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Handbook Of Household Science | by Juniata L. Shepperd



This text will be found useful in the class room, and it will also serve as a manual for the housewife in the farm home. It treats of the philosophy of cooking. It gives directions for preparing and serving many of the substantial, and some embellishing, dishes. It treats of the kitchen and dining room, and gives suggestions on their furnishing and care.

TitleHand-Book Of Household Science
AuthorJuniata L. Shepperd
PublisherJuniata L. Shepperd
Year1902
Copyright1902, Juniata L. Shepperd
AmazonHandbook of household science

Hand-Book Of Household Science

Juniata L Shepperd, M. A.

Instructor In Cookery And Laundering, School And College Of Agriculture,

University Of Minnesota.

Author's edition.

Published By The Author.

Printed by Webb Publishing Co.

St. Paul. Minn. 1902

-Preface
This text will be found useful in the class room, and it will also serve as a manual for the housewife in the farm home. It treats of the philosophy of cooking. It gives directions for preparing and s...
-Chapter I. Fuels
The value of a fuel is estimated by determining the amount of moisture, of volatile matter, and of fixed carbon and sulphur it contains. The principal fuels occur in the solid, liquid, and gaseous for...
-Fuels. Part 2
Coke Coke is manufactured from coal, and may be produced in two ways: It may be a by-product of the distillation of coal for the production of tar, ammonia, etc., or it may be obtained by heating t...
-Fuels. Part 3
Peat Peat is of vegetable origin. It is found in marshy places, and is always wet, even if not saturated with water. The roots and vegetable fibres are in different stages of decay, and the bottom ...
-To Make And Manage A Fire
Every woman who has anything to do with the cooking should study the kitchen range until she is familiar with every part of it, both inside and out. She must understand the use and abuse of every damp...
-To Make And Manage A Fire. Continued
To Make and Manage a Coal Fire Prepare the range the same as for a wood fire. Put into the fire box several pieces of thick kindling wood, laying them across the bars of the grate a short distance ...
-Chapter II. The Kitchen
The kitchen should be light and airy. People, like plants, need a certain amount of heat and light. The kitchen windows should move easily at top and bottom. Windows which can be opened easily perm...
-Kitchen Utensils
In selecting kitchen utensils, one should exercise great care to choose only those which are best adapted to her wants, - those which a good housekeeper really needs. Closets filled with utensils whic...
-The Pantry
Adjoining the kitchen there should be a pantry. Ten by twelve feet, inside measure, is a good size. The window should have a wire screen, so that the room can be well aired, and there should be a shad...
-The Storeroom
A storeroom is expected to be a source of comfort, security, and economy; but if it proves to be so, it must be properly managed, as well as wisely arranged. This room should be kept dry, cool, and da...
-Measuring
Believing that most housekeepers prefer measuring to weighing, the recipes in this book are given almost wholly by measure. The measures are almost invariably even; for example, one cup means one leve...
-Picking Up And Washing Dishes
(1) Put away food. (2) Gather teaspoons and put in a small pitcher. (3) Gather up glasses. (4) Gather up cups. (5) Gather up saucers. (6) Gather up pitchers. (7) Gather up knives, fo...
-Cleaning Silver, Glass, Etc
When the water bottle or glass pitcher becomes discolored, soak in ammonia water, or in water with a little baking soda, and rub the spots with baking soda. Alcohol is better than ammonia to moisten t...
-To Clean The Sink
Wash with hot water in a dishpan and a brush, being certain that every groove is reached. Pour the water from the dishpan into the sink, and let it drain out. Fill the pan again with hot water, and ag...
-To Clean The Refrigerator
Wash shelves and bottom of refrigerator once a week with clear warm water, and wipe dry, if shelves are not movable. If shelves can be moved, take them out, and wash with soapsuds, and scald, and wipe...
-Chapter III. Methods of Cooking
Methods of cooking may be divided into four general classes, - broiling, boiling, baking, and frying. Broiling Broiling over coals. Pan broiling. Oven broiling. Boiling Boiling proper. ...
-Object Of Cooking
The value of food for nutriment depends not only on the amount of nutrients it contains, but also on the amount of these the body can digest and use for its support. Cooking changes the texture of ...
-Chapter IV. Water
Sources of Water Water plays a very important part in this world of ours. It is encountered in minerals as a chemical constituent. It enters very largely into the composition of and things of veget...
-Water. Part 2
Composition of Water Pure water is made up of two gases, - hydrogen and oxygen, - in the proportion of one part oxygen to two parts hydrogen by volume. It is represented by the symbol H2O. Pure w...
-Water. Part 3
Sources of Impurities in Water Harmful impurities in rain water may be avoided by preventing the water entering the cistern before the air and the roofs of buildings have been thoroughly washed, an...
-Chapter V. Vegetables
What Place Should Vegetables Have in the Diet? The cereal products and potatoes make up the bulk of the vegetable substance of our diet. There are, however, other vegetables which sh...
-Vegetables. Continued
To Dry Corn Pick it when just in prime condition for roasting ears, husk, silk, and remove from the cob the same as for cooking. Dry in a current of air as quickly as possible, tie up in a bag and ...
-Steaming, Baking And Boiling Vegetables
Effect of Cooking on Food Value of Potatoes The following conclusions are taken from Minnesota Experiment Station Bulletin No. 43: (1) In order to obtain the highest food value, potatoes should...
-Steaming, Baking And Boiling Vegetables. Part 2
Riced Potatoes After the potatoes are mashed, seasoned, and beaten, press through a potato ricer into the serving dish. Creamed Potatoes Cut cold boiled potatoes into thin slices. Put the...
-Steaming, Baking And Boiling Vegetables. Part 3
To Cook Asparagus Break off the woody ends, wash and tie the asparagus in bunches of suitable size, cook in a small amount of salted boiling water, and season as peas, or serve with Hollandaise Sau...
-Steaming, Baking And Boiling Vegetables. Part 4
Hollandaise Sauce No. 1 Pour one cup of White Sauce No. 1, boiling hot, over a beaten egg, pouring slowly, and beating rapidly. Add one tablespoonful of vinegar or lemon juice. Put over the fire an...
-Steaming, Baking And Boiling Vegetables. Part 5
To Cook Tomatoes Lay ripe tomatoes in a pan, stem side up, and cover with boiling water, let stand an instant, drain off the hot water, and put cold water on them. Remove the skins, take out the co...
-Steaming, Baking And Boiling Vegetables. Part 6
To Cook Rice in Water Put in a saucepan over the fire ten cups of water, adding a tablespoonful of salt. When the liquid boils, put a cup of rice in. Let boil until soft, as before. Keep the quanti...
-Steaming, Baking And Boiling Vegetables. Part 7
Corn Oysters Select roasting-ear corn, and prepare for cooking. Score each row of grains, then with a sharp knife cut off the top of each row about one-third down, and with a kitchen knife scrape o...
-Dried Vegetables
All dried vegetables should be looked over, washed, and put to soak in cold water, and left until they absorb all the water they will, or at least for several hours, then cooked in the water in which ...
-Chapter VI. Cereals
Cereal Grains Cereal foods are made of the farinaceous (meaning-floury) seeds of plants belonging to the grass family, and in some instances, doubtless, in part, of the seeds of such legumino...
-Cereals. Part 2
To Cook Coarse Hominy Use six cups of boiling liquid to each cup of hominy. Salt to taste. Cook six to ten hours, either over a slow fire, or in a double boiler. The only object in using the double...
-Cereals. Part 3
Vitos One and one-half cups of milk, one and one-half cups of water, one teaspoonful of salt, three-fourths cup of Vitos. Let milk and water boil, then stir the Vitos into it, and let cook one-half...
-Cereals. Part 4
Average Analysis of Wheat Flour, Corn Meal and Oat Meal Wheat Flour.............................................. 12.4 0.5 10.8 75.1 1.1 ...
-Chapter VII. Wheat And Wheat Flour
Wheat From very early times, wheat has held the place of one of the choicest foods for man. Next to rice it is the most extensively used by the human race of any of the cereal grains, and the most ...
-Wheat And Wheat Flour. Part 2
Effects of the Germ on Flour Whether the flour makes a better food with the germ incorporated, or without it, is a question to which the milling world has given much time and attention. Some author...
-Wheat And Wheat Flour. Part 3
Adulterants in Wheat Flour as Commonly Used Rice meal, rye flour, potato starch, cornstarch, meal from leguminous plants, as peas or beans, and corn flour; also the following mineral bodies are som...
-Chapter VIII. Yeasts
Fermentation *'Fermentation' may be defined as a generic term applied to that group of chemical changes which are consequent on and inseparable from the life and development of certain microscopic...
-Yeasts. Part 2
Strength of Yeast The following experiment, made by Professor Jago, taken in connection with other recent experiments showing that foreign ferments in bread impair the food value, prove conclusivel...
-Yeasts. Part 3
Methods of Rendering Dough Light without Yeast Aerated bread is made light by a mechanical process. The liquid with which the flour is mixed into dough is charged with carbon dioxide. The manipulat...
-Chapter IX. Bread Making
In order that the same grade of flour may have always, as nearly as possible, the same strength and quality, some mills employ a person who makes into bread a certain weighed quantity of flour as ofte...
-Bread Making. Part 2
Loss of Carbon in the Form of Alcohol During the fermentation process in bread making, the production of carbon dioxide is accompanied by the production of alcohol. Theoretically, for every part o...
-Bread Making. Part 3
Home-Made Yeast Stir one-half pint of flour to a smooth batter with one-half pint of cold water. Over this pour one quart of boiling water, pouring slowly and stirring rapidly. Place over the fire,...
-Bread Making. Part 4
Liquid Yeast Bread Put into an earthen bowl one medium-sized, well-boiled, finely-mashed potato, and pour over it, stirring meanwhile, one pint of liquid, consisting of the water in which the potat...
-Bread Making. Part 5
Buns Beat together three eggs until well broken and mixed. Then pour over them, stirring constantly and pouring slowly, one pint of sweet milk, boiling hot, add three tablespoonfuls of granulated s...
-Thin Doughs
When a soapstone griddle is used, it needs no greasing. To grease other griddles, cut a piece of very fat salt pork about an inch and a half square, and leave the rind on it. Fix this firmly on a fork...
-Thin Doughs. Part 2
Popovers - For Home Work One-half teaspoonful of salt, one cup flour, one cup sweet milk, one egg, or one-fourth cup of egg white. Put half the milk into a small bowl, and add the egg and salt. Sti...
-Thin Doughs. Part 3
Blueberry Griddle Cakes Make same as white-flour griddle cakes, and add one-half cup of blueberries (fresh). Before adding the blue-berries, roll them in flour. Whole Wheat or Graham Flour G...
-Thin Doughs. Part 4
Hygienic Muffins One cup sweet milk, one and one-half cups of flour (graham or whole wheat), one teaspoonful of salt, one egg, separated. Put the milk, the egg yolk, and salt in a bowl, put in abou...
-Baking In Different Ovens
In order to be successful in baking, one must study the oven and know all its peculiarities. If it is hotter on the side next the fire box, procure a piece of tin, bend it into the required shape, and...
-Chapter X. Maize Or Indian Corn
The Indians made much use of maize, and whether it is a native of Mexico, Central America, or Northern South America is not definitely known. It may have been indigenous in all these regions. There is...
-Maize Or Indian Corn. Part 2
Analysis of Foods Compiled by Jenkins & Winston. Hand Book, Experiment Station Work. Among domestic animals, corn holds a place similar to that conferred on wheat by the human family. To them it...
-Maize Or Indian Corn. Part 3
Reasons for Scalding Cornmeal before Using We soak dried beans, dried corn, dried fruits, etc., to restore as far as possible their former moisture. Corn is so very hard and flinty that soaking in ...
-Maize Or Indian Corn. Part 4
Corn Muffins with Egg One cup granulated cornmeal, three-fourths cup boiling water, one level teaspoonful sugar, one level tea-spoonful of salt, one egg. Proceed exactly as for corn griddle cakes, ...
-Maize Or Indian Corn. Part 5
Corn Bread No. 1 One pound butter (two cups), one pound sugar (two cups), one pound flour (four cups), one pound cornmeal (three cups), one quart milk (four cups), four eggs, two tablespoonfuls of ...
-Chapter XI. Lunch Baskets
The lunch basket should have sufficient bottom surface to allow sandwiches, etc., to lie without piling. It should be sufficiently roomy to admit of a glass for water, as neither the child at school n...
-Sandwiches
Use the best bread for making sandwiches. Cut a thin crust from the end of the loaf, and butter the cut surface before cutting off a thin slice. Warm the butter a little, that it may spread without te...
-Chapter XII. Canning
Use a granite or porcelain kettle for cooking all acid fruits and vegetables. A wooden spoon is best for stirring. Canning and Jelly Making The first thing necessary is to prepare the ca...
-Canning. Continued
To Can Soft Berries, as Raspberries and Dewberries You may cook and can them same as pieplant, and this is best for all general purposes, but they are prettier when packed in sterilized jars, set i...
-Food Preservatives
Salt and sugar have been used as preservatives, one might almost say, since time immemorial. Smoke, and a small amount of heat, as in making bacon, might be listed among preservatives. The word pr...
-Fruit Sauces
In order that a food material may do its best work, it is essential that it be as free as possible from all impurities. This is especially true of such as are eaten raw, as green apples and other fres...
-Fruit Sauces. Part 2
To Stew Apples Pare, quarter, core, and wash the apples. Place the prepared quarters in a saucepan with a small quantity of hot water, cover closely, and stew rapidly for five or ten minutes. If, o...
-Fruit Sauces. Part 3
Currant and Elderberry Sauce Make same as currant and huckleberry sauce. Raspberry and Currant Sauce Red raspberries and currants make a nice sauce, but when they can be had fresh are bet...
-Chapter XIII. Jellies, Marmalades, Preserves And Pickles-Jelly Making
Fruit juices must be skimmed while cooking to prevent cloudy jelly. To have clear, sparkling jelly, it is safer to strain the second time. To do this, have jelly bag, jelly dipper, and an earthen pitc...
-Jellies
Currant Jelly Pick the currants just before using them. Wash the bunches, if they need washing, and drain. Pick the currants from the stems, put into the kettle, and cook ten minutes, or until soft...
-Jellies. Part 2
Green Wild Grape Jelly Make same as any grape jelly, using wild grapes when just ready to turn. Quince Jelly See that the quinces are perfectly clean, quarter and core them, but d...
-Jellies. Part 3
Crabapple and Plum Jelly Use equal parts of plums and crabapples, and proceed as in making plain crabapple jelly. It makes a better jelly than either fruit alone. High-Bush Cranberry and App...
-Marmalades
Marmalades may be made of the entire fruit, or of equal parts of fresh cooked fruit and the pulp from which jelly has been made. In either case, rub the fruit pulp through a granite ware puree sieve w...
-Fruit Preserves
By the word preserves, we usually understand a fruit preserved in sugar, although, in its general sense, the word means preserving by other means as well. Fruits preserved in sugar are less wholesom...
-Fruit Preserves. Continued
To Preserve Strawberries Strawberries, raspberries, and all soft fruits are preserved in the same way as cherries, except use equal parts of sugar and fruit where it is more acid than cherries. ...
-Fruit Jams
Fruit jams are made in the same way as marmalades, except that the fruit is simply mashed, and the seeds and the skins are left in it. Rhubarb Jam No. 1 Seven pounds rhubarb, three and one-h...
-Fruit Jams. Continued
Sweet Cucumber Pickles To one cup of vinegar add one-half cup sugar. Put in this two teaspoonfuls of mixed spices, tied in a cheesecloth bag. Bring to the boiling point, and turn over the pickles. ...
-Chapter XIV. Condiments, Spices And Flavors
One of the objects of cooking is to develop flavors, as in broiling a steak, roasting coffee, etc. Here the skill of the cook is tested, and a knowledge of the intensity and continuance of heat is req...
-Chapter XV. Meats
Animal foods contain practically the same classes of nutrients as are found in vegetable foods. The protein in meat differs from that in vegetables in three ways. It is more abundant, more easily dige...
-Meats. Part 2
Beef - Uses of Cuts The seven best ribs are used for oven roasts. The chuck ribs are used for shoulder steaks, pot roasts and boiling pieces, and when from first-class beef animals they make good o...
-Meats. Part 3
Veal - Uses of Cuts The shank of veal is used for soups. The best end of loin is used for roasts and chops. The scrag end of neck is used for boiling. The breast of veal is used for stew. The flank...
-Boiling And Stewing Meats
The term boiling, as used in cookery, means cooking in a liquid which is kept at the boiling point. If the nutriment is to be kept in, as in boiled meat, the piece of meat should be left intact, so ...
-Boiling And Stewing Meats. Continued
To Cook Breast of Lamb Remove the outer skin, which is apt to make the meat taste woolly if left on, see that the meat is clean and put whole into the kettle and stew until the bones will slip, the...
-Broiling
There are several reasons why some articles of food should be broiled, or why broiled food should sometimes be eaten. One important reason is that some articles of food are cooked most perfectly in th...
-Broiling. Continued
To Pan Broil a Steak or Chop Before broiling a steak in any way, remove the tough outer edge, as it is apt to curl, and is better off. Remove the outer skin from a mutton chop because the flavor is...
-Roasting
The principles underlying broiling and roasting are the same. In each case a piece of tender meat is used, a great heat is brought to bear, so that the outer surface may be kept intact, and the result...
-Roasting. Part 2
Yorkshire Pudding Beat three eggs until very light, put in a scant teaspoon-ful of salt and one pint of milk, pour one-half cup of the mixture over two-thirds of a cup of flour, and stir to a smoot...
-Roasting. Part 3
Mint Sauce for Roast Lamb One heaping tablespoonful of finely-chopped mint, one cup of vinegar (scant). Season to taste with salt and pepper, put mint and vinegar together, heat to the boiling poin...
-Roasting. Part 4
Basting for Fowls - Class Rule To make basting gravy, take one teaspoonful of flour, one-half teaspoonful of butter, and rub together. To this add one-half cup of liquid, and season with salt and p...
-Frying
By frying we mean cooking in deep fat. Any. pure, clear fat that is free from strong odor will answer the purpose. In order that the frying be properly done, (1) the fat used for frying must be clarif...
-Frying. Continued
Potato Straws Potato straws must be well cooked to render them crisp. Use long potatoes and cut into slender, matchlike strips. Soak them in ice water for half an hour after cutting before fryin...
-Chapter XVI. Sauteing
Sauteing is a term used to describe the manner of cooking food in a small quantity of fat. For sauteing, one needs a fat which will bear a high temperature without burning. Butter or drippings, when u...
-Sauteing. Part 2
To Saute Onions Peel the onions, slice crosswise, have the fat hot in the spider, put the onions into it, season, and cook covered until tender, stirring as needed. Scotch Haggis One-half...
-Sauteing. Part 3
Sauted Hash Balls One cup of hashed meat, one cup of mashed potato, one egg, whipped. Season to taste. Form into balls, and saute in a little fat. To Saute Ham Cut the slices very thin, t...
-Sauteing. Part 4
To Cook Pork Chops Have the chops cut one inch thick, as the meat will be more juicy and consequently finer flavored when cooked. Lay the chops on a plate and mix in a cup the amount of salt and pe...
-Chapter XVII. Carving
In order to be successful in any undertaking, and especially in one which must be performed in the presence of others, it is necessary to understand perfectly every detail of the work. There are a few...
-Carving. Continued
To Carve a Saddle of Mutton, Lamb or Venison A saddle is merely a double loin, and should be carved in the same way. If the kidney and tenderloin are cooked in the roast, as they often are, remove ...
-Chapter XVIII. Albumen Cooking
Eggs, meat, and milk each contain the element known as albumen, and they each require special care in cooking to give best results in flavor of food and in capability of assimilation. Eggs are unive...
-Albumen Cooking. Part 2
Weight of Eggs The North Carolina Experiment Station, in some experiments lately concluded, has brought out the following facts: Eggs from different breeds of hens, if sold by weight, would vary fr...
-Albumen Cooking. Part 3
Egg and Milk Dishes In preparing dishes composed largely of milk and eggs, the points to be specially guarded are putting the two together when hot, and cooking at the proper temperature, and for t...
-Albumen Cooking. Part 4
To Poach Eggs in Milk Butter the dish in which the eggs are to be poached. Put into it the milk and a little salt, let heat almost to boiling, but do not burn. Break eggs separately into a cup and ...
-Albumen Cooking. Part 5
Shirred Eggs Beat the egg whites till very light, put them in mounds on the platter on which they are to be served. Make with a spoon a hollow in the top of each mound, and in this put a whole egg ...
-Albumen Cooking. Part 6
Caramel Omelet - For Class Work One egg, one tablespoonful of caramel, one-fourth teaspoonful of vanilla, one-half teaspoonful of lemon juice, one teaspoonful of sugar. Put together and cook as abo...
-Chapter XIX. Cheese
Cheese is an article of food which is manufactured from milk. Cow's milk is most extensively used, but the milk of ewes and goats is used in the manufacture of some of the cheese of commerce. Differen...
-Cheese Cookery
Why is cheese not more extensively used for food in this country? There are two chief reasons. One is that people do not appreciate its value as a food material. If they realized that twenty-eight per...
-Cheese Cookery. Part 2
Cheese Timbales Break three eggs into a bowl, and beat as for custard. Put into these a cup of sweet milk and salt to taste (the exact amount of salt cannot be given as cheese varies much in saltin...
-Cheese Cookery. Part 3
Cheese Souffle - Home Rule Two tablespoonfuls of butter, one and one-half table-spoonfuls of flour, one-half cup of milk, one cup of grated cheese, three eggs, one-half teaspoonful of salt, cayenne...
-Cheese Cookery. Part 4
Cheese Balls No. 1 One hard-boiled egg, cut in half. Take out the yolk, rub fine, and mix with it two level tablespoonfuls of find bread crumbs, and two teaspoonfuls of white sauce. Season with sal...
-Chapter XX. Beverages - Coffee
The United States imports its coffee principally from Central America, Mexico and Columbia. The following from Bulletin No. 13, United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Chemistry, gives a ...
-Cocoa
There are several small trees which belong to the genus Theobroma. These yield the seeds from which cocoa is made. The tree known as Theobroma Cocoa yields by far the greatest quantity and the most ...
-Cocoa. Continued
To Make Cocoa One and one-half level teaspoonfuls of cocoa for each cup. Place the cocoa in a granite cup, and stir in cold water enough to make a thin batter. Place on the fire, and stir until it ...
-Teas
Teas are prepared from the leaves of an evergreen shrub which is grown very extensively in China and Japan. Teas are divided into two classes, - black teas and green teas. They take their names from t...
-Chapter XXI. Soups And Soup Making
If we will prepare tempting soups of the scraps of meat, bones, etc., we will aid in preventing the habit of over-eating, to which our progress in civilization has led us. Formerly very simple diet wa...
-Soups And Soup Making. Part 2
To Color Soup Stock There are several ways in which an amber color may be imparted to soup. The following method is perhaps most satisfactory from all standpoints: Place the soup meat in a hot spid...
-Soups And Soup Making. Part 3
What to Serve in Soups Bouillon should be well colored, strong, clear, and served with nothing in it. Clear soup, or consomme, should be clear, amber colored, of medium strength, and flavored with ...
-Classes Of Soups
There are many varieties of soup, but few distinct classes. A plain soup is a simple stock of either meat or vegetable origin. It may contain one kind of meat or vegetable, or more than one kind; but ...
-Clear Soup, Or Consomme
To clear the soup, use the whites of the eggs only. To every two pints of stock allow one large egg white. The entire egg may be used, but the white only gives a better flavor and the yolk can be easi...
-Mixed Soups
Soups made- from two or more different broths wisely combined and flavored delicately with vegetables and other suitable materials are among our most palatable dishes, but, like other good things, the...
-Mixed Soups. Part 2
Okra Soup - For Home Work One quart of chicken broth, one cup of okra canned or fresh (strained), one-fourth cup of lima beans, one-fourth cup of sweet corn, one-fourth cup of cooked and strained t...
-Mixed Soups. Part 3
Scotch Broth- For Home Work To each quart of mixed stock add a scant one-half cup of cooked carrots, turnips, onions, and celery in equal parts. Add, also, one-fourth cup of cooked barley to each q...
-Purees And Cream Soups
The class of soups with which we have been dealing contains those which are composed of meat broth flavored with vegetables. When the vegetables appeared at all, they were in distinct pieces floating ...
-Purees And Cream Soups. Part 2
Puree of Split Peas One cup of meat stock, one cup of dried split peas, one tablespoonful of flour, one-half tablespoonful of sugar and one-half level tablespoonful of butter. Look the peas over...
-Purees And Cream Soups. Part 3
Cream of Salsify One cup of strained salsify, one-half cup of strained corn, one pint chicken or veal broth, one pint of whole milk, one tablespoonful of flour, one tablespoonful of butter. Wash th...
-Purees And Cream Soups. Part 4
Puree of Mixed Vegetables No. 2 Make the puree of mixed vegetables the same as mixed vegetable soup (page 272), except rub the pulp of the vegetables through a sieve into the stock, and thicken it ...
-Chapter XXII. Salads, Salad Dressings And Garnishes
Salad dressings may be divided into four general classes, - cream dressings, cooked egg dressings, mayonnaise (oil dressing), and French dressing. The dressing must be chosen to suit the ingredients o...
-General Rules For Salads
The meats generally used for salads are chicken, beef, fish, tongue (pickled or fresh), sweetbreads, and shad-roe. Meats for salad should be fine flavored, boiled, and cooled in the water in which coo...
-Salad Making
Salad making is a very important branch in the preparation of food, since the salad materials require careful handling to insure success. Very pleasing and hygienic dishes may be prepared from uncooke...
-Salad Making. Part 2
Cooked Salad Dressing Measure four tablespoonfuls of vinegar, and let boil, then pour over two whole eggs, or four yolks beaten until thick and lemon colored. Stir while adding the vinegar. Put in ...
-Salad Making. Part 3
Tomato Dressing One egg, beaten very light. Pour over it boiling hot one tablespoonful of strained tomato and one tablespoon-ful of vinegar, stirring while pouring. Place over the fire and cook unt...
-Salad Making. Part 4
Tomato, Celery, and Nut Salad Prepare the tomatoes and dressing as for tomato salad in cups (page 288), except leave out the onion. When ready to put together (just before serving), measure the tom...
-Salad Making. Part 5
Cold Slaw To each cup of vinegar of medium strength add one teaspoonful of the following mixture: Three teaspoon-fuls of salt, one-half teaspoonful of pepper, two teaspoon-fuls of sugar. Have the c...
-Salad Making. Part 6
Lettuce Salad - French Dressing Lettuce should be gathered fresh just before using, carefully washed to prevent breaking the leaves, and the water shaken off before setting away for the short time ...
-Salad Making. Part 7
Salmon and Tomato Salad - Home Rule Drain the oil from one pint can of salmon and remove the bone, and cut salmon into dice. Place on lettuce leaves as in class rule, garnish with the bits of tomat...
-Salad Making. Part 8
Apple Salad No. 1 Make cream dressing No. 2 and season to taste with-the following mixture: Two level teaspoonfuls of sugar, one level teaspoonful of salt. Use very tart and mellow apples. Pare the...
-Garnishes For Food
The material used for decorating a dish may be cooked or raw. The decorations may be very simple, or more elaborate. In order that any garnish fulfill the purpose for which it is intended, it must be ...
-Chapter XXIII. Marketing - Care Of Foods
The selection of fresh meats, vegetables, and fruits in the city markets has most importance for city people. Farmers who supply these foods need to know at what points and characteristics the city ho...
-Marketing - Care Of Foods. Part 2
To Select Beef Meat from mature and well-fattened cattle has a better flavor, and loses less of its weight when cooked, than that from younger beef animals. Good beef has a dark red color when firs...
-Marketing - Care Of Foods. Part 3
To Select Veal Milk-fed calves that are from six to eight weeks old make the best veal. The fat about the kidneys in such veal is white, and the muscles are a delicate flesh color, and firm. The hi...
-Marketing - Care Of Foods. Part 4
To Select Eggs Eggs should have fresh-looking, not shiny, shells. If lifted in the hand, they should feel comparatively heavy. There is where farmers have the greatest advantage. Eggs are selected ...
-Care of Foods
Canned goods should be kept in a cool, dark place. Preserved goods, as jellies, jams, etc., should be covered with paraffine or with paper to keep out dust and mold, and are better kept cool and dry. ...
-Chapter XXIV. Pastes And Starch Preparations
Under this head we will consider macaroni, tapioca, etc. Italy has long been famous for the excellent quality of macaroni produced there. It grows a wheat which is harder and more glutenous than that ...
-Chapter XXV. Milk
It requires two pounds of milk to furnish as much ' nutriment as is found in three-fourths of a pound of beef of good quality. Six ounces of bread supplies an equal amount of nutriment, but the nutrit...
-Chapter XXVI. Invalid Cookery
In invalid cookery, cleanliness and good appearance are of great importance. Food and medicine are under the physician's direction, but after the kinds and quantities of food have been designated, the...
-Invalid Cookery. Part 2
Koumiss One pint of skimmed milk, one-fourth cup of hot water, one-sixteenth of a yeast cake, one level tablespoonful of sugar, one level tablespoonful of water to mix the yeast with. Scald the mil...
-Invalid Cookery. Part 3
Curant Shrub Currant juice (canned) five teaspoonfuls, two level tea-spoonfuls of sugar and one glass of water. The juice from fresh currants may be used in the same way. Mulled Buttermilk ...
-Invalid Cookery. Part 4
Lemon Whey One cup of hot milk, one-half tablespoonful of lemon juice, or enough to cause curd to separate. Heat until the clear whey is seen, then strain, and add sugar to taste. Vinegar Wh...
-Invalid Cookery. Part 5
Milk Toast Toast carefully slices of bread cut one-half inch thick. Lay on a warm plate, and turn over it the hot whole milk, seasoned with a little salt. Or make a white sauce of one and one-half ...
-Chapter XXVII. Desserts
Gelatine Dishes In order to be successful in making gelatine desserts, one must remember several things: Use no more gelatine than is absolutely necessary to have the mass keep its form when molded...
-Desserts. Part 2
Peach Jelly Gelatine same as for strawberry jelly, one cup of peach juice, one cup of cold water, one tablespoonful of caramel, one teaspoonful of almond extract. Sweeten to taste. Put together sam...
-Desserts. Part 3
Orange Jelly - Class Work One full teaspoonful of gelatine (phosphate), two tablespoonfuls of water, three tablespoonfuls of orange juice, one teaspoonful of lemon juice, one and one-half teaspoonf...
-Desserts. Part 4
Orange Pudding Make same as snow pudding, using orange instead of lemon juice, and flavor with orange extract. Grape Pudding Make same as snow pudding, except use grape instead of lemon j...
-Puddings And Pudding Sauces
Caramel Souffle - For Class Work One level teaspoonful of cornstarch, one-fourth cup of water. Cook together until thickened. Separately beat the yolk and white of an egg until light, and add the c...
-Puddings And Pudding Sauces. Part 2
Yolk Custard - Class Rule One large egg yolk, one tablespoonful of flour, one-half cup of water, one tablespoonful of sugar. Make and bake same as directed in home rule. Caramel Pudding. Use fou...
-Puddings And Pudding Sauces. Part 3
Meringued Rice Make a plain rice pudding. When done cover with a thick meringue made as on page 362. When browned slightly, put bits of bright jelly over the top. Apple Tapioca Pudding So...
-Puddings And Pudding Sauces. Part 4
Fig Pudding - For Home Work Flour, three cups; suet, one cup; figs, one cup (chopped); sour milk, one cup; soda, one-half teaspoonful; salt, one teaspoonful; sorghum molasses, one cup; eggs, two, w...
-Puddings And Pudding Sauces. Part 5
Apple Pudding Butter the dish, put in a dust of sugar, and cover the bottom with tart apples, pared, cored, and quartered. Put over them a shake of salt, then crusts of bread which have been cut th...
-Puddings And Pudding Sauces. Part 6
Suet Pudding - For Home Work Three teaspoonfuls of baking powder, one cup chopped suet, one cup raisins, one cup molasses, one cup sweet milk, four cups flour, one-eighth teaspoonful soda (for the ...
-Puddings And Pudding Sauces. Part 7
Hard Sauce for Hot Puddings One-fourth cup of butter, one-half cup of powdered sugar, one-half teaspoonful of lemon or vanilla extract, a little nutmeg. Rub the butter until creamy in a warm bowl, ...
-Pastry
Pastry may be made with lard, cream, cottolene, suet, drippings, butter, cottosuet (a mixture of cottonseed oil and suet), chicken fat, or mutton fat, but butter is best, because it has the most pleas...
-Pastry. Part 2
Baking Powder Piecrust Baking powder, one-fourth teaspoonful; salt, one-eighth teaspoonful; fat, one-third cup; flour, one and one-quarter cups. Mix dry ingredients with the flour. Rub fat into flo...
-Pastry. Part 3
Apple Custard Pie Make a crust same as for custard pie. For the filling cook dried apples as for sauce, letting nearly all of the water cook out. Put the apples through a colander or sieve, add six...
-Pastry. Part 4
Huckleberry Pie Mix with the huckleberries about one-third as many currants or red raspberries. Sprinkle over them about two-thirds of a cup of sugar, with which has been mixed two heaping desserts...
-Pastry. Part 5
Squash Pie - Class Rule One-half cup of squash, cooked dry and made smooth, one-third cup of milk, one tablespoonful of sugar, one ta-blespoonful of sorghum molasses, one and one-half table-spoonfu...
-Frozen Dishes
There are various mixtures under the general head of ice creams. There is one which is made of pure cream or of cream and milk, with sweetening and flavoring, and another which has a custard as a ba...
-Frozen Dishes. Part 2
Caramel Ice Cream Make same as plain ice cream, except sweeten with a thick caramel syrup, and use twice as much as would be needed of a plain syrup of sugar and water boiled together because the s...
-Frozen Dishes. Part 3
Tutti Frutti Ice Cream This cream is a plain ice cream, with French candied fruits cut fine and added when nearly frozen. Fruits must not be added long enough before serving to freeze hard, as the ...
-Frozen Dishes. Part 4
Pineapple Sorbet Pare a fresh pineapple, and take out the eyes. Shred the pineapple with a silver fork. Mix with it, in an earthen bowl, two cups of sugar. Set closely covered in a cool place, and ...
-Frozen Dishes. Part 5
Ginger Sherbet Two cups of orange juice, three tablespoonfuls lemon juice, one cup granulated sugar, one cup of water. Flavor with ginger. Equal parts of juice and water may be used. Cook the sugar...
-Fruits
As to whether raw fruits are better than cooked, there is a diversity of opinion. Much depends upon the individual. When one can take raw fruit without disturbing any of the digestive processes, it is...
-Fruits. Continued
To Cut Melons in Fancy Shapes Wipe the outside of the melon until perfectly clean. Cut a thin slice off from each end of the melon, then cut in half, putting on the plate with the blossom or stem e...
-Nuts
Nuts may be cracked before serving, or served whole, as one wishes. When served whole, nuts must be of such varieties as will readily yield to the pressure of the silver nut cracker. Salt should alway...
-Chapter XXVIII. Dietaries And Bills Of Fare
Experiments in the feeding of domestic animals have been made in experiment stations and elsewhere during a considerable length of time, and the results have been carefully studied by stock owners. Si...
-Fats And Oils Used For Food
The fatty portion of our food is derived from both animal and vegetable sources, but far the larger portion is from the animal kingdom. Butter is probably the most pleasant flavored and popular of the...
-Fats And Oils Used For Food. Continued
Waste of Food Dietary studies have brought out the fact that the waste of food material varies from three per cent, to six per cent, of the amount furnished. In some families there is practically n...
-Chapter XXIX. Meat - Its Uses And Abuses
Those who have studied the dietaries of different people tell us that well-to-do professional men and students in America consume much larger portions of muscle-forming foods than are found necessary ...
-Chapter XXX. Foods And Diet
Food is that which, when taken into the body, repairs waste, forms tissue, or yields energy in the form of heat and muscular power. Most food material contains a portion which is non-edible in additio...
-Foods And Diet. Part 2
Classification of Nutrients The following is from Bulletin No. 21, U. S. Dept. Agr., Chemistry and Economy of Foods. The following familiar examples of compounds, commonly grouped with each o...
-Foods And Diet. Part 3
Carbohydrates Chief among carbohydrates are the sugars and starches. These contain the three elements, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and, in common with other carbohydrates, furnish heat and energy...
-Foods And Diet. Part 4
Digestibility of Foods The value of a food depends partly on the amount of nutritive material it contains, and partly on whether the nutrients are in such form that they can be made use of by the b...
-Abuse Of Foods
The oft-repeated words of Sir Henry Thompson must be heard many times more before we are all free from the evils here spoken of: I have come to the conclusion that more than half of the disease that ...
-Chapter XXXI. Cake Making
The two principal kinds of cake are sponge cake and butter cake. Butter cakes should be well beaten in the making, as this renders them lighter and finer grained, and they require less soda or baking ...
-Cake Making. Part 2
Butter Cake - For Class Work One-half cup of sugar, one-fourth cup butter, one-fourth cup of milk or water, one-half teaspoonful of baking powder, three-fourths cup of flour, one egg, one teaspoonf...
-Cake Making. Part 3
Sponge Cake - Mrs. Ewing Weigh ten eggs. Take equal weight of sugar, finely granulated preferred. One-half as much by weight of flour as sugar. Juice of one lemon with most of peel grated. Beat egg...
-Cake Making. Part 4
Filling for Cream or Roll Cake One cup of milk, one egg, two tablespoonfuls of cornstarch, one tablespoonful of granulated sugar. Put the cornstarch into a bowl, and mix it with one-fourth of a cup...
-Cake Making. Part 5
White Cake One cup of cold water, three and one-half cups of pastry flour, or three cups of bread flour, three-fourths of a cup of egg white, one-half cup of butter (scant), three level teaspoonsfu...
-Cake Making. Part 6
Maude's Cake One-half cup butter, one and one-half cups sugar, one teaspoonful extract, three cups flour (three and three-fourths if very soft flour), one cup liquid (water makes a more delicate mi...
-Cake Making. Part 7
Fruit Cake - Mrs. Preston Four cups of flour, two cups of sugar, two cups of butter, one cup of sweet milk, five eggs, four cups of raisins, two cups of currants, one cup of citron, one teaspoonful...
-Cake Making. Part 8
Ginger Bread - Home Rule One-fourth cup of sugar, one-half cup of molasses, one-fourth cup of sour milk or cream (use more butter with milk), one cup of flour (scant), two teaspoonsfuls of butter (...
-Cake Making. Part 9
Ginger Snaps One cup of lard, two cups of molasses, one level table-spoonful of ginger, two cups flour. Put lard and molasses together, and when it boils stir in the ginger, cool a very little, the...
-Cake Making. Part 10
Nut Filling for Layer Cake Chop fine equal parts of citron and English walnuts, soak full of lemon juice, thicken with powdered sugar, and spread on the layers of cake. Orange Filling for Ca...
-Cake Making. Part 11
Chocolate Frosting No. 2 Cook and add chocolate same as in chocolate frosting No. I, and while still boiling hot pour over the beaten white of one egg and continue beating until it thickens so i...
-Chapter XXXII. The Dining Room
To have the privilege of planning and building a house according to one's own ideas of convenience and pleasurable living is very desirable. In many cases this cannot be done, but much can be gained b...
-Chapter XXXIII. Setting Table And Serving Meals
The dining-room table should occupy that position which will make the guests most comfortable, and give the most pleasing outlook. Let the chair to be occupied by the host be at the end of the table f...
-Breakfast
Oranges. Rolled wheat with cream. Plain omelet. Creamed potatoes Bread. Hot rolls. Butter. Coffee. Cream. Sugar. The fruit plates should be put at equal distances apart, and exactly opp...
-Simple Family Luncheon
Puree of green peas Bread Butter. Chicken croquettes Baked potatoes Sliced tomatoes Salted wafers Apple pie and cheese Milk and chocolate. Table Laid for Luncheon If the t...
-Menu For Dinner
Raw oysters Amber soup Celery Salted almonds Baked shad - Sauce Allemand Fillet of beef - Mushroom sauce Mashed potatoes Browned sweet potatoes Rice croquettes Tomato salad Salted wa...
-Chapter XXXIV. Extra Work For Each Day In The Week
The following conditions are supposed to exist: The family consists of four or five people, and but one maid is kept. The ladies of the family do the work necessarily done daily in the front part of t...
-Extra Work For Each Day In The Week. Part 2
Thursday Clean bedrooms, upper hall, and stairs. The last one to leave the sleeping room should each morning place two chairs at the foot of the bed, throw the bed clothes back over these, and open...
-Extra Work For Each Day In The Week. Part 3
Polishing Silver Whiting is the foundation of most silver polishes. It is often wiser to buy or use simply whiting, which is cheaper and sometimes less injurious to the silver than the more expensi...
-Chapter XXXV. Home-Made Candies
In making home-made candies, have a care to the following things. Make delicate in flavor; also vary the flavoring as much as possible. A variety is made by using crystalized ginger, candied pineapple...
-Home-Made Candies. Part 2
Velvet Molasses Candy Velvet molasses candy is nice, and can be easily formed into any fancy shapes if one chooses to have it so. One-fourth cup of molasses, three-fourths cup of sugar, one-four...
-Home-Made Candies. Part 3
Maple and Nut Bar - Class Rule One-third pound of maple sugar, one-fourth cup of cream, one-eighth cup of boiling water, one-sixth cup of walnuts. Proceed as in home rule. Nut Roll Nut ro...
-Home-Made Candies. Part 4
To Make Chocolate Creams As soon as the white fondant is kneaded until soft and creamy, flavor it to taste with vanilla, and shape it into forms a little smaller than those found at the confectione...
-Home-Made Candies. Part 5
Cream Candy - (For Class Work.) One pound sugar, one-half cup cream, one-half cup of water. Proceed as in home rule. Wintergreen and Peppermint Creams One and one-half cups sugar, one cup...
-Chapter XXXVI. Recipes
To Stone Raisins Put the raisins in a dish, and pour boiling water over them. Let stand until the seeds will slip, then pour the water off, take each raisin in the fingers, and force the seeds alto...
-Lunch Dishes
Sweetbreads and Mushrooms on ToastBlanch the sweetbreads by allowing to lie in salted water for a time, then put to cook in boiling salted water, and let cook until tender. Let cool in the water in wh...
-Lunch Dishes. Part 2
Scalloped Oysters Wash fresh oysters, drain through a colander, and free them from shells. Season bread crumbs with salt, pepper, and butter, the same as for chicken dressing. Then place in the pla...
-Lunch Dishes. Part 3
Beet Croquettes Two good-sized beets, one cup of milk, three level ta-blesoonfuls of butter, six level tablespoonfuls of flour, one-half teaspoonful of paprika, one teaspoonful of salt, one-fourth ...
-Lunch Dishes. Part 4
Cream Sauce for Mixing Croquettes One-half cup of broth or whole milk (chicken or veal broth is used), one level tablespoonful butter, two level tablespoonfuls flour, one-eighth of a teaspoonful of...
-Lunch Dishes. Part 5
Family Hash To prepare the spider for hash, grease well, and cover lightly with bread crumbs. If meat is tough, simmer until tender. Mix chicken, veal, and sweetbreads, but better not have lamb or ...
-Lunch Dishes. Part 6
Tomato Toast Strain two-thirds of a cup of tomato, and put to heat in a graniteware saucepan; when hot, turn into a bowl, rinse the saucepan, and wipe dry. Then put into it one table-spoonful of bu...
-Lunch Dishes. Part 7
Creamed Hamburg on Toast One-half cup of milk, two teaspoonfuls flour, two tea-spoonfuls butter, one-fourth cup (scant) chopped, fresh meat. Heat the butter and flour together, and pour the cold mi...
-Lunch Dishes. Part 8
Timbales One and one-half cups of flour, one cup of milk, one egg, well beaten, one-half teaspoonful of salt, stir until thoroughly mixed. To fry the timbales, put the batter into a teacup, heat th...
-Lunch Dishes. Part 9
Stale Bread Griddle Cakes - Class Rule One cup of coarse bread crumbs, one-half cup of milk, one-fourth cup of flour, one-fourth teaspoonful of baking powder, one-half teaspoonful of fat (butter or...
-Lunch Dishes. Part 10
Popcorn Balls Pop a basin of corn. Remove all hard and partially popped grains. Boil molasses until it will hair, pour it over the popped corn, which has been sprinkled with salt. Use only enough m...
-Hints for Busy Housekeepers
Regularity with regard to meals saves time, health, patience and money. Success or failure depends on the manner of doing the many small things which form the sum total of our housework. There ...
-Recipes
Fruit Salpicon Juice of one and one-half lemons. Pulp of two good oranges. Scant half cup of sugar. Two cups of water (cold). Two large, mellow, fine-flavored peaches, pared and cut in small pie...
-Recipes. Part 2
Nut Custard Cake One-fourth cup of butter, one cup of sugar, two egg whites or one whole egg, one-half cup of milk, one and two-thirds cups of flour, two level teaspoonfuls of baking powder. Stir t...
-Recipes. Part 3
One-Egg Cake - To be Used Fresh One cup of sugar, one level tablespoonful of butter, one-half cup of sweet milk, one cup of flour, one egg, two level teaspoonfuls of baking powder. Rub the butter w...
-Recipes. Part 4
Banana Cake Two eggs beaten light, one cup of sugar beaten with the eggs until all is light, one cup of flour; sift with the flour two level teaspoonfuls of baking powder and one-fourth of a teaspo...
-Recipes. Part 5
Steamed Fruit Bread Two cups of graham flour or whole wheat flour, one cup of milk (if sweet, use two generous teaspoonfuls of baking powder; if sour, use half a teaspoonful of soda). Measure out h...
-Recipes. Part 6
To Make Thickening of Milk and Flour Measure the flour, add an equal amount of cold milk, and stir until smooth; then add more milk, until it is thin as griddle cake batter. Now add carefully a lit...
-Recipes. Part 7
White Sauce (Without Butter) for Carrots Pour one cup of sweet milk into a saucepan, and let come to the boiling point. Put two level tablespoonfuls of flour into a bowl or teacup, and add a little...
-Recipes. Part 8
Plain White Beans in Cream Look over the desired quantity of dry beans, wash, and put to soak in cold water to cover them. Let stand over night, or for several hours, until they have absorbed all t...
-Recipes. Part 9
Plain Macedoine Meat Sauce Sauce for reheating dark meats: Sweet corn, strained tomatoes, and clear soup in equal quantities form a basis for a brown sauce for reheating dark meats. Strain sauce be...
-Recipes. Part 10
Pineapple Soup A generous half cup of shredded pineapple, one-third of a cup of orange juice, one and a half teaspoonfuls of lemon juice, a generous half tablespoonful of sugar (less if canned pine...
-Recipes. Part 11
Bills of Fare for Farmers There are several reasons why it is well to make out each morning a bill of fare for the day, even if no more time is spent than simply to think it out. Because the family...
-Menus - Bills of Fare
The following few bills of fare will serve to illustrate the author's idea: Breakfast Strawberries Sugar Bread Meat. Coffee Rolled Wheat Mush. Cream. Butter. Potatoes. Rolls M...
-Menus - Bills of Fare. Continued
Dinner Potato Soup Chow Chow Baked Beans. Steamed Brown Bread Mashed Potatoes. Stewed Tomatoes Bread. Butter Celery Salad Apples. Milk. Water Dinner Cream of Tomato Soup...









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