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Food Study | by Mabel Thacher Wellman



A Textbook In Home Economics and Cooking For High Schools

TitleFood Study
AuthorMabel Thacher Wellman
PublisherLittle, Brown, And Company
Year1917
Copyright1917, Little, Brown, and Company
AmazonFood Study

By Mabel Thacher Wellman Associate Professor And Head Of Department Of Home Economics In Indiana University Formerly Instructor In Dietetics And Household Chemistry At Lewis Institute, Chicago

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To Mrs. Alice Peloubet Norton Whose Teaching Has Been The Source Of Inspiration Of This Book

-Acknowledgment
Thanks are due to John Wiley & Sons for the use of starch cuts from Leach's Food Inspection and Analysis; to Ginn & Company for the use of mold cuts from Conn's Bacteria, Yeasts and Molds in the Ho...
-Foreword To The Teacher
Home Economics is still so new a study that no apology-is necessary for placing another textbook in this subject on the market. Many of the best books which are now available obviously are intended fo...
-Introduction
Planning meals is often thought a very simple piece of work, and perhaps it is comparatively so, if it is not necessary to consider either time or money. But people are beginning to believe that it is...
-I. Fruit
Coddled Apples Apple Sauce A. Class Experiment. The Spoiling of Fruits. Put three test tubes, with corks to fit, in a pan of cold water and heat slowly to boiling. Empty the tubes and half fill ...
-II. Canning Fruit
Canned Peaches A. Class Experiment. One Cause of Fruit Spoiling. Take a piece of bread, moisten it with water, and leave it exposed upon a plate during the lesson. Then cover with a saucer; leave f...
-III. Jelly Apple And Grape Jelly
A. Trial Jelly. Place in saucepans one-half cup of crab apples and one-half cup of pears or peaches, cutting them into pieces. Just cover with water, later adding more if necessary. Cover and boil,...
-IV. Jelly-Making (Continued)
A. Repeated Extractions of Juice for Jelly-Making. Use sour apples or quinces. 1. Cut fruit in small pieces, without peeling or removing seeds. Place one cup of fruit in a kettle, cover with wat...
-V. Sweet Pickled Peaches
A. Prepare Sweet Pickled Peaches. Use one peach. 1/2 peck peaches 2 lbs. brown sugar 1 pint vinegar 1 oz. stick cinnamon Cloves Scald the peaches, peel them, and stick them with three o...
-VI. Use Of Water In Cooking
Boiled Potatoes Mashed Potatoes A. Various Methods of Boiling Potatoes. (Each student is to try one way and compare the result with the others.) 1. Wash and scrub a potato. Cook it in boiling...
-VI. Use Of Water In Cooking. Continued
Besides the substances already mentioned, there is also a trace of solanin, a poisonous substance which may occur in greater or less amounts and which is said to give the characteristic flavor to the ...
-VII. Use Of Water In Cooking
Boiled Eggs Stuffed Eggs A. Class Experiments. Eggs. 1. Weigh out a pound of eggs. How many average-sized eggs in a pound? Repeat with small eggs. With large eggs. Would it be fairer to sell egg...
-VIII. Use Of Water In Cooking
Poached Eggs A. Class Experiment. Solubility of Egg White. 1. Cut a small piece of uncooked egg white with a pair of scissors. Shake the egg white with some cold water. Filter. Has any of the eg...
-IX. Use Of Water In Cooking
Cereal Breakfast Foods A. Class Experiment. The Relation Of Surface To Evaporation 1. Put equal amounts of water into two saucepans, one much larger than the other, and heat both the same len...
-X. Starch
Apple Tapioca Boiled Rice A. Prepare Apple Tapioca. 11/2 tbsp. Minute tapioca 1/3 c. water A pinch of salt Cook together in a double boiler until transparent (about fifteen minutes). Pa...
-XI. Rice And Indian Puddings
Cost Of Breakfast Foods A. Prepare Rice Pudding. 1/2 c, steamed rice 1/2 c. milk 1/2 egg 1 tbsp. sugar 1/4 tsp. salt 2 tbsp. raisins Scald the milk before using it. Beat the egg with...
-Rice And Indian Puddings. Part 2
Mineral And Organic Salts Mineral matter occurs not only in the teeth and bones, but in every tissue of the body and in all the fluids. It is necessary in all the vital processes. The principal min...
-Rice And Indian Puddings. Part 3
References Ohio Agri. Exp. Station (Wooster) Bulletin 201. Mineral Elements in Nutrition. Ohio Agri. Exp. Station (Wooster) Bulletin 207. The Balance between Inorganic Acids and Bases in Anim...
-XII. Review Lesson
Breakfast Prepare and Serve a Breakfast. Calculate the cost per person. Suggested menu: Fruit, fresh or stewed. Cereal, cooked or ready-to-eat. Eggs, boiled or poached. Serve with toast or bread...
-XIII. Tea
Marshmallow Wafers A. Prepare Marshmallow Wafers. Dent a marshmallow by pressing on it, as hard as you can, with the handle of a knife. Put in this dent a piece of butter about the size of half ...
-XIV. Coffee
Cheese Wafers A. Prepare Cheese Wafers. Sprinkle grated cheese, seasoned slightly with salt and paprika, on thin crackers, and heat them in the oven until the cheese melts. Serve with coffee....
-XV. Cocoa And Chocolate
Oatmeal Cookies A. Prepare Oatmeal Cookies. Use one-eighth of the recipe: 1/2 c. sugar 1/2 tbsp. melted butter l egg 1/4 tsp. salt 1 tsp. vanilla 1 c. rolled oats 1 tsp. baking powder ...
-Cocoa And Chocolate. Part 2
Condiments And Flavoring Extracts Substances possessing practically no nutritive value, but consumed either for their stimulating effects or for their flavor, are known as food adjuncts. Tea and co...
-Cocoa And Chocolate. Part 3
Extracts Extracts are solutions in alcohol of the volatile oils and other substances which give the characteristic flavors to various plants. Extracts of many varieties are on the market, but vanil...
-XVI. Freezing
Water Ices Sherbet A. Class Experiments. A Study of Freezing Mixtures. 1. Prepare a small bowl of: a. cracked ice. b. mixture of one part of salt to one part of ice. c. mixture of one part...
-XVII. Reception
Candied Fruit Peel Marguerites Sandwiches Hold A Reception Prepare bread-and-butter or jelly sandwiches, candied fruit peel, and marguerites or marshmallow crackers, cocoa or tea, or coffe...
-XVIII. Combustion And Fuels
Scalloped Potatoes A. Prepare Scalloped Potatoes. Wash, pare, and cut a potato into very thin slices. Put in layers in a baking dish. Season each layer with salt and butter, and pepper if desire...
-XIX. Drafts And The Coal Range
Baked And Stuffed Potatoes A. Prepare Stuffed Potatoes. Wash a potato, scrubbing it well with a vegetable brush. Bake in a hot oven until soft. Cut a piece off the top and remove the contents wi...
-XX. Flame And Gas Stoves
Chocolate Bread Pudding A. Prepare Chocolate Bread Pudding. Melt one-fourth of a square of chocolate over hot water, add half a cup of scalded milk, a quarter of a cup of bread crumbs, quarter o...
-XXI. Radiation And Conduction Of Heat
Scrambled Eggs On Toast A. Class Experiments. How Heat passes from One Place to Another. 1. Radiation of heat. a. Stand in front of a hot stove or fire and notice the heat. Then hold a screen...
-XXII. Convection Of Heat
Broiled Bacon Potato Salad A. How Heat Passes from One Place to Another. 1. Convection of heat. Put cocoa shells or sawdust into water and heat - in a glass beaker if you have it. Notice the ...
-XXIII. Review Lesson
Second Breakfast - Omelets, Fried Mush And Syrup A. Prepare and Serve a Breakfast. Calculate the cost per individual. Suggested menu: Fruit, fresh, or stewed dried fruit Omelet Fried mush with s...
-XXIV. Medium White Sauce
Creamed Chipped Beef A. Class Experiments. Starch. 1. Boil a pinch of starch with about a tablespoon of water; cool and add a drop of iodine. Recall the test on potato. Repeat, using flour inste...
-XXV. Thick White Sauce
Salmon Croquettes Cheese Souffle A. Prepare Salmon Croquettes. Make a third of a cup of thick white sauce, using the proportions of four tablespoons of flour, and two tablespoons of butter, to o...
-XXVI. Starch
Cornstarch Mold Macaroni And Tomato Sauce A. Class Experiments. Mix half a tablespoon of cornstarch with quarter of a cup of cold water, and cook, stirring and adding measured amounts of water u...
-XXVII. Creamed Vegetables
Peas And Carrots A. Class Experiments. The Effect Of Moist Heat On Starch 1. Mix half a teaspoon of starch with a third of a cup of water. Let it stand. Does the starch settle out? Pour the m...
-XXVIII. Thin White Sauce
Cream Soups: Celery and Potato A. Make Croutons in the Oven. B. The Principle of Cream Soups. Wash and scrape some celery, and cut it into half-inch pieces. (Often only outside stalks and lea...
-XXIX. Scalloped Vegetables
Cabbage Or Onion A. Class Experiment. Mineral Ash in Vegetables. Put a piece of vegetable about as big as an inch cube into an evaporating dish and heat until the residue is quite white. The pro...
-XXX. Green Vegetables
Spinach Lettuce A. Class Experiments. The Freshening Of Green Vegetables 1. Soak lettuce in ice water for half an hour. 2. Soak lettuce in ice water over night. 3. Wash lettuce and put ...
-XXX. Green Vegetables. Continued
All the carbohydrates and fats which are digested and burned in the body give off, so far as is known, the same amounts of energy under these circumstances that they do in the calorimeter. Proteins, h...
-XXXI. Sweet-Flavored Vegetables
Squash Buttered Beets A. Squash. Prepare squash, boiled, steamed, and baked. Compare the time of cooking, the texture, and the flavor. Boiled Squash Cut the squash in pieces, pare, and rem...
-XXXII. Candies
A. Class Experiment. The Stages In Sugar Cookery Boil1/2 c. sugar in 1/4 c. water. Test by dropping product into cold water at the following stages. Feel the ball in 2, 3, 4, and 5. Note color i...
-XXXIII. Meat Cakes With Creamed Turnips
A. Class Experiment. Tests with Meat. Soak some ground meat for a few moments in a little cold water. Pour off the liquid and divide it into two parts. 1. Test one part by boiling it with a few ...
-Meat
Structure And Composition Meat is made up of fibers which are embedded in and held together by connective tissue. The connective tissue is composed of two proteins, collagen and elastin. The collag...
-Meat. Continued
Beef The meat should be bright red after standing, but it will be purplish red if recently cut. It should be fine-grained, firm, and the lean well-mottled with fat. Coarse, flabby, dark beef is poo...
-XXXIV. Tender Meat
Roast Beef Broiled Beefsteak And Corn Pudding A. Prepare Roast Beef.1 Weigh the beef before and after cooking. Wipe beef and, if necessary, skewer into shape. Dredge all sides with salt, pepper,...
-XXXV. Beef Stew
Dumplings A. Class Experiments. Cooking Meat. 1. Sear a small piece of meat in a frying pan. Pour half a cup of cold water over it and simmer for half an hour. 2. Repeat with a piece of meat ...
-XXXVI. Left-Overs
Southern Spoon Bread A. Left-overs. Each student is to come to class ready to prepare some dish from left-over meat. B. Spoon Bread. Serve the dish prepared in (A) with Southern Spoon Bread. U...
-XXXVII. Meat Soups
A. Class Experiment. The Soluble Constituents Of Meat 1. Place a two-inch cube of beef in a third of a cup of cold water. Let it soak half an hour, then heat slowly to boiling, noting (1) the te...
-XXXVIII. Gelatine Dishes
Lemon Jelly Snow Pudding Bavarian Cream A. Class Experiments. Gelatine. 1. Soak a fourth of a teaspoon of gelatine in a tablespoon of cold water for five minutes. Does it dissolve? What has happ...
-XXXIX. Review Lesson
Dinner Split Pea Soup Spanish Cream Prepare and Serve a Dinner. Suggested menu: Soup - Split pea soup. Meat - Pork chops. Vegetables - Creamed string beans (canned), or Creamed turni...
-XL. Poultry
Roast Chicken - Fried Chicken A. Class Work. Chicken. 1. Weigh a chicken. Compare with weight after it is cleaned and dressed, but not stuffed. 2. Clean and dress a chicken and truss as for r...
-Poultry. Continued
The Digestibility Of Meat The fibers in the meat of chicken and turkey are shorter than in beef and mutton. This makes them tender. The white meat of chicken is especially tender on account of the ...
-XLI. Fish
Baked Fish - Boiled Fish with Egg Sauce Scalloped Fish - Stewed Tomato A. Class Work. Prepare Baked Fish. Baked Haddock With Stuffing Clean a four-pound haddock, sprinkle with salt inside and...
-Oysters
Oysters, the United States Deputy Commissioner of Fisheries tells us, are not only the most extensively eaten of all shellfish, but are also, with a single exception, the most valuable economically of...
-XLIII. Review Lesson
Dinner Tomato Soup Jellied Prunes Prepare and Serve a Dinner. Suggested menu: Soup - Tomato. Meat - Baked fish, with any suitable sauce. Vegetables - Buttered beets. Stuffed potatoes. S...
-XLIV. Pop-Overs
A. Prepare Pop-overs. Use one-fourth of the following proportions: Liquid (Milk) Flour (Bread flour sifted) Egg Fat (Butter) Salt ...
-XLV. Apple Fritters
A. Class Experiments. The Principle of Leavening. 1. Tie a piece of rubber sheeting over the top of a test tube, cool the tube, then heat it slightly. Notice the effects on the rubber. What effect ...
-XLVI. Sour Milk Griddlecakes
A. Class Experiments. Soda as a Leavening Agent. 1. To find out why soda makes cakes light. Add a teaspoon of vinegar to a pinch of soda in a test tube. Tip the tube and hold the mouth of this t...
-XLVII. Leavening
Sweet Milk Griddlecakes Sponge Cake A, Class Experiment. Baking Powder. 1. Mix a little soda and cream of tartar. Does anything happen? Add water. What test with litmus paper was given by cream ...
-XLVIII. Muffins
A. Prepare Muffins. Use one-fourth of one of the following proportions: Liquid (Milk) Flour Egg Fat (Butter) Sugar Salt...
-XLIX. Cake
A. Make a Plain Cake. Use one-eighth of the following proportions: Liquid (Milk or water) Flour (Pastry) Fat (Butter) Sugar Eggs ...
-L. Baking-Powder Biscuits Gingerbread
A. Prepare Baking-powder Biscuits. Use one-half of the following recipe: Flour Fat Salt Baking Powder Milk l c. ...
-LI. Sugar Cookies Glngersnaps
A. Class Experiments. Yeast. I. Blend a yeast cake with a cup of water in which a teaspoon of molasses has been mixed. Divide into four portions. 1. Freeze the first and then let it stand at roo...
-LII. Bread-Making
A. Make Bread. 1/2 tsp. fat (lard) 1/2 tsp. sugar 1/4 tsp. salt it is elastic and does not stick to the hands. Place over lukewarm water in the top of a double boiler which may be greased. Co...
-LIII. Bread
Rolls Graham And Oatmeal Bread A. Class Work. Parker House Rolls. Make Parker House rolls by the long process method of making bread. Use: 2 c. scalded milk 3 tbsp. butter 2 tbsp. sugar...
-LIV. Pies
A. Class Experiments. Correct Proportions Of Fat And Liquid To Flour I. (a) Mix a teaspoon of lard and three teaspoons of flour into a small cake and bake. (b) Repeat, using butter instead of...
-LV. Doughnuts
A. Class Experiments. Fats. 1. Examine the following fats: butter, oleomargarine, lard, cottonseed oil, olive oil, beef fat, Crisco, and snowdrift. Note the differences in color and odor. 2. Fin...
-LVI. Milk Fats
Butter Whipped Cream Philadelphia Ice Cream A. Class Experiments. Cream and Butter. 1. Examine a drop of cream under the microscope. Note the globules of fat. Compare with drops of whole and ...
-LVII. Custards
Custard Ice Cream A. Prepare Boiled Custard. Use one-fourth of the following proportions: EgG Milk Sugar Flavoring ...
-LVIII. Acids And Milk
Cream Of Tomato Soup Lemon Milk Sherbet A. Class Experiments. Acids and Milk. The possible effect of heat and acids on sweet milk in making cream of tomato soup. 1. Heat a little milk which i...
-LIX. Curd Of Milk
Cottage Cheese - Junket Custard A. Class Experiments. The Effect Of Heat On Sour Milk 1. Test milk, sour enough to have clabbered, with blue litmus paper. Cut a little of the milk with a knif...
-LX. Cheese
Cheese Pudding Welsh Rabbit A. Class Experiments. Effect Of Extreme Heat On Cheese 1. Heat a small piece of cheese for some time in a hot frying pan. Allow it to cool, and examine. What two c...
-LXI. Salads
Salad Dressing A. Class Experiments. Emulsions. 1. Shake together a few drops of oil with a little vinegar or water. Examine. Let stand, and examine again. Is the emulsion permanent ? 2. (a) ...
-LXII. Luncheon
Prepare And Serve A Luncheon Decide on the type of luncheon you wish to prepare (formal or informal), on the number of people to be served, and on the amount you wish to spend. How will the season ...
-Appendix
Food Requirements A. For Adults I. Atwater and Benedict's Standard for Total Calories for average man weighing 154 pounds. Man sleeping requires........ Man sitting at rest......... Man...
-Appendix. Part 2
Foods High In Calcium Milk and cheese [both especially rich], eggs, vegetables, fruits, hard water. Foods High In Iron Beef, eggs, beans, peas, and other green vegetables [especially spinach]...
-Appendix. Part 3
Symonds'S Table Of Height And Weight For Women At Different Ages Based on 58,855 accepted Applicants for Life Insurance. (McClure's Magazine, Jan. 1909.) Ages 15-19 ...
-I. Sill'S Table Of Weights Of Children From Birth To The Fifth Year
(New York Medical Journal, January, 1911.) From Tables By Koplik. Age Weight At birth 7.5 ...
-III. Table Of Weight And Height Of Girls At Different Ages. [Ninth Yearbook Of The National Society For The Study Of Education
Part I, 1910.1 Ht in. 5 yrs. 6 yrs. 7 yrs. 8 yrs. 9 yrs. 10 yrs. 11 yrs. 12 yrs. 13 yr...
-Table Of Fuel Values
The approximate weight in ounces and the exact weight in grams of the amount of each food necessary to furnish 100 calories of heat are shown in the following tables, as well as the number of these ca...
-Supplementary Laboratory Lessons
I. Dried fruit. Baked bananas. Baked apples. II. Peach butter. Canned tomatoes. III. Apple and mint jelly. IV. Chili sauce. Mustard pickles. V. Spiced prunes. Watermelon-rind pickle. VI...









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