Yeast Suggestions

- Yeast is a plant and success in bread-making depends upon its growth.

- Plants require warmth, food and moisture and thrive the best when not too warm nor too cold.

- A temperature of from 75 degrees to not over 90 degrees is the most favorable for the growth of the yeast plant.

- Compressed yeast is the most convenient to use when it can be obtained fresh, but the bread made from it lacks the sweet rich flavor of that made from a good soft yeast; so from the great number of good recipes for liquid yeast I give two with which I have had excellent success.

- Use only mature, well ripened potatoes for yeast. Hops may be omitted but the yeast keeps better and the bread is lighter and sweeter when a few are used.

- Keep yeast in several small jars rather than in one large one, so as not to disturb the whole when using from it.

- Bread rises slowly from yeast that is less than 48 hours old. When liquid yeast is used, let it count as part of the wetting. Compressed yeast is meant when dry is not specified in recipes calling for cakes of yeast.

- To use compressed yeast, slice it in rather thin slices, sprinkle sugar between the layers and pour just enough lukewarm water over it to moisten the sugar, not enough to cover the yeast. Let stand until foamy and use at once.

- One cake of compressed yeast equals 4 tablespns. of either grated or mashed potato yeast.

Flour Suggestions

- White, graham and whole wheat are the flours most commonly used in making bread. White bread flour is made from spring wheat, which is richer in gluten than winter wheat and is of a rich cream color.

- Winter wheat flour is more suitable for cakes and pastry, and for that reason is called pastry flour.

- A blended flour, spring and winter wheat combined, is considered by some the most nearly perfect bread flour.

- Graham flour is composed of the whole kernel of the wheat, its bran overcoat and all, ground up together. The bran contains no nutriment and is irritating to some stomachs. Graham flour is nearly always made from winter wheat.

- In making whole wheat or entire wheat flour, the bran or fibrous covering of the kernel is removed and the entire nourishing part of the grain is ground. Whole wheat flour is usually made from spring wheat.

- Some so-called "whole wheat" flours are simply very fine graham; that is, the bran is all there, but ground very fine.

- The best grades of flour are the cheapest as a smaller quantity is required for the same amount of liquid. Good flour also requires less kneading.

- Perhaps the greatest deception has been practised in "gluten" flours. Some which have been advertised as pure gluten have been found to contain as high as 63 and 75 per cent. of starch. A pure gluten flour for making yeast bread is out of the question.

- Flour made from new wheat will for a time improve with age, but after a certain period it begins to deteriorate; so it is not best to lay in a too large supply at once.

- Keep flour in a warm, dry place, as all bread, cakes and pastry are lighter made from dry flour.

- "For use in bread-making the superfine white flour is not the best. Its use is neither healthful nor economical. Fine flour bread is lacking in nutritive elements to be found in bread made from the whole wheat. It is a frequent cause of constipation and other unhealthful conditions."