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Food And Feeding | by Henry Thompson



In the present and enlarged edition I have attempted to classify the various processes employed in cookery and its staple products in a more complete and natural order than heretofore, and to explain more fully the principles on which they are employed, the objects aimed at, and the rationale of each procedure.

TitleFood And Feeding
AuthorSir Henry Thompson
PublisherFrederick Warne And Co
Year1901
Copyright1901, Frederick Warne And Co
AmazonFood And Feeding

Food And Feeding

Book Cover

By Sir Henry Thompson, Bart F.R.C.S., M.B. Lond., Etc.

With An Appendix.

London Frederick Warne And Co

Eleventh Edition, London Frederick Warne And Co

(All rights reserved)

-Preface To The Eleventh Edition
Enlarged And Revised. During the last few years several large editions of this book have been called for, and much new matter has been added to three or four of them. The last edition has, howev...
-Chapter I
Importance of proper selection and preparation of food - Improper feeding common among all classes, and at all periods of life - The purpose and the elements of food - To repair the waste of the body,...
-Choice Of Food An Important Study
Indeed, the process of digestion and the influence it exerts on the sources of mental and moral power, have received little attention in any scheme for fitting men and women for the practical duties o...
-The Relation Between Food And Character
The general outlines of a man's mental character and physical tendencies are doubtless largely determined by the impress of race and family. That is to say, the scheme of the building, its characteris...
-Influence Of Race. Influence Of Food And Training
To commence, then, I fear it must be admitted that the majority of British infants are reared on imperfect milk by weak or ill - fed mothers. And thus it follows that the signs of feeble vitality, of ...
-Errors In Feeding Infants
Children often ill - fed, means frequent indisposition;During Period of Growth. The next stage of boyhood transfers the child just spoken of to a public school, where too often insufficient or inap...
-Improper Food At School
Pastrycook and the vendor of portable provisions, with their wares of questionable character consumed not at meal times, but at irregular hours. Many an unhappy dyspeptic owes his complaint to a confi...
-Early Habits Of Drinking
Evils of early indigestion thus, and otherwise caused. But it is necessary to say here, and I desire to say it emphatically, that this question of food need not, even with the views just enunciated...
-The Objects Of Food Necessary Elements
1. The proteids: 2. The hydro - carbons, or fatty matters, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, in a certain proportion, are also necessary for nutrition; and these may be obtained also from both animals ...
-How Utilized A Complex Machine, Self - Supplying And Repairing
Now, as above seen, all these constituent elements of the food, the proteids, the fats, and the carbohydrates, together with the inorganic salts, may be obtained both from the animal and vegetable kin...
-Superiority Of Animal Proteids Valuable To The Labourer
Classify themselves as vegetarians, a numerous body of earnest adherents to a rule which forbids them to eat flesh, are mostly compelled to consume not only milk, butter, and cheese, but also eggs,*...
-Anatomical Evidence
Anatomical peculiarities of the vegetable feeders. For it is a significant and important physiological fact, that the digestive apparatus of an animal must correspond to the extent of change which ...
-The Monkey Tribes Are Mixed Feeders
The numerous species of smaller monkeys, as well as the great baboons, all ranking lower in the scale of approach to man, live largely on insects* and small lizards, which abound in the African and So...
-Individual Peculiarities
Finally, I think we should carefully consider the question whether it is prudent or desirable to accept vegetarian limitations to man's resources in relation to food in face of the world's rapidly inc...
-Chapter II
Materials at man's command for food from the vegetable kingdom - Seeds cultivated becoming grain, or cereal foods, as wheat and its derivatives, flour, wheaten bread - Oats and oatmeal - Maize and Ind...
-Vegetable Foods, The Cereals
1. Composition of Wheat. Proteids...... 12'42 Carbo-hydrates..... 70.53 Fats....... 1...
-Legumes, Tubers, Roots
7. Legumes - Haricots and Lentils (almost alike). Proteids 25.5 Carbo-hydrates..... 58.6 Fats 2.8 ...
-Chapter III
Foods from the animal kingdom - Domestic animals and their derivatives, milk, butter, and cheese - Deer and its varieties - Ground-game - Large foreign game - Birds, domestic and other - Fish in great...
-Animal Foods Used By Man
Amidst this profusion of supply from the varied products of the animal and vegetable kingdoms, man's selection must have been made, in different climes, almost entirely by individual experiment with t...
-Food In The East. In Southern Europe. Italy
In Spain, the inhabitants subsist chiefly on maize and rice, with some wheat and legumes. Among the latter the garbanzo, or chickpea (cicer arietinum), is one of the principal vegetable components o...
-France. Food In Colder Regions
Throughout the German Empire, the cereals, legumes, greens, roots, and fruits supply an important proportion of the food consumed by the common population. Wheaten bread chiefly, but also black bread ...
-Food In Germany
Lastly, it is well known that the inhabitants of the Arctic zone are compelled to consume large quantities of oily matter, in order to generate heat abundantly; and also that animal food is necessaril...
-Dietary Of Average Adult
A diet containing the requisite combination of alimentary principles for just maintaining health, in a person of average height and weight, under exposure to a temperate climate and a moderate amount...
-Chapter IV
Food of the English peasant - Food of the middle class generally too solid or stimulating - Tending to corpulence as age advances - The cause of chronic complaints in later years - The produce of land...
-Foods Consumed By The Labouring Classes
Susceptible of much improvement daily, and to despise bread and vegetables, is for them no less a sign of taste, than a declaration of belief in the perfection of such food for the purposes of nutriti...
-English Middle-Class Diet
For I have already intimated that Englishmen of the middle classes generally have adopted a diet adapted for a somewhat more northerly latitude than that which they occupy; that their food is mostly r...
-National Resources Of Food
These things being so, a question also inviting consideration arises in relation to the economical management of the national resources. For it is generally understood that every acre of good arable l...
-Inadequate Supply Of Fish
Lastly, those who are interested in the national supply of food must lament that, while Great Britain possesses perhaps the best opportunities in the world for securing a large and cheap supply of fis...
-Prevention Better Than Cure - Effect Of Muscular Exercise, Etc
It is for this large and increasing class of the community, who are emphatically brain-workers, that a fair proportion of fish furnishes an appropriate food; and as the tendency of civilization is slo...
-Fish Diet And Brain Work
Changes in Diet to be Gradual. Changes in the dietary to be made by degrees. I may here advert to a belief which appears to be widely entertained, viz. that fish contains certain elements which ada...
-Food Of Outdoor Labourer
Bread. Leguminous foods. The Erbswurst and its value. * What we call French beans may be the product of several kindred varieties of the kidney bean, dwarf or climbing, varying accordin...
-Whole Meal Wheaten Bread
The following receipts will be found successful, probably after a trial or two, in producing excellent, light, friable, and most palatable bread in the form recommended. The first directs the mode of ...
-Rice, Modes Of Serving
Quitting the subject of wheat and the leguminous seeds, it will be interesting to review briefly the combinations of rice, which furnishes so large a portion of the world with a vegetable staple of di...
-Chapter V
Food of the middle-class Englishman, and its routine - Cookery, the process of rendering food digestible and nutritious by heat - First, heat applied through water - (a) Boiling - The process describe...
-Chapter V. Part 2
Cookery, a process of rendering food attractive and nutritious by heat. Various methods used. By means of heated water: boiling. Now, in the culinary treatment of flesh of all kinds and of ...
-Chapter V. Part 3
Why cooking at low heat makes flesh digestible. Bain-marie: Warrens Pot. The Bain-marie is an old and very simple application of the principle chiefly employed for the heating of sauces and fo...
-Chapter V. Part 4
Norwegian cooking apparatus. Construction described. The following mode of using it has been employed in my own kitchen, and the temperatures taken by myself. A fowl weighing two or two and a ha...
-Chapter V. Part 5
A standard illustration of effective stewing or common braising exists in the production of a well-known French dish, boeuf d la mode, which is always good, when served in a simple, inexpensive manner...
-Chapter V. Part 6
Suppose at the end of this time that by means of the thermometer, and by adjustment of the gas, that the temperature has been steadily maintained, preparation must be made for leaving it for the night...
-Chapter VI
Secondly, cooking by dry heat in hot air - (a) Baking - In dry compartments heated by steam - Becker's process and others - Atkinson's American oven - The English kitchener - (6) Roasting - The taste...
-II. Cooking In Dry Air
(A) Baking Cooking in closed vessels, ovens or other compartments in dry heated air, whether the heat is obtained from adjacent fires, or from steam at a high temperature externally applied, may be...
-Cooking In Hot Air
The Rev. Canon Moore Ede, of Gateshead, was attracted by Mr. Smith's successful use of Becker's apparatus, and visited Stockholm for the purpose of testing its value. He embodied his observations, whi...
-Cooking In Hot Air. Part 2
Since that date Mr. Atkinson has carried his researches much further, embracing the economic and scientific bearings of food - production, the nature of man's wants in relation thereto, with their res...
-Cooking In Hot Air. Part 3
Broiling and Frying. Frying Cooking by immersion in oil or melted fat at temperatures greatly exceeding that of boiling water, and popularly known as frying. This process is rarely understood, a...
-Important Characteristics Of English And French Cooking
The English idea; each animal, when served, to be characterized by its own proper flavour, which is on no account to be masked or disguised by others, which are adventitious. Delicate additions tendin...
-Chapter VII
Soups - Not sufficiently esteemed - Better understood in France - Pot-au-feu - The stock-pot - Bouillon - Consomme - Endless varieties produced from these - Three distinct classes of soup - 1. The c...
-The Pot-Au-Feu
The pot-au-feu has for its object, as already stated, not only the making of a well-flavoured beef broth, but the cooking of a portion of the beef to be eaten separately after, either cold or hot, acc...
-The Ballads
Bouillabaisse. Thackeray's description. Distinctions in soups for fasting. Vegetable soups, both clear and thickened, may be made extremely palatable; the former being agreeable and whole...
-Chapter VIII
Sauces - The Two Chief Foundation Sauces, The Brown Or Espagnole, The White Or Veloute - Their Derivatives -English Melted Butter-Maitre D'Hotel-Ravigotte, Etc Author's receipt for Bigarade sauce -...
-Sauces
Sauces are numerous, although less so than are soups, for each must have a real and distinct quality, to which it owes its existence, and is required to impart to some article of food for which additi...
-White And Brown Roux
A white roux is made in the same manner, but with the finest flour unbaked, only well dried, and fresh butter merely clarified, mixed by stirring slowly over a still less degree of heat, and never per...
-White And Brown Roux. Part 2
Vegetables served as entremets. French and English treatment of vegetables; I find it the more necessary to call attention to this subject, as much has of late been said, which may lead many t...
-White And Brown Roux. Part 3
Frenchbeans sautes. The tomato. Avoid overcooking. Macaroni as a Food. Yet this is the form in which tomato is most frequently served at foreign tables. Certainly, Talleyrand's well - kn...
-Cooking Of Rice
Receipt for red rice. * Perelli Rocco, Greek Street, Soho, furnishes an excellent sauce in small tins. Risotto a la Milanaise. The Pilau-Rice for Curry. For a Turkish pilau, well wash si...
-Aspic Jelly
Author's Receipt. On salad so much has been written, that one might suppose, as of many other culinary productions, that to make a good one was the result of some difficult and complicated process,...
-Salads - Instructions For Salad-Making
How to dress a salad. * A salad for five or six persons is supposed. Additions. Cold asparagus. Various Salads. Remoulade. A favourite combination is that of uncooked celery cut in ring...
-Salad Of Cooked Vegetables
The French salad of cold cooked vegetables, Salade de legumes, is made as follows: Take 4 ozs. of carrots cut in squares of about a quarter of an inch; 3 ozs. of turnips cut in the same way; 4 ozs. of...
-Chapter IX
Fish, and its value as food - The various constituents of flesh, of wheaten bread, and of fish compared - Analytic table, showing the same - Fish is desirable food for many persons - Ought to be less ...
-Chapter IX. Part 2
About . . 12 to 18 are partly proteids, with a rather large proportion of gelatine. Nitrogenous compounds. Remainder - A little fat with salts. In s...
-Chapter IX. Part 3
The mackerel is another oily fish, and it disagrees with some persons accordingly; so is the red mullet, but the oil is chiefly in the liver, and gives the fish its peculiar flavour and value. The her...
-Chapter IX. Part 4
An illustration of what this means. A sole cleaned is half wasted. The cook's duty. Sauces, for fried and broiled fish. Fish should partly furnish its own sauce. * A leading review, i...
-Chapter IX. Part 5
Before the fire; juices not to evaporate, serving for basting and for sauce. Nutriment not wasted; Applicability of process to many kinds. Baking, with care, gives good results. Boiling fi...
-Chapter X
Milk, an example of a natural complete food - That of the cow is its type - Its use as food almost universal - Essentially an animal food - Most important that it should be pure and uncontaminated -...
-Tuberculous Milk
The foregoing brief statements suffice to show the importance of the dairy and its products in connection with the subject of food, even when considered apart from the question of their dietetic value...
-Use Of The Lactometer
Amount of solids must determine the question of adulteration by water. Amount of solids necessary. Milk is essentially the food of the growing animal. Supplied by nature for the rapid development o...
-Chapter XI
The combination of dishes to form a meal - Three typical systems of arranging daily meals - The French or Continental - The provincial (Great Britain) - That of town life (London) - Characteristics of...
-Chapter XI. Continued
Afternoon tea. Dinner; the most important, to be discussed at length. Dinners: Family and Invitation. Dinners are of two kinds - the ordinary meal of the family, and the dinner to which guest...
-Chapter XII
Dinners of invitation - Two kinds : small and select; large but complete - The old pretentious style described - Scheme of a rational dinner - party - Priority in the service of various courses or dis...
-Dessert
* Let it be perfectly understood that these brands, undoubtedly choice as they are, are named without the slightest intention of selecting them for commendation beyond others, and merely as illustrati...
-Chapter XIII
The question of wine with dinner - Remarks on the habitual use of alcoholic drinks of any kind - Wine should be taken chiefly during dinner, never before, not much, if any, after - Should be sound and...
-How To Possess Fine Wines
Briefly, the rule, by general gastronomic consent, for those who indulge in the luxury of wine, is to offer a glass of light pale sherry or dry Sauterne after soup; a delicate Rhine wine or Moselle af...
-Usual Order Of Wines At Dinner
The value of a cigarette at the moment a meal has been completed, consists in the fact that after the first whiff or two of its fragrance the palate soon ceases to demand either food or wine. After sm...
-Water At Meals
The London supply. Purest natural waters, plain and aerated. Pure natural water best. Pure distilled water, however, re-supplied with atmospheric air by a special process, and then well charged ...
-Chapter XIV
In order to arrange a dinner some practical acquaintance with food is necessary - Also of the season at which various kinds are in perfection - The art of menu writing - The scheme or elementary outli...
-Chapter XIV. Continued
5. A dish of choice vegetables by itself, with or without an attractive specimen of smoked or cured flesh in some form. 6. A sweet. 7. A savoury dish. Not all absolutely e...
-January Menu
Soup.......... Brunoise. Consomme, with Italian pastes. Fish........... Fillets of Sole a la Cardinal. Crimped Cod and Oyster...
-February Menu
Soup Paysanne. Pure'e of White Haricots, or Lentils. Fish Fillets of Turbot a la ravigote. Broiled Herring and Mustard Sauce....
-March Menu
Soup Croute au pot. Puree of Turnips, or of Artichokes. Fish Boiled Salmon, Sauce Hollandaisewith capers. Red Mullets, baked ...
-April Menu
Potage Printanier. Consomme au Riz, a l'ltalienne. Poisson ... Truite grillee a la Hol-landaise. Eperlans frits. ...
-May Menu
Postage Bonne femme. Crecy. Poisson ... Filets de Maquereau grille's, Maitred'Hotel. Sole a la Colbert. Re...
-June Menu
Potage Pot-au-feu. Bisque d'Ecrevisscs.* Poisson ... Saumon de Severn tail-lade', sauce au fe-nouil; ou sauce verte froide. R...
-July Menu
Potage Puree de Pois (St. Germain). Puree de Pommes de terre aux poireaux. Poisson ... Carrelets frites. Aigrefin farcie au f...
-Menus In French. August Menu
Potage Puree de Chicoree, ou d'Epinards. Consomme au Macaroni, ou au Vermi-celle. Poisson ... Sole Frite, citron; ou Sauce verte. ...
-September French Menu
Potage Cremed'OrgealaHol-landaise.+ Julienne. Poisson ... Aigrefin grille a la ravigote.++ Sole a la Normande. ...
-October French Menu
Potage Puree de Volaille (a la Reine). Puree de Tomates. Poisson ... Filets de Barbue Frits. Doree, Sauce aux huitres. ...
-November French Menu
Potage Puree de Gibier. Soupe aux Choux. Poisson ... Sole au vin blanc, gar-nie aux huitres. Merlan grille, Sauce au Capres. ...
-December French Menu
(Christmas Dinners) Soup Consomme, with Italian pastes. Oyster. Fish Turbot, Hollandaise sauce with cape...
-Menus In French Of Higher Class. December And January. Huitres
Postage Consomme a la Royale. Mulligatawny claire. Poisson ... Filets de Sole a la chevreuse.* Filets de Sole a la Villeroy.+...
-French Menus. May Menu
Potage Consomme a la Jacqueline.* Puree d'Asperges. Poisson ... Truite au court bouillon. Filets de Sole a la Chevreuse. ...
-September Menu
Potage Puree de Levraut. Consomme de Volaille a l'Estragon. Poisson ... Sole a la Trouville. Quenelles de Merlan a la Montgla...
-October Menu
Potage Velours.* Consomme a la Nill-son.f Poisson ... Darnes de Saumon a la Matelote. Creme de Homard. Rel...
-Chapter XV
The public dinner - Its undue length - Toasts too numerous - Suggestions for shortening the proceedings - Good cookery independent of pedantic and complicated receipts - Schools of cookery - Elementar...
-Chapter XV. Continued
Have touched lightly many topics, which, were not the limits narrow, might have been advantageously treated at length. Culinary taste and physiological knowledge wanted for the progress of cookery....
-Bread
Facilities for distribution of food presents one of the most interesting and truly foreign spectacles which the city affords. To the long list of needed reforms I have ventured to advocate in conne...
-Conclusion. Appendix. On The Pot-Au-Feu, Soups, Etc
Pot-au-feu: Jules Goufle's instructions for making it - Gouffe's instructions for braising - Baeuf a la mode - Vegetable Soup - Author's directions for beef - tea - Table of French equivalents for the...
-Ordinary Braising
Jules Gouffe's instructions for Boeuf d la mode, referred to at p. 107 Take about 4 lbs. of thick beef-steak cut square. Lard the meat and place it in a stewpan with rather less than a pint of white ...
-On Menu Writing
Question sometimes arises in writing menus as to the correct word in French for each species of fish with which we are familiar in England. Referred to at p. 256. A list is here supplied: ...
-Fish In Season. Months Of The Year When Fish Is In Fine Condition
The spaces are in that case left blank; when not fine a X is placed under the month. It may often be fairly good when the month is crossed, but it is not fine. Referred to at p. 251. Fi...
-The Children's Dinner Table
This has become so well known and so popular an institution that I can scarcely leave it unnoticed. The more so as its origin is, I may be permitted to say, not without interest personal to myself. ...
-Author's Receipt For Cheap, Nutritious Soup
The following is recommended to make a cheap but really good and nourishing soup. Take six pounds of shin of beef; the bone to be broken into small fragments and set, together with the meat cut up fin...
-Cheap And Good Soup Cost
s. d. 6 lbs. shin of beef .... 2 3 20 lbs. split peas .... 2 6 ...
-The Dinner Of The Working Man
Mr. Edward Atkinson, whose Aladdin oven has been referred to at p. 117 et seq. has recently constructed, on the same principle, a workman's pail, measuring ten inches in height by six in diameter, i...









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previous page: The Home Science Cook Book | by Mary J. Lincoln and Anna Barrows
  
page up: Food Science Books
  
next page: Food Facts For The Home-Maker | by Lucile Stimson Harvey