What are known to propagators as "flats" are shallow boxes with sides four inches high and perforated bottoms. The size as to length and width is varied for different uses and convenience in handling. These are filled with fine rich soil favorable for the germination of delicate seeds unsafe for open-air planting. They are used by amateurs and professional growers for growing plants, such as tomato, eggplant, peppers, and small flower-seeds, both Northern and Southern. Very delicate seeds, such as those of the verbena, are planted in rows with slight covering, and the whole surface is then pressed down with a board. The pressed surface is then covered with sheets of porous carpet-paper cut to the size of the box. In watering, the paper is taken off for sprinkling gently, so that the surface will not be washed. When the plants begin to show, the paper is taken off. At home the box can be kept in a warm, well-lighted room, or in a gentle hot-bed. As soon as the plants develop perfect leaves they are potted in thumb-pots, which can also be kept in the "flats" with the open spaces filled with sand or earth, where they remain until outside conditions are favorable for planting out.