All foods that are suitable should be used uncooked. They are more nourishing and consequently more satisfying.
Foods containing starch should not be eaten raw.
Next to wholesomeness, make taste and palatability first. There is nothing more disappointing than to taste of a daintily arranged and decorated dish and find it flat and insipid.
Seek to develop the natural flavors of foods, of which there are thousands, rather than to add foreign flavorings.
When, in spite of all precautions, something burns on, plunge the vessel without ceremony into a pail or pan of cold water for a moment, empty the contents immediately into another kettle, add boiling water and return to the fire to finish cooking. Badly scorched foods often lose all the scorched flavor by this treatment.
Dip the knife into hot water to cut butter, warm bread or cake.
Two forks are better than a knife for separating steamed puddings, fresh cake and many things.
To blend flour and liquid for thickening, add only a little liquid at a time, stirring with a fork or batter whip until a perfectly smooth paste is formed, then add liquid to make of the consistency of rather thin cream.
Flour, for thickening, gives a more creamy consistency than corn starch. Use corn starch for fruit juices, as it leaves them clearer.
Never mix flour or corn starch with eggs to stir into boiling liquid, as they both require longer cooking than eggs will bear without separating. Stir the blended flour or corn starch into the liquid first, let it boil well, then pour the hot mixture gradually, stirring, into the beaten eggs, return to the fire and cook a moment if necessary, but do not boil.
In adding yolks of eggs to hot mixtures, put two or three spoonfuls of the mixture on to the yolks, stirring, then add them, all at once, to the whole.
Eggs must be added all at once to hot liquids so they will all be cooked alike and a part will not curdle before the rest is done.
To prevent a raw taste, blended flour should be added to boiling liquid so slowly as not to stop its boiling.
"Rich milk" means one-fourth to one-third cream.
Cream judiciously used is no more expensive from a financial stand point than butter, and from a health standpoint it is cheaper.
Being in the form of an emulsion, cream does not hinder digestion as does the free fat of butter. It should be sterilized before using in uncooked dishes.
In the recipes in this book, heavy cream is meant unless thin is specified.
It is cheaper to buy heavy cream than light, when there are two qualities, and you can make it as thin as you wish.
When cream is scarce do not use it where oil and skimmed milk will do just as well, but save it for uses where nothing else will take its place.
Cream with water often gives a better flavor to foods than milk, and is just as cheap.
For farmers, the use of cream saves the labor of making butter.
When taking cream, use fewer nuts and less butter and other oils.
Oil and melted butter may be combined in equal quantities when the butter flavor is desirable, as in pilau and drawn butter.
Oil makes more tender pastry, raised cakes and universal crust.
Stale bread is understood for crumbs when no specification is given.
A quick and easy way to prepare stale bread crumbs is to cut very thin slices from the loaf, lay them together and cut as thin as possible across one way and then the other with a large sharp knife into tiny dice.
"Dry" crumbs are those from a loaf dry enough to grate or grind.
When bread crumbs are used for puddings or molds the quantity will vary with the kind of bread. Fewer will be required with home-made bread than with baker's bread.
Bread, cracker or zwieback crumbs, corn meal, flour or browned flour No. 1, or a mixture of crumbs and brown or white flour may be used for rolling croquettes or cutlets, or for sprinkling the top of scallops or gratins.
Grated or chopped onion is apt to become bitter if prepared long before using.
To extract the juice from lemons without a drill, cut them in halves without rolling, the same as for a drill, then holding each half over a strainer in a bowl, work the point of a spoon from the cut surface in and around gradually to the rind. This method removes the juice cleaner than does the drill.
Another way is to roll the lemon and puncture it at one end with a silver fork, then squeeze the juice out. This leaves the seeds inside.
Dry lemons yield more juice than fresh ones.
Remove the pulp from lemons for pies and other uses by cutting them lengthwise in the middle of the sections and scraping each side of the membrane, or by cutting the lemon in halves crosswise and taking the pulp out with a spoon.
To keep lemons and oranges from molding, spread them on a shelf in a dry place so that they will not touch each other. They may be covered with glass tumblers if in a cool as well as dry place.
The half shell of an egg will remove bits of shell from broken eggs much better than a spoon.
My mother taught me to use too little rather than too much salt in foods, saying it was easier to add it than to take it out.
Salt varies so much in saltness that it is impossible to give definite rules for its use.
Have a shelf over the stove for zwieback, crackers and toasted cereals to keep them crisp.
Keep a dish of oil on or near your work table.
Have a small tin of pastry flour on the table to use for thickening sauces; also a small bowl or tin of sugar, and one of corn starch if using it frequently, and a box of salt, of course.
If a thickened mixture is allowed to any more than boil up well, after lemon juice is added, it will become thin.
Never chop celery; slice it fine instead.
The word "meat" as used in this book refers to true meats, not flesh meats, but is confined to such foods as are rich in proteids, not being taken in its broadest sense.
Use soft butter for oiling molds to be decorated, as that holds the decorations better than oil.
To unmold, dip the mold in hot water a moment.
Both oil and crumb molds for delicate fillings.
Dip molds in cold water, invert and turn quickly right side up without draining, for gelatine and other fillings to be served cold.
Many foods gain in richness of flavor by being reheated; and for that reason, left overs often make more appetizing dishes than fresh cooked foods.
Reheat foods, legumes, vegetables, cereals, or fruits, to preserve them, before they begin to show signs of spoiling.
Only a small quantity of sugar, proportionately, should be added to yolks of eggs, or they will gather in small, hard particles and become useless.
Ice water crisps and freshens such vegetables as lettuce, parsley, cabbage and cucumbers as that just a little warmer will not.
In multiplying a recipe to make a larger quantity of soup or other liquid food, use a smaller proportion of liquid; or in dishes containing thickening take a larger proportion of flour, as the evaporation is not so great in proportion to the quantity.
The alcohol of yeast or of flavoring extracts goes off in the steam in cooking.
When eggs are used in cakes, breads, puddings or other dishes, fewer nuts, nut foods, legumes or other proteid foods will be required.
Bake soufflés and dishes made light with eggs, slowly, as when baked rapidly they puff up quickly and fall just as quickly; while if baked slowly, they retain their lightness.
Timbales, puddings and all molds to be served hot should stand 5 or 10 m. in a warm place after removing from the fire, before unmolding.
Place a cold wet towel over pudding molds to loosen, if inclined to stick.
Do not chop nut meats fine for roasts, cakes or puddings. Sometimes leaves them whole, or just break them a little.
To try vegetables for tenderness, use a sharp pointed knife rather than a fork.
Batter and plum puddings and brown bread may be steamed in the oven by setting the mold containing them into a vessel of water with a tight fitting cover.
To steam in glass, set dishes or jars first into cold water and bring to boiling, then set into steamer.
Honey attracts moisture, consequently it should be kept in a warm dry place.
In discarding unwholesome foods be sure to put something wholesome in their place; in other words, employ a system of substitution rather than one of subtraction.
For instance, for this book we have taken pains to search out a variety of harmless flavorings to be used in place of the irritating condiments, such as mustard, pepper, ginger, cinnamon, nutmeg and cloves; and instead of the acetic acid of vinegar, we use lemon juice-citric acid.
"Vinegar--acetic acid, is about ten times as strong as alcohol and makes more trouble in the stomach than any of the other acids except oxalic."-Dr. Rand.
"Do not eat largely of salt."
"Very hot food ought not to be taken into the stomach. Soups, puddings and other articles of the kind are often eaten too hot, and as a consequence the stomach is debilitated."
Many people can digest cream better when accompanied by an acid fruit.
While using oil enough to keep the machinery of the body lubricated, take care not to use too much. People with dilated stomachs can take very little, and that little best in salad dressings or as shortening with flour.
Malt gives flesh but not strength; too much is harmful.
Flesh is more often a sign of disease than of health. Good solid firm muscle is to be cultivated.
Taste is a matter of education. Let us educate ourselves to like the things that are good for us.
'Perseverance in a self-denying course of eating and drinking will soon make plain, wholesome food palatable, and it will be eaten with greater satisfaction than the epicure enjoys over his rich dainties."