It often happens that ridge land with good air-drainage has too stiff a soil and subsoil for best success in orcharding. If the soil seems too wet, or alternately too wet or too dry, tile-drainage will prove a great gain. The tiles should not be less than four inches in diameter and laid in the centre between the rows after the trees are set or even after they come into bearing. The tiles should be laid not less than 3 1/2 feet deep. The tiling of such land soon changes the whole character of the soil and even mode of growth of the roots. Literally the air is let into the soil, the water-level changed in a wet time, and the surface-feeding roots will run deeper and be less subject to injury by the heat of summer and the cold of winter. In a dry time also a change will be observed. The surface soil will be mellowed, fined, and relatively much cooler than the same grade of land not tiled. As to the often-repeated query: "Will the apple-roots choke the tile?" the writer's experience would answer, "No." Tiling laid down twenty-five years ago between apple-orchard rows is yet in good condition and working as well as ever. But willows, poplars, and most forest trees will clog tile.