The advice in the past has been to trim up nursery trees when planted in orchard high enough to work under the branches. At this time in all parts of the Union - even in California and the South - the advice of experienced orchardists is in favor of stems of orchard trees not to exceed three feet in height. During the first year's growth in orchard the exposed stem four or five feet in height is apt to be so injured on the south side that growth is checked with consequent check to growth of roots. The increased growth on the north side of the stem, as well as branches and root, soon causes the tree to lean to the north with increased liability to stem injury. Even isolated shade-and park-trees in the prairie States, when the stems are sawed off, show most growth on the north side. Trees of thirty species sawed off at Ames, Iowa, showed the heart to be well over to the south side. Even with a stem three feet in height the young orchard-tree is apt to lean to the north if the top is not inclined to the south when transplanted.