Whatever may be said of continued culture of the orchard fruits, there can be no difference of opinion as to the need of continued culture of the grape. However excellent a variety may be, the experienced grower will not believe that perfect bunches and good dessert fruit can be picked from vine rows in which weeds and grass have been permitted to grow. The usual plan of vineyard culture is to use a small turning plow in the spring, after the vines are tied to the wires, turning the furrows toward the rows. As the weeds start in the line of the rows they are taken out with the hoe in connection with some of the earth thrown inward by the plow, working on both sides of the row. The after culture is with the cultivator and harrow, keeping the top soil mellow and level. After midsummer the culture should not be deeper than three inches, as deep culture at this period interferes with the root-hairs needed for fruit development. Experience and observation also have impressed the belief that the spring plowing between the rows of bearing vines should not be deeper than four inches. Many grape-growers in the prairie States use the plow before pruning and laying down the vines in the fall, turning the furrows toward the rows as a help in protecting the roots over winter. This also favors the work of laying down the canes and banking the crowns (233. Diagonal Vine Training Plan).

With the fall plowing the culture in the spring is deferred until the vines are tied up and the weeds start in the rows. The hoe is then used and the after culture is wholly with the cultivator and harrow.