The wild crab-apple (Pyrus coronaria), especially the Western form of the Soulard type, has value for ornamental planting. Nursery grown, it is as easy to transplant as other apple-trees, and makes fully as rapid growth. It is handsome in form, foliage, flowers, and even fruit.

Bechtel's double-flowering crab seems to indicate a remarkable tendency to variation in our native crab. As stated in catalogues its flowers are like perfectly double small roses and its fragrance is equal to the best of the roses. This seems to be hardy East and West.

Parkman's double-flowering and the Chinese double-flowering are prized in milder climates, but are not hardy at the West except south of the 40th parallel.

It is the same with the double-flowering hawthorns of west Europe, none of which prove hardy west of the Great Lakes, but they are valuable in milder climates. But the large-growing native hawthorns of the States east of the Rocky Mountains have more value in landscape work than is usually suspected, especially in the more rugged portions of the grounds. Of its proper position Downing has said: "It is most agreeable to the eye in composition when it forms the undergrowth or thicket, peeping out in all its freshness of gay blossoms or bright fruit from beneath and between groups and masses of trees."

It is the same with the double-flowering hawthorns of west Europe, none of which prove hardy west of the great lakes, yet they are valuable in milder climates. But the large-growing native hawthorns of the States east of the Rocky Mountains have more value in landscape work than is usually suspected, especially in the more rugged portions of the grounds. Of its proper position Downing has said : "It is most agreeable to the eye in composition when it forms the undergrowth or thicket, peeping out in all its freshness of gay blossoms or bright fruit from beneath and between groups and masses of trees.''

Pyrus ringo of east Europe also has thick dark-green leaves that are not killed by the first frosts. They often remain green and seemingly unfrozen until December in Iowa. It is a handsome round-topped tree bearing large pure white flowers and full crops of ornamental crab-apples. This is hardy in all parts of the Union.