-Storage Of Jelly
Jelly deteriorates in flavor on standing. Freshly made jelly has a better flavor and aroma than jelly that has been made and stored for some time. The cooking causes some decomposition of flavoring pr...
-Definition Of Jelly
This chapter would be incomplete without giving Goldthwaite's definition of an ideal jelly. Ideal fruit-jelly is a beautifully colored, transparent, palatable product obtained by so treating fruit-ju...
-Literature Cited And References 5
Ahmann, C. F., and Hooker, H. D. The Estimation of Pectin and a Study of the of Ponology and Hort. Sci. 8: 232 (1935). Baker, G. L. A New Method for Determining the Jellying Power of Fruit-Juice Cons...
-Jelly
Directions for preparing fruit for jelly. Apples and crab-apples are washed but not pared. Remove bad spots and wormy places but retain the seeds and core, as they contain pectic substances. Cut in ra...
-Chapter VI. Gelatin
Gelatin has been used extensively for experimental work in studying the reactions of colloidal substances, particularly in connection with gel formation. Uses of gelatin in foods. In food preparation...
-Distinction Between Gelatin And Glue
Commercially there is little distinction between gelatins and glues, except that edible gelatin is a high-grade product and complies with the Pure Food Laws. It contains only traces of harmful ingredi...
-Hydrolysis Of Collagen
Temperature. When collagen is heated with water, gelatin is formed. Bogue states that this occurs at 80 to 90C. or at higher temperatures. The reaction occurs more rapidly at higher temperat...
-Properties Of Gelatin
Gelatin is characterized by forming a solution in water at high temperatures and, with high enough concentration, a gel at low temperatures. The dry gelatin has a slightly yellow cast and contains fro...
-Swelling And Solution
The extent to which gelatin swells in water is modified by the surface area, its initial pH, the presence of or addition of acids, alkalies, and in-organic salts, and its previous history. Bogue state...
-Gelation And Stiffening Power Of Gelatin
Gelation is the formation of a gel or solidification of a gelatin solution. In food preparation it is referred to as the setting of the gelatin. The setting point is no clearly defined point. The gela...
-Gelation And Stiffening Power Of Gelatin. Continued
Addition of solidified gelatin to a gel solution. Lloyd states that gelation is similar to crystallization, in that it takes place from a saturated solution. There are various theories to account for ...
-Literature Cited And References 6
Alexander, J. Glue and Gelatin. Chemical Catalog Co. (1923). Alexander, J. Colloid Chemistry, Theoretical and Applied, by Selected International Contributors. Edited by Alexander. Chemical Catalog Co....
-Gelatin
Directions for cooling gelatin. The gelatin solutions should be put to cool at the same temperature. Those from the same experiment should be on the same shelf in the refrigerator, as the upper shelve...
-Gelatin. Continued
3. Repeat 32,1, but increase the gelatin to 5.8 grams and reduce the cold water to 172 cc. What is the percentage of gelatin used? Its measure? 4. Repeat 32,1, but increase the gelatin to 7.2 grams a...
-Chapter VII. Meat. Grading And Stamping Of Meat
Federal grading and stamping of meat was inaugurated in 1927. Davis states that because the government grading is not influenced by season, geographical location, or any other factor, the purchaser is...
-Federal Inspection Of Meat
All meats shipped from one state to another are under federal surveillance. This includes the meat produced by the larger establishments, about two-thirds of that consumed. Each state and the cities u...
-Definition Of Meat And Flesh
The Food and Drug Administration in The Service and Regulatory Announcements of 1933 define meat and flesh as follows: Meat is the properly dressed flesh derived from cattle, from swine, from sheep...
-Muscles
A muscle is an organ made up of fibers held together by connective tissue and surrounded by a sheath of heavier connective tissue. The fibers are grouped parallel to each other in bundles called fasci...
-Fat
Fat may be deposited around and between each muscle, i.e., inter-muscularly; between the fasciculi, interfascicularly; between the fibers, intrafascicularly; or within the fiber, intracellularly. The ...
-Connective Tissue
Hammond states, that there is evidence that the connective tissues go on growing longer than other tissues in the body, and that maturity in them is not reached so soon as in other tissues. This may b...
-Llgamentum Nuchae Of The Ox
Constituents Tendon Achilles, per cent Ligamentum nuchae, per cent Water..................................................................... 62. 870 57. 570 ...
-The Collagen And Elastin Content Of The "ribeyes" Of The 9th, 10th, And 11th Ribs Of Beeves Of Different Grade (mitchell, Hamilton, And Haines)
Carcass grade Esti-mated age, years Sex Dry matter con-tent, per cent N con-tentper cent Fat con-tentper cent Colla-gen-con-tent, per cent Elas-tin-con-ten-per...
-The Muscle Fibers
Each fiber is elongated, cylindrical, and multi-nucleated. Howell states its length does not exceed 36 mm. but the species is not stated. The average length varies in different muscles in the same ani...
-Results Of Tenderness Test With Dynamometer On Fresh Beef
(Helser, Nelson, Lowe, and Helser) Calves Yearlings Two-year-olds Feed ers Fat-tened Per-cent-age de-crease in pounds re-quired to shear meat ...
-Constituents Of The Muscle Fibers
The muscle fibers contain several constituents, and these are grouped as follows by Howell: (1) Inorganic salts. (2) Ferments. (3) Pigments. (4) Non-nitrogenous extractives (lactic acid, etc.). (5) N...
-Post Mortem Changes In Meat
Immediately after slaughter, changes occur in the muscle of an animal. These changes, like the changes in milk and eggs, can be retarded by method of handling and storage. They are brought about by en...
-Post Mortem Changes In Meat. Part 2
Storage of meat in the home. Proper storage of meat in the home is often a problem. Halves and quarters of dressed animals have a natural protective skin covering. But when wholesale cuts are divided ...
-Post Mortem Changes In Meat. Part 3
Length of time required for ripening. The length of time required for ripening varies according to the degree of ripened flavor desired, and the temperature at which the meat is stored. As the tempera...
-Changes In Cooked Meat And The Cooking Of Meat
Meat is cooked to sterilize it and for most persons to make it more palatable. It should be cooked in such a way as to increase its tenderness if it is a tough cut, and to keep it tender if it is a te...
-Changes In Cooked Meat And The Cooking Of Meat. Continued
Cooperative Meat Investigations, uses seven numbers and terms to designate the tenderness of the sample. They are: very tender, tender, moderately tender, slightly tough, tough, very tough, and extr...
-Cooking Of Frozen Meat
Frozen meat and poultry are obtainable in retail markets in larger cities. In addition many people freeze meat in mechanical freezer units, and the practise of obtaining compartments and freezing fres...
-Methods Of Cooking Meats
In general meat is cooked (1) by dry heat and (2) by moist heat. Dry heat is generally used for tender cuts, such as roasts and steaks. The meat is surrounded by dry air in the oven, under the broiler...
-Cooking Temperatures
The best cooking temperatures for meat may not be the same for all conditions. As a general rule, it is agreed that low or medium temperatures are better than high ones for cooking meat. Yet some samp...
-Factors Affecting The Time Required For Cooking Meat
Directions for cooking meat usually state the time of cooking in terms of minutes per pound. At best this can only serve as a guide, for several factors may cause variation in the length of time requi...
-The Time Of Cooking Per Pound And Cooking Losses In One-rib And Two-rib Beef Roasts Cooked To Different Stages
Some Class Results No. of ribs in roast Weight Searing temper-ature C. Cooking temper-ature C. Interior temper-ature when removed from oven Cooking time ...
-Factors Affecting The Losses That Occur During The Cooking Of Meat
The total loss that occurs during the cooking of meat includes the losses known as drippings and the volatile losses. The greater part of the volatile loss is from evaporation of water. It may include...
-The Losses Occurring In Cooked Meats
The cooking losses vary with the factors mentioned, time, stage of cookery, cooking temperature, surface area, and composition. Usually, the longer a piece of meat is cooked, the greater the cooking l...
-The Percentage Of Cooked Meat That Is Edible
Van Arsdale and Monroe have reported their results on The cost of meat as purchased and eaten. The following table is compiled from their results. Table 31 Cost of Meat as Purchased and Eaten (Van ...
-The Average Cooking Losses And Time Required To Cook Different Kinds Of Meat (mcelhinney)
Kind of meat Number of roasts Total weight of all roasts Weight after cooking Total cooking loss, per cent Minutes per pound for cooking Inner temper-ature when re-...
-Poultry
Vernon determined the shrinkage in dressing and cooking poultry, using fryers, roasters, and hens. Lowe and Vernon determined the dressing and cooking losses for broilers, fryers, roasters, capons, an...
-Average Amount Of Waste And Percentage Edible Of Different Kinds Of Meat (mcelhinney)
Kind of meat Waste Meat edible but not slicable Meat slicable Per cent edible on as pur-chased basis Per cent slicable on as pur-chased basis Drip-pings Bo...
-Data For Dressing And Cooking Losses Of Different Classes Of Poultry Based On The Drawn Weight, Per Cent
Broilers Fryers Young roasters Capons Hens Average all classes Number of birds......... 13 14 9 10 16 62 Drawn weigh...
-Poultry. Continued
The above results and observations in cooking of poultry suggest that poultry may lose moisture rapidly after a certain temperature is reached, with the result that the meat becomes quite dry. This lo...
-Literature Cited And References 7
Alexander, L. M., and Clark, N. G. Shrinkage and Heat Penetration during the Roasting of Lamb and Mutton as Influenced by Carcass Grade, Ripening Period, and Cooking Method. Tech. Bull. 440. U. S. Dep...
-Meat
Experiment 37 To determine the effect on muscle fiber and connective tissue of cooking by dry heat. Scrape a piece of lean meat with the dull edge of a knife until the connective tissue and fiber ar...
-Beef Roasts
Experiment 39 To determine the effect on beef roasts of cooking to different stages of doneness. 1. Preparation. Weigh the roast. Wipe with a damp cloth. A tracing may be made of the cut surfaces of...
-Lamb, Pork, And Veal Roasts
Experiment 42 To determine the effect on roasts of cooking at different temperatures. Use roasts of lamb, pork, and veal, but if possible the roasts should be paired; that is, use the same cuts from...
-Steaks And Chops
Experiment 44 Steaks. To determine the effect upon steaks of cooking by different methods and to different interior temperatures. Rib, porterhouse, sirloin, or round steak may be used. Steaks for c...
-Less Tender Cuts
Experiment 45 To determine the effect of various factors in cooking less tender cuts of meat. Braising. Cuts. Use paired cuts. Cuts from the neck, flank, rump, round, or particular muscles from the ...
-Cooking Meat In Water
Experiment 46 To determine the effect of temperature of the water upon the palatability of the meat. Stews. Use neck, heel of round, or any of the less tender cuts. The meat is cut into cubes of the...
-Broth
Experiment 47 To determine the best method of making broth. Use1/2 pound of meat for each experiment and 1 pint of water. Add water as necessary to keep the volume constant. 1. Cook the meat in one...
-Ground Meat
Experiment 48 To determine the effect of various factors upon the palatability of ground meat. Meat loaf. Recipe: Ground lean beef Butter Egg, beaten Milk Salt 1/4 pound 1/2 tablespoon 1/4 ...
-Cured Meats Ham
Experiment 49 To determine the effect of various factors affecting the palatability of ham. Hams may be secured with a light or a heavy salt cure. The former do not need to be soaked before cooking;...
-Bacon
Experiment 50 To determine the effect on the flavor and the losses of bacon by cooking at different temperatures and to different stages of doneness. Weigh the bacon before and after cooking to dete...
-Suggestions For Additional Experiments With Meats
1. Determine the effect on total cooking loss of cooking roasts in a covered and uncovered pan. 2. Determine the effect of salting on cooking losses of chops, steaks, and roasts. ...
-Chapter VIII. Emulsions
Some substances like alcohol and water are miscible in all proportions, i.e., they mix intimately however small or large the proportions used, whereas other substances like oil and water are not misci...
-Classes Of Emulsions
Clayton states that two very distinct classes of emulsions exist. (1) The very dilute emulsions. These emulsions are simple emulsions, containing only oil and water. In this class only the oil in wate...
-The Theory Of Emulsification
Bancroft states that the necessary conditions for forming a stable emulsion are that the drops of the dispersed phase shall be so small that they will stay suspended and that there shall be a sufficie...
-The Type Of Emulsion Formed
The type of emulsion formed, i.e.: (1) oil-in-water or (2) water-in-oil, depends upon the nature of the emulsifying agent, the nature of the oil, and the effect of electrolytes. With one emulsifier an...
-Types Of Emulsifying Agents
Emulsions may be stabilized by different substances. They may be classified as follows, the basis being upon the type of emulsifler: (1) those stabilized by an electric charge, (2) those stabilized by...
-The Making Of Emulsions
To make an emulsion it is necessary to break or separate the dispersed phase into small globules. The work for this separation can be done in different ways. Machines of different types are used for m...
-Mayonnaise
Definition by Food and Drug Administration. Mayonnaise, mayonnaise dressing, mayonnaise salad dressing, is the semi-solid emulsion of edible vegetable oil, egg yolk, or whole egg, a vinegar, and/or l...
-Investigations On Mayonnaise And Emulsions
Air film on the oil phase. Hall and Halstrom have reported that the presence of an air film on the oil phase, as it is introduced into the emul-sifier and forming emulsion in making mayonnaise, result...
-Factors Affecting The Ease Of Formation & Stability Of Mayonnaise
In making mayonnaise, several factors affect the formation of the emulsion, its stability, and ease of making. The major factors may be listed as follows: (1) degree and kind of agitation, (2) the met...
-Factors Affecting The Ease Of Formation And Stability Of Mayonnaise. Continued
Kilgore suggests the following method. The salt, mustard, and other dry seasonings are added at first to fresh egg yolks, for they aid in holding the excess moisture. To this is added just enough vine...
-Breaking Mayonnaise
Water may separate at the bottom of a mayonnaise after long standing. Robinson states that this seldom occurs if the amount of water in the mayonnaise does not exceed 15 per cent. With the percentage ...
-The Concentration Of Oil In Mayonnaise
The amount of oil that can be permanently emulsified varies with the emulsifier, the oil used, and the manner in which it is added. Pickering has emulsified 99 per cent of paraffin oil in 1 cc. of 1 ...
-Some Food Emulsions
Salad dressing. The Food and Drug Administration has defined mayonnaise as being made with either egg yolk or whole egg. Hence, a product which may be similar to mayonnaise but stabilized with egg whi...
-Literature Cited And References 8
Bancroft, W. D. Theory of Emulsification. I, II, III, IV, V, J. Physical Chem. 16: 179, 345, 474, 739 (1912); 17: 501 (1913). Bancroft, W. D. Applied Colloid Chemistry. Chapters VII and IX. McGraw-Hi...
-Literature Cited And References 8. Continued
A. To determine the effect of varying the method of combining the ingredients in making mayonnaise. 1. Put the egg yolk into a small bowl, add the seasonings and the vinegar, and beat with a rotary e...
-Chapter IX. Milk And Cheese
In food preparation, milk is used in many ways and combined with many kinds of foods. All the different types of cheese are made from it. Meat, vegetables, and cereals may be cooked in it. It is used ...
-Composition Of Milk
Milk from different animals varies somewhat in the proportion of the different constituents. All milk contains a high proportion of water, cow's milk averaging about 87 per cent. The milk from differe...
-Constituents Of Milk - Chemical And Physical Properties
The constituents of milk that are most important in food preparation are enzymes, vitamins, pigments, salts, sugar, fat, and proteins. Enzymes. The enzymes of cow's milk are reported as follows by Ro...
-Constituents Of Milk - Chemical And Physical Properties. Continued
Formerly it was thought that the particular flavor of butter was due to the greater proportion of the lower saturated fatty acids, but now it is known that butters with satisfactory flavor and aroma (...
-Homogenization Of Milk
Globules of butter fat are suspended in the milk. They are surrounded by films of adsorbed caseinates, albuminates, and globulinates. The fat globules of milk are too large to form a permanent emulsio...
-Reaction Of Milk
Freshly secreted milk is nearly neutral to litmus. The reaction varies slightly but has an approximate pH of 6.6. The freshly secreted milk contains carbon dioxide. The amount of this gas in the milk ...
-Coagulation Of Milk
Under certain conditions, the addition of alcohol as well as the application of heat may cause coagulation of milk. Milk may be coagulated by the addition of rennin or by bringing the acidity of the m...
-Coagulation Of Milk. Part 2
Hydrogen-ion concentration. The reaction of the milk affects the rapidity of coagulation and the character of the curd formed. Ordinarily when the reaction of the milk is alkaline coagulation does not...
-Coagulation Of Milk. Part 3
Rogers and Palmer both state that, in the evaporated-milk industry, the forewarming of milk prior to processing increases its stability to heat. Rapid improvement in resistance to heat coagulation re...
-Boiling And Heating Of Milk
The physical and chemical properties of the constituents of milk account for the behavior of milk during its use in food preparation. Thus substances that lower surface tension become concentrated in ...
-Sugar Reactions With Proteins Of Milk
Ramsay, Tracy, and Ruehe investigated the substitution of dextrose for sucrose in sweetened condensed skim milk. They found the objections to using dextrose were (1) a brown discoloration, (2) a physi...
-Cheese
Definition. The Food and Drug Administration defines cheese, in the regulatory announcements, as a product made from curd obtained from the whole, partly skimmed, or skimmed milk of cows, or from mil...
-Cheese. Continued
For the growth of molds and aerobic bacteria, holes must be punched in the cheese to allow oxygen from the air to penetrate. In the early stages of ripening Emmenthal and Swiss cheeses are soft and b...
-References
Babcock, C. J. The Whipping Quality of Cream. U. S. Dept. Agri. Bull. 1075 (1922). Barger, G., and Coyne, F. P. The Amino-Acid Methionine; Constitution and Synthesis. Biochemical J. 22: 1417 (1928). ...
-Cooking Vegetables In Milk
Experiment 56 To determine the effect of cooking vegetables in milk. Use green string beans, asparagus, or carrots. 1. To 3/4 cup of milk add 1/2 pound of string beans. Cook until tender. The beans ...
-Junket
Experiment 58 To determine the conditions most favorable for the clotting of milk by rennin. 1. Use 1/2 cup of raw milk warmed to 35 to 40C. Add 1/4 of a junket tablet that has been powder...
-Cottage Cheese
Experiment 59 To make cottage cheese. A. From sweet milk. 1. To 1 cup of sweet milk warmed to 35 to 40C. add 1/2 of a powdered junket tablet. Leave at room temperature until it has set. P...
-Cheese. Results and conclusions
Experiment 60 To determine the effect of heat upon cheddar cheese. A. The melting point. 1. Place some grated cheddar cheese in a test tube. To determine the melting point place a thermometer in th...
-Welsh Rarebit. Results and conclusions
Experiment 61 To determine the most satisfactory method of combining ingredients for Welsh rarebit. 1. Prepare a medium white sauce using: Milk Flour Butter 1/2 cup 1/2 tablespoon 1/2 tablespoo...
-Cheese Souffle
Experiment 62 To determine a satisfactory method of combining and baking cheese souffle. Recipe: Butter Flour Milk Egg yolks Cheese, grated Salt Egg whites 3 tablespoons 2 tablespoons 1/2 c...
-Chapter X. Egg Cookery
Structure and composition. The shell forms about 11 per cent of the egg and is largely composed of calcium carbonate with some magnesium carbonate, calcium and magnesium phosphates, and organic matter...
-Egg Quality
The term quality as applied to eggs refers ultimately to their desirability for human consumption. When an egg deteriorates its cooking qualities are altered. It is commonly accepted that an egg of ...
-Egg Quality. Continued
Most of the eggs placed in low temperature storage are stored during March, April, May, and June. More than half of the annual supply of eggs is laid during these four months. Withdrawal of eggs from ...
-Properties Of Egg Proteins
The extensive use of eggs in cookery is made possible by their protein content. The protein coagulates during heating, thus bringing about thickening as in custards or the binding of pieces of food to...
-Properties Of Egg Proteins. Part 2
The theories for heat coagulation have been considered in Chapter I (The Relation Of Cookery To Colloid Chemistry). But, however the process of coagulation is brought about, the coagulation temperatur...
-Properties Of Egg Proteins. Part 3
Concentration and valence of added salts. If the effect of electrolytes upon hydrophobic and hydrophilic colloids is referred to in Chapter I (The Relation Of Cookery To Colloid Chemistry), the statem...
-The Applications Of Factors Affecting Heat Coagulation To Preparation Of Food Products
Custards. As can be deduced from the foregoing discussion, custards containing a high proportion of sugar may not thicken satisfactorily for serving purposes. A small amount of salt aids setting but t...
-Cooked Salad Dressings
Vinegar, lemon juice, or a mixture of the two, is used in cooked salad dressings. The two acids do not behave alike, particularly in regard to curdling. The lemon juice contains citric acid and salts....
-Eggs Cooked In The Shell
Effect of coagulation at low and high temperatures. Eggs cooked in water held at 70C. are not firm like those that are cooked in boiling water. The white cooked at 70C. is very soft and jell...
-Poached Eggs
Fresh eggs are usually considered better for poaching than eggs in which the physical quality has deteriorated, i.e., eggs with watery whites. Class results substantiate this popular opinion, for eggs...
-The Formation Of Ferrous Sulfide In Cooked Eggs
When an egg has been cooked in hot water for 15 minutes or longer a dark greenish color may be formed on the surface of the egg yolk. If the egg is immersed in cold water immediately after cooking, th...
-Custards
In custards, eggs are combined with milk and sugar. The chief protein of cow's milk is casein, which is not coagulable by heat. Milk contains some albumin and a small proportion of globulin, which are...
-Whipping Eggs And Egg Whites
When an egg is whipped with an egg beater, or similar utensil, its volume increases, owing to incorporation of air. The egg white because of its low surface tension and the stability of its surface fi...
-Whipping Eggs And Egg Whites. Continued
The addition of sugar to egg white foams. Adding sugar to the egg white increases the stability of the foam, for less drainage occurs when the egg is beaten to a definite stiffness. However, a longer ...
-Meringues
Meringues vary in the quantity of sugar added and in their use. Only soft and hard ones will be considered here. Soft meringues. One general use for soft meringues is for pies. The factors determinin...
-Omelets
There are several types of omelets. They are designated in various ways as plain, French, and foamy omelets. Some have a white sauce or tapioca basis. In others, bread crumbs are used to absorb a part...
-Angel Cake
Angel and sponge cakes are included under egg cookery because they logically belong here and not under batters and doughs. The texture of the finished cake depends chiefly upon the manipulation of the...
-Angel Cake. Part 2
In studying the influence of acid and sugar on the initial coagulation temperature of egg white (different proportions of sugar and acid added to egg white, placed in test tubes for heating) it was fo...
-Angel Cake. Part 3
Table 43 Formulas for Angel Food Cake Formula Egg white Sugar Flour Cream of tartar Amount of salt Meas. Cups Wt. Gm. Meas. Cups Wt. Gm. Me...
-Angel Cake. Part 4
When the sugar is whipped into the whites, it may be added before whipping is started but this materially lengthens the time for whipping. The preferable time for adding the sugar is after the cream o...
-Angel Cake. Part 5
Beating the egg whites to obtain the possible maximum cake volume usually produces the most tender cake, for with a maximum volume the cell walls are stretched to the greatest extent, hence are thinne...
-Sponge Cake
Sponge cake, like angel cake and foamy omelets, depends chiefly upon the extent of whipping the egg whites, the mixing, and good proportions to produce a tender cake. Probably the most common fault i...
-Literature Cited And References 9
Almquist, H. J., and Lorenz, F. W. The Solids Content of Egg White. Poultry Sci. 12: 83-89 (1933). Almquist, H. J., Givens, J. W., and Close, A. Transmission of Light by Egg Albumen. Ind. Eng. Chem....
-Eggs
Cooking Eggs in Water Experiment 63 I. In the shell. A. To determine the effect of coagulation at different temperatures on the texture of the white and yolk. 1. Cook an egg in water. Do not let t...
-Eggs. Continued
2. Repeat A1, but have the pint of water in the lower part of the double boiler boiling when the upper part is added. Regulate the heat to keep the water boiling very rapidly. Cook as quickly as possi...
-Salad Dressings
Experiment 65 To determine the effect of acid upon coagulation of egg in cooked salad dressings. Recipe: Egg yolks.............. 4 72.0 grams Sugar................. 1/2 tablespoon 6.2 grams Liquid...
-Hollandaise Sauce
Experiment 66 To determine the factors affecting the smoothness of Hollandaise sauce. Recipe: Butter................... 1/2 cup 112 grams Egg yolks................. 2 36 grams Hot water..............
-Angel Cakes
Experiment 69 To determine the factors that affect the texture of angel cake. Standard recipe: Egg whites........... 1 cup Sugar................ 1 1/4 cups Cake flour............ 1 cup Cream of t...
-Angel Cakes. Continued
C. To determine the effect of beating the egg whites to different stages of stiffness on the texture of the angel cake. Beat enough egg whites at one time to prepare 1/2 of the full recipe. Add cream...
-Chapter XI. Flour And Bread
The composition of wheat may vary with several factors, such as varying rainfall, temperature, and other climatic conditions, irrigation, texture and composition of the soil, and the use of fertilizer...
-Flour And Bread. Continued
In separating the endosperm from the rest of the wheat berry and reducing it to flour, some small bran particles are broken from the bran coats. As these particles are formed they are separated from t...
-Rye Flour
The Service and Regulatory Announcements define rye flour as the fine-ground product made by bolting rye meal, and contains not more than 13.5 per cent moisture, not less than 1.36 per cent nitrogen,...
-Wheat and Flour Enzymes
Wheat and flour contain many enzymes, some of which are important because of their action during fermentation of cracker and bread doughs. Others become active in the sprouted grain, hence affect brea...
-heat and Flour Cellulose
The greater part of the cellulose of the wheat kernel is removed in milling, so that the amount in white flour is small. Bran. Bran contains considerable cellulose and cellulose absorbs water slowly....
-The Moisture Content Of Flour
Flour has been considered adulterated with water, under the federal standards of the United States, if the moisture content exceeded 13.5 per cent. Recently this standard has been changed to 15 per ce...
-The Fat Content Of Flour
The percentage of fat in white flour is low, since most of the fat is found in the germ which is removed during milling. But though present in a small quantity, the lipoid content of flour is importan...
-The Ash Content Of Flour
Sullivan found that the total ash content of wheat averaged 1.86 per cent. In general the ash content of a flour increases as more of the wheat kernel is used. Whole-wheat flour contains all the ash o...
-Inorganic Constituents Present In Relatively Larger Quantities In Wheat, Patent Flour, And Bread
(Sullivan) Inorganic constituent Wheat1 % Patent flour % Bread % Total ash..................... 1. 86 0. 45 2. 77 Potassium......................
-Sugars
Sugar. Flour contains small amounts of sugars. The content of maltose is from 1/2 to 1 per cent. The amount of sucrose averages approximately 1 per cent but may reach 2 to 3 per cent. Dextrose may not...
-Starch
Uses. Starch, either alone or in flour, of which it may compose as much as 75 per cent and averages 65 to 70 per cent, is used in cookery: for thickening, as in soups and sauces; to form molded gels, ...
-Starch. Part 2
In general the longer the starch chain the less its solubility. Very short chains broken from a long starch chain, i.e., glucose and maltose, or short chains of these units, are completely soluble. De...
-Starch. Part 3
Starch paste. Starch granules added to cold water swell slightly. According to Alsberg the axes may increase as much as 15 per cent. Such swelling is not like that in hot water inasmuch as there is no...
-Starch. Part 4
Effect of salts. In studying flocculation of starch pastes Samuel investigated the effect of different metallic salts and found their action to be varied. Some lowered the gelatinization temperature c...
-The Results Of Fine Or Over-grinding Upon Flour
Bakers have known for a long time that flour ground too finely does not produce so good a quality of bread as flour that has not been over-ground. Alsberg and Griffing have reported the following for ...
-Effect Of Aging On Flour
It is commonly accepted that aging, particularly during the first 4 or 5 weeks, improves the quality of flour for making bread. Dunlap has reported that he has always obtained better results with aged...
-The Proteins Of Flour
Osborne in his classical work on the wheat flour proteins reported only a small fraction soluble in water. This fraction contained leucosin and albumin, plus proteose or non-protein nitrogen. A small ...
-Gluten
The characteristics of gluten gain in importance because it is the protein of the flour as a whole, regardless of whether it is composed of one, few, or many components, that gives the baking quality ...
-Gluten And Dough
Bungenberg de Jong states that gliadin is a protein that swells easily in water, is readily peptized to a colloidal solution by dilute alkali or acid and in water forms a sticky mass that can easily b...
-Gluten And Dough. Continued
The hydration of a gluten and hence its tenacity or cohesiveness, and its elasticity or extensibility, may be altered, that is increased or decreased, by: (1) over-grinding, (2) bringing the dough to ...
-Effect Of Added Substances On Gluten Of Dough
Egg. In thin batters, to improve the baking quality or to give structure to the finished product, eggs are added. Without their addition only a thickened mass with no increased volume is obtained. The...
-Bread
Bread is made of flour, water, salt, fat, and sugar. To these ingredients the yeast plant is added. The right treatment of the whole mass gives a loaf of bread of good volume containing cells of defin...
-Variations Caused By Different Absorptions On Properties Of Bread
(Harrel) Absorption Volume of loaf, cc. Spring in oven Color of crumb 50 2550 fair good minus 55 3100 fair plus good 60 ...
-Effect Of Mixing For Different Lengths Of Time On The Quality Of Bread Baked With Only Panary Fermentation
(Swanson and Working) Total time of me-chanical treatment 60 r.p.m., minutes Total time of fermen-tation, minutes Volume of loaf, cc. Color score Texture score Cont...
-Effect Of Fermentation Upon Dispersion Of Proteins Of Flour
(Johnson and Bailey) Hours fermented pH Dispersed protein based on proteins in flour, per cent 0 5. 95 15. 14 2 ...... 17. 70 4 ......
-Baking Bread
Length of fermentation period. The total length of the fermentation period depends upon the proportion of yeast used and the temperature at which the sponge or dough is kept. The first rising should d...
-Baking Bread. Continued
Davis and Cline have reported that the best results are obtained with a short fermentation period. They state, The best results were obtained by allowing the dough to double its volume for the first ...
-Literature Cited And References 10
Alsberg, C. L. Studies upon Starch. Ind. Eng. Chem. 18: 190 (1926). Alsberg, C. L. Starch in Flour. Cereal Chem. 4: 485 (1927). Alsberg, C. L. The Role of Starch in Bread Making. A Comprehensive Sur...
-Literature Cited And References 10. Part 2
Co. (1928). Kent-Jones, D. W. Modern Cereal Chemistry. The Northern Publishing Co., Liverpool (1924). Kozmin, N. P. The Aging of Wheat Flour and the Nature of this Process. Cereal Chem. 12: 165 (193...
-Literature Cited And References 10. Part 3
Woodruff, S., and Nicoli, L. Starch Gels. Cereal Chem. 8: 243 (1931). Woodruff, S., and Webber, L. R. A Photomicrographic Study of Gelatinized Wheat Starch. J. Agri. Research 46: 1099 (1933). Workin...
-Chapter XII. Batters And Doughs
Leavening Agents A leavening agent is a substance that forms bubbles of gas in a batter or dough, thus leavening it or making it porous. During the baking the expansion of the gas produced stretches ...
-Batters And Doughs. Part 2
Many old recipes containing molasses, like those containing sour milk, call for excess soda. In the cooky contest previously mentioned, it was not uncommon to find recipes that called for 1/2 cup of s...
-Batters And Doughs. Part 3
Bailey gives three equations which represent the reactions that may take place under favorable conditions. He adds that equation (3) represents what probably usually occurs. With sodium acid pyrop...
-Volume In Cubic Centimeters Of Carbon Dioxide Evolved From Sodium
Acid Pyrophosphate and Soda (Barackman) Time, Minutes Water solution Biscuit Doughs Doughnut doughs A B C D B C D 0 0 0 ...
-Carbon Dioxide Content Of Cake Batters And The Specific Volume Of Cakes (barackman)
Acid ingredients Per cent CO2 in batter by analysis Specific volume of cakes Specific volume increase over control(1.72) Phosphate................. 23.0 2.73 ...
-The Structure Of Batters And Doughs
The texture or structure of the finished product depends partly upon the structure obtained in the batter or dough when it is mixed. The role the flour plays in batter and dough products is the same a...
-The Structure Of Batters And Doughs. Continued
The method of mixing the ingredients. Bingham states, A pure liquid, at a given temperature and pressure, can have but a single fluidity, but in our study of liquid mixtures we have seen that a mixtu...
-Popovers
The amount of liquid used in popovers is large, and thus the hydration of the gluten particles is too great for them to adhere tenaciously to each other. Therefore, the popover batter may be beaten wi...
-Timbales And Cover Batters
Timbales and rosettes should be crisp, and the timbale shell should be thick enough to hold the material that is to be served in it. Usually a cup of flour to a cup of liquid produces a good texture, ...
-Cream Puffs
Cream puffs contain a higher percentage of fat and eggs than popovers, but the proportion of liquid to flour is the same in each. The fat, flour, and liquid are first cooked together until a stiff bal...
-Griddle Cakes
Griddle cakes are made of wheat flour, or a combination of cereal flours, a liquid, salt, and a leavening agent. They may or may not contain egg, fat, and sugar. Griddle cakes are partially leavened ...
-Waffles
Waffles may contain the same ingredients as griddle cakes, though egg is never omitted as is sometimes the case in the latter. The proportion of flour may vary from 1 to 1 1/2 cups or more per cup of ...
-Muffins
The proportion of flour in muffins is usually 2 cups to a cup of liquid. For this reason, the extent of mixing has more effect on the structure of the batter and the finished muffins than in thin batt...
-Biscuits
The using of the proportion of liquid required by the flour is one important factor in obtaining a desirable texture in biscuits. Since hydration capacity of different flours varies, it is necessary t...
-Cakes
Cake recipes are legion in number, but the underlying principles for making cakes containing a fat are similar, though some variation must be made for different recipes, depending upon the particular ...
-Cakes. Part 2
Fig. 54. - The effect of baking temperature upon scores of a rich (Recipe A) and a less rich (Recipe B) chocolate cake. (Rogosheski and Bernds) Baking temperatures for chocolate cake. Rogosheski a...
-Cakes. Part 3
Minard and Myers both found that the texture of the fat is important in relation to creaming quality and in obtaining velvety texture in cakes. By the rate of cooling a fat after it is melted, its tex...
-Cakes. Part 4
Eggs. Eggs vary so in size that they should be weighed for experimental work. As previously stated, eggs beat up more quickly and to a better volume if they are not too cold, so that it is preferable ...
-Cakes. Part 5
Fig. 58 is a photomicrograph of the creamed butter-sugar-egg mixture shown in Figs. 55 and 56 after the flour and milk are added. All the photomicrographs are from the recipe in which 1 1/2 cups of su...
-Cakes. Part 6
Conventional-sponge. Cakes made of oil by the conventional method always have a large portion of the oil dispersed as an oil-in-water emulsion. See Fig. 65. Nearly the same result was obtained when so...
-Cakes. Part 7
Fig. 66 is a photomicrograph of cake batter that shows the butter dispersed as an oil-in-water emulsion. All the materials were incubated at 40C. and mixed at this temperature. The butter was me...
-Cakes. Part 8
Extent of mixing, its effect upon crust and shape of cake. With very little mixing, so that the ingredients are just combined but not blended until the batter is smooth (cakes number 1, Figs. 68 to 70...
-Cakes. Part 9
Fig. 70. 1. 50 strokes. 2. 100 strokes. 3. 150 strokes. 4. 300 strokes. 5. 400 strokes. 6. 1000 strokes. Optimum amount of mixing for plain cake. In the plain cake the optimum amount o...
-Cakes. Part 10
The following weights for a teaspoon of baking powder have been suggested and used. Type of powder Halliday and Noble Grams per teaspoon Woodruff Grams per teaspoon Phosphate...
-Cakes. Part 11
Varying the proportion of flour. If the flour is very dry a better texture is obtained when the flour is reduced. If the proportion of flour in the plain cake is increased the tendency to tunnel is in...
-Cakes. Part 12
Though the amount of sugar added to chocolate liquor varies greatly and the blends of chocolate are unlimited, Zenlea makes the following classifications of general types: bitter-sweet, dark-sweet, me...
-Cakes. Part 13
(2) Time. This factor as in other reactions is also important, the length of time the batter containing soda stands before baking influencing the color obtained. It has been found that cake batter whi...
-Cakes. Part 14
The gingerbreads containing the largest proportion of soda are darker in color. This is due to several factors, i.e., the effect of the soda on the color of the flour, the decomposition of the monosac...
-Literature Cited And References 11
Adam, W. B. Determination of the Color Producing Constituents of the Cacao Bean. Analyst 53: 369 (1928). Alexander, G. L. Comments on the Use of Calcium Acid Phosphate as an Improver for Soft Wheat F...
-Batters And Doughs
I. Thin Batters Popovers Experiment 77. To determine the factors that affect the texture of popovers. Recipe: Milk 1 cup Eggs 2 Fat 1 tablespoon 244 grams 96 grams 12 grams Flour 1 cup Salt 1/...
-Timbales. Results and conclusions
Experiment 78 To determine the best proportions for timbale cases or rosettes. Prepare 1/4 of the popover recipe, using the four different proportions of flour given below. Mix the batter until free...
-Cover Batters
Experiment 79 To determine the best proportion of ingredients for a cover batter. Prepare 1/4 of the popover recipe using the four different proportions of flour given in Experiment 78 for timbales....
-Medium Batters Waffles And Griddle Cakes
Experiment 81 To determine when baking powder should be added to a batter. I. To determine the factors that affect the texture, tenderness, and flavor of waffles. Recipe for plain waffles: Milk Eg...
-Flour Sugar Milk
Egg Fat, melted or oil Baking powder Salt 2 cups 2 tablespoons 1 cup 1 2 tablespoons 1/2 teaspoon 224 grams 25 grams 244 grams 48 grams 25 grams 12 grams 2 grams Directions for combinin...
-Doughs
Baking Powder Biscuits Experiment 83. To determine the factors that influence the texture of baking powder biscuits. Recipe: Flour Fat Milk Baking powder Salt 2 2/3 cups 4 tablespoons 3/4 to...
-Plain Cake
Plain Cake Experiment 84. To determine the factors that affect the texture and flavor of plain cake. Plain cake recipe: Butter 1/2 cup 112 grams Sugar 1 cup 200 grams Eggs 2 96 grams Milk 1 cup 2...
-Plain Cake. Continued
6. Use 16 grams of baking powder for the full recipe. b. Repeat section D,a, using a phosphate baking powder. c. Repeat section D,a, using an S.-P. baking powder. Which amount of powder produces th...
-Chocolate Cake Experiment 85
A. To determine the amount of mixing to give the best texture and the best method of mixing for a rich chocolate cake. Recipe:* Butter Sugar Eggs Chocolate Cake flour Milk 1 1/4 cups 2 1/4 cups ...
-Red Devil's Food
Recipe: Butter Sugar Eggs Flour Thick sour milk Baking powder Vanilla Chocolate Boiling water Soda Salt 1/2 cup 2 cups 2 2 cups 2/3 cup 11/2 teaspoons 1 teaspoon 3 squares 1/2 cup 1 t...
-White Cake Experiment 86
To determine the effect of mixing by different methods on the volume, texture, and tenderness of white cake. Recipe: Butter Sugar Cake flour Milk Egg whites 3/4cup 2 cups 3 cups 1 cup 6 168 g...
-Gingerbread Experiment 87
To determine the effect of using baking powder or soda and sour milk for leavening in gingerbread. Recipe: Molasses Sour milk Fat Egg Flour Ginger Salt 1 cup 1/2 cup 1/4 cup 1 2 cups 11/2 teaspo...
-Cookies Experiment 88
To determine the proportion of ingredients for drop and roll cookies. A. Drop cookies. Recipe: Butter Sugar Milk Eggs Flour Baking powder Flavoring 1/2 cup 11/2 cups 1 cup 33/4 cups 4 teas...
-Chapter XIII. Fats And Oils
The principal uses of fats and oils in cookery are as follows: (1) to give richness and flavor, as the addition of fat to vegetables, and in mayonnaise and French dressings; (2) for sauteing and for c...
-Approximate Percentage Of Unsaturated Glycerides Found In Some Fats And Oils
Kind of fat Unsaturated glycerides Investigator Percentage Coconut oil 6 to 8 Lewkowitsch Butter 40 Lewkowitsch Lard ...
-The Approximate Percentage Of Unsaturated Glycerides Found In Some Fats And Oils. Continued
Texture and consistency of fats. The texture or consistency of a fat, and hence its properties in baked products, is not only influenced by its component glycerides, but also by the rate of cooling an...
-The Smoking Temperatures Of Fats
When fats or oils are heated to a high temperature decomposition occurs and finally a point is reached at which visible fumes are given off. This point is called the smoking temperature. Some fats dec...
-Rancidity
Fats are added directly to many products such as crackers, cookies, and cake because of their shortening power; they are added to other products in the form of such ingredients as nut meats, coconut, ...
-Rancidity. Continued
Prooxidants and antioxidants. A prooxidant accelerates but an antioxidant retards oxidation of a fat. Because of the economical importance of prevention of rancidity many investigations have been cond...
-Changes In Fats During Cooking Processes
Masters and Smith have investigated the character of the changes in fat during cooking. They state that the changes occurring in the fat in cooked pastry are slight, unless the pastry is very thin or ...
-The Amount Of Fat Absorbed By Fried Foods
The chief factors governing the amount of fat which will be absorbed by a food during frying are (1) the time of cooking, (2) the temperature of the cooking fat, (3) the total surface area of the food...
-The Amount Of Fat Absorbed By Doughnuts Reported By Different Investigators
Fat absorption in doughnuts by McKee. McKee has determined the amount of fat absorbed in frying doughnuts. The doughnuts were made under standard conditions and fried for 5 minutes at 200C. The s...
-Factors Affecting The Amount Of Fat Absorbed During Cooking And The Texture Of The Doughnuts
The factors that affect the amount of fat absorbed by doughnuts may be outlined as follows. Other factors than those listed may also affect the amount of fat absorbed: (1) surface area, (2) the temper...
-Effect Of Amount Of Flour In The Recipe Upon Fat Absorption In Doughnuts (average 13 Tests)
Experi-ment 94A. Amount flour, cups Number of strokes used for mixing Weight of uncooked dough-nuts, grams Weight of cooked dough-nuts, grams Fat absorption Grams ...
-The Shortening Power Of Fats And Oils
Shortening power has been defined and tested in various ways. The ordinary household way is to test the product by feel either by breaking or by crushing. Davis has defined shortening as follows: Tha...
-The Shortening Power Of Fats And Oils. Continued
Polar groups of molecules and water are attracted to each other. Harkins and co-workers have reported that, if an organic liquid contains polar groups in its molecules, these groups turn towards the w...
-Shortening Power Of Fats And Oils
A machine to test the shortening power of cooked foods needs to be very sensitive. Davis has devised such a machine, called a shortometer. From tests upon cookies he reports lard to be the best shorte...
-Shortening Power Of Fats And Oils. Continued
Denton and Lowe found that in general the fats and the oils having the highest percentage of unsaturated glycerides gave the shortest pastries. They found an exception in butter, which gave less short...
-Literature Cited And References 12
Andrews, J. T. R. Gaseous Decomposition Products of Rancid Oils. Oil & Soap. 12: 104 (1935). Bloor, W. R. Biochemistry of Fats. Chem. Rev. 2: 243 (1925). Blunt, K., and Feeney, C. M. The Smoking Tem...
-Fats And Oils
Experiment 89 To determine the smoking temperatures of different fats. Use, preferably, evaporating dishes or small sauce pans of the same size. Have the fat come to within 1 inch of the top of the ...
-Fats And Oils. Part 2
Prepare 1/4 of the recipe, reserving 1 tablespoon of flour for the board. Mix the dough 80 strokes with a wooden spoon. Follow directions for rolling and cutting. Cook the 6 doughnuts for 3 minutes at...
-Fats And Oils. Part 3
What is the effect of increasing the sugar in the recipe upon fat absorption? Upon texture? Does increase of sugar in the recipe require longer mixing of the dough? Is there any relation between the t...
-Fats And Oils. Part 4
E. To determine the effect of varying the proportion of ingredients. 1. Increase the fat to 100 grams or 1/2 cup and the water to 6 grams more for the full recipe than that found best under A. Use br...
-Suggested Additional Experiments
1. Use other fats in addition to the ones given in the outline. 2. Reduce the proportion of the fats and the oil, and find the amount equivalent to 50 grams of butter, as far as can be determined fro...
-Books In Home Economics
Household Equipment. Second Edition. By Louise Jenison Peet and Lenore E. Sater. A Functioning Program of Home Economics. By Ivol Spafford. A Guide to Textiles. By Mary Evans and Ellen Beers McGowan...









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