In California, in starting orchards of the citrus and other fruits, stem-protection, while the tree is getting some spread of top, is given by rived shakes or boards on the south side. In the prairie States the most approved plan of shading is with a lath screen attached together with wires as shown in Fig. 5.

Apple tree   encased in lath screen

Fig. 5. — Apple-tree encased in lath screen. (After Goff.)

But the writer's long experience is not favorable to long-continued stem-protection. When finally discontinued the bark is softened by the prolonged shading and not in proper condition for sudden exposure to wind and sun. The low stem and the inclination of the stem to the south in planting is all that is needed with hardy trees.