Perhaps there is not a settled area in the United States where certain varieties and species of the fruits may not be grown with reasonable care. Even in the arid States the conditions of soils are usually favorable where water for irrigation is obtainable. But commercial fruit-growing sooner or later springs up on soils not too compact, and with jointed clay or other kinds of porous subsoil below. In California the orange reaches its highest perfection on the slopes where the mountain wash has given porosity to the subsoil. In the arid States, Arkansas, Missouri, and the States bordering on the Missouri the present commercial fruit centres are on land that will permit the descent of water in a wet time, and its rise by capillary movement in a dry time, if needed culture is given. It is the same with the fruit centres of Michigan, New York, and the selection of soil for the great peach-orchards in Georgia. At the great expositions of the past fifteen years the finest specimens of given varieties of fruits have come from the orchards with most favored soils and subsoils, combined with culture and cover-crops (19. Root-protection).