Over a large part of Europe fruit-trees are found on their own roots. Sprouts and suckers of cherry, plum, prune, apple, pear, and other fruits are used for orchard-planting. In some noted centres of commercial prune- and cherry-growing the use of grafted trees seems quite unknown except in the way of changing the tops of hardy native stocks. In 1882 the writer gave the summer to a study of practical orcharding over a large portion of west and east Europe. After the extended observations of four months the decision was reached that the sections where trees on their own roots were used in connection with top-working on hardy indigenous stocks, could show longer-lived, thriftier, and more fruitful orchards of given varieties than the sections near cities where modern budded and root grafted trees were used.