In all parts of Europe primitive wild fruit-tree species are found nearly allied to the cultivated varieties, and their seeds are utilized for stock-growing as found in different localities. In this country we are blessed with several species of native plum, which by selection have given us a number of valuable varieties for cultivation in orchards, and in addition all develop strong vigorous stocks from their pits. It has been urged by propagators that our native plum stocks do not, when budded, develop as strong and numerous a system of roots as the imported Myrobalan and St. Julien stocks. If our plum seedlings are budded in the rows where they grew from the pits this statement is true. But if taken up and later transplanted as we handle the imported stocks, the natives will give the strongest system of roots to the budded trees. With the cherry we are also provided with a vigorous stock, safe from root-killing in all parts of the Union. The seedlings of our wild red cherry [Prunus Pennsylvanica) are peculiarly strong and vigorous, and all varieties of our cultivated cherries form a good union with its wood. The pits of this native species should be utilized for budding stocks, especially in the North, where the imported stocks often are killed in open winters. In the handling of this stock it seems to be necessary to success in budding to plant the pits very thickly, so the growth will be small the first season. They should be taken up and handled like small Mahaleb stocks for spring planting. If grown thinly on fairly rich grounds the seedlings are too large for profitable use in this way or any other.

Another essential is budding later in the season than is usual with the Mahaleb. As to the apple we have no nearly allied native species for use as stocks, as practice has shown that the cultivated varieties do not make a good union with any species of our native apple. But in the Northwest, where common seedling stocks are liable to root-killing, the use of the Siberian cherry crab is promising, as the union by budding seems to be good, especially with the hardy northern varieties. The use of Siberian stocks for budding has solved the question of root-killing in the northern apple-growing regions of Russia. We also have at the North hardy prepotent varieties of the apple, such as Duchess, Hibernal, and Anis, the seeds of which develop strong, hardy seedlings which may be used for stocks. Farther south, as noted in section 4, vigorous hardy seedlings can be grown from small apples, such as Gilpin, Milam, and small seedling varieties, while the imperfect seeds of commercial apple culls sent to the cider-press should be avoided in stock-growing. 72. Summer-budding. - What is known as summer-budding is now employed on a mammoth scale in the larger nurseries in the propagation of fruit-trees, ornamental trees, roses, and many shrubs. The work at the North is done at the close of the spring season of growth with buds cut as used that are mature. The intention is to secure the union of the buds without growth the first season. If inserted too early on vigorous growing stocks, the buds are often overgrown, and there is danger of starting a soft growth that will perish the next winter. In waiting for the best time a brief dry period may tighten the bark. In this case the dirt is scraped aside and the buds are inserted lower down where the bark separates later in the season. At the West this very low budding is most satisfactory, as when set in orchards four or five inches deeper than they stood in nursery the point of union is buried. If the stock is not entirely hardy the low setting is a great gain.

A good rule for summer-budding at the North is to Shoot containing Buds. The white spaces about the buds indicate the amount of bark to be cut off with the bud. The shoot is inverted for cutting the buds.

Commence work when the terminal bud of the stocks begins to form. As this period is variable with the different species it lengthens the budding season. It is usual at the North to bud plum stocks in early July, and apple and pear as late as the last days of August and first days of September.