Thin batters are about the consistency of thin cream. Thick batters are like cream. Still thicker batters, which may be poured in a continuous stream, are called pour batters. Any batter is a pour batter until it is made so stiff that it breaks or drops in the pouring, when it is called a drop batter. It will remain a batter until too stiff to be beaten, when it becomes a dough.

Doughs, like batters, are of varying degrees of thickness, ranging from those just stiff enough to be handled to those which may be rolled thin as paper. Generally speaking, one full measure of flour to one scant measure of liquid makes a pour batter. Two full measures of flour make a drop batter; and three full measures make a dough; although, for various reasons, these proportions are subject to many modifications.

If the ingredients in batters were simply mixed and cooked slowly, the resulting substances would be hard and compact, unfit for human digestion. Hence, to obviate this, and to make them light and porous, we must resort to other processes. This is accomplished by means of the expansion of in^ corporated air, by the generation of gas within the mixture, or by a combination of both methods, supplemented by quick cooking before the gas has a chance to escape.

Air at seventy degrees expands to about three times its volume when exposed to the temperature of a hot oven. Consequently, as a mixture heats in cooking, incorporated air expands, giving the desired lightness. Air is incorporated or enclosed in batters by beating the mixture thoroughly, as in making whole-wheat gems; by adding eggs to the beaten mixture, as in popovers; and by the gas obtained by the union of an acid with an alkaline carbonate, as in the use of baking powders. In batters made light by the admixture of air, one must exercise care in beating to actually incorporate and retain the air. When eggs are added to the mixture, the glutinous consistency of the albumin they contain assists in retaining the entangled air.

Gems Or Puffs (Plain)

Milk, 1 cup.

Salt.

Cooking oil, 1 tablespoonful, if desired.

Egg, 1.

Sifted flour, about 2 cups.

Break the egg into the milk, add salt, and beat thoroughly. Beat into this enough sifted flour to make a batter that will pile slightly when poured in a thick stream. Bake in hot greased gem irons in a brisk oven. A tablespoonful of cooking oil may be added to the milk if a richer batter is desired.

Corn Gems

Make same as plain gems, but use one-fourth corn meal and a little sugar.

Whole-Wheat And Graham Gems

Use one-fourth to one-third whole wheat or graham flour.

Granose Puffs

Eggs, 4.

Ground cinnamon, 1 teaspoonful.

Salt.

Sugar, cup.

Granose flakes, 4 cups.

Beat the yolks of the eggs with the sugar until light, then add the cinnamon and salt. Beat again, then add two cups granose flakes. Mix thoroughly and add half of the stiffly-beaten whites of the eggs, then two more cups granose flakes, and lastly the rest of the whites. Drop in round gem irons, filling them heaping full, and bake a light brown. They may be iced and a little shredded cocoanut sprinkled on top.