The queen of flowers can boast of a greater number of fine varieties than any ornamental shrub of the earth. In past as well as present ages it has been the favorite shrub-flower of Asia, Europe, the islands of the ocean, and the western continent.

The finest commercial varieties have been developed in relatively mild climates of the two continents. Hence of the old favorites we have few varieties that endure the Northern winters without autumn pruning and covering. East of the lakes such bedding varieties as La France, Meteor, Madame Plantier, and Bride are regarded hardy. Also such hybrid perpetuals as General Jacqueminot, Anna de Diesbach, Marshall P. Wilder, and Mabel Morrison are hardy enough, and the same is true of such climbers as Baltimore Belle, Prairie Queen, and Crimson Rambler. West of the lakes all these and others are grown but in autumn all except the climbers are cut back (152. Pruning and Shaping Shrubs) and covered with leaves, sods, or earth. In the South and in California nearly all roses are hardy, and it is only a matter of local selection of varieties, as it is in all parts of the States east of the mountains.

West of the lakes and north of the 41st parallel the truly hardy roses are such as Rosa rugosa and its hybrids, Madame Plantier and Harrison's Yellow. Among the hybrids of Rosa rugosa are now found some desirable double varieties of value even where the old varieties do dwell. This is specially true of Ames, Hansen, Charles Frederick Worth, and Madame George Bruant.

It is often truly said that failure in rose-growing most frequently arises from not making the soil rich enough. Like the currant, the rose will bear heavy manuring, preferably with cow manure; and where coarse manure is used for covering the cut-back bushes in the fall, this covering is spread and used for mulching and final spading into the soil.