Much has been written on this topic that after experience has shown had little foundation. About three leading facts deserve the attention of commercial planters :

(1. Seedling Variations)   Air-drainage (97. Air-drainage) is essential for protection from early spring or early autumn frosts at the North.

(2. Seed Variation of Cultivated Plants)   The porous subsoil is required that will give drainage in a wet time and permit moisture to ascend to the upper soil in a dry period.

(3. Commercial Seeds)   Dark-colored soil with an abundant supply of humus and nitrogen is not desirable for profit, as it develops long-jointed wood and rampant growth not favorable for early, well ripened, or good crops of fruit. Rather thin land for a good corn crop gives the best fruit in quality, and freedom from rot of fruit or disease of vine. But such land may need barnyard manure, potash, and phosphoric acid as the vines get age. Even in the South and California the best grapes in quality, and for shipping or wine-making, are grown on lands not rich enough for the best crops of corn. Yet it is true that good grapes can be grown for home use and local market on any dry land over a large part of the Union by selecting the varieties adapted to the varied condition of soil, latitude, and longtitude.