The proper depth to plant fruit trees is variable, dependent upon climatic conditions. "Where there is no liability to root-killing it is not desirable to plant trees and shrubs more than four inches deeper than they stood in nursery. But in the interior States and parts of Canada the winters are often snowless, with low temperature long continued, causing the injury or death of tender roots planted at ordinary depth. During the winter of 1898-99 tens of thousands of valuable bearing fruit trees west of the lakes were root-killed without a terminal bud of the top being injured. In this instance the same varieties quite deeply planted on dry soil were not injured and the same was true of varieties with surface protected by cover-crops, weeds, leaves, and in parts of the States by snow. In such localities experience has demonstrated that young trees can be planted one foot deeper than they stood in nursery. But this deep planting only is practised with trees budded or grafted on tender stocks where the conditions are favorable for root-killing.