What is known as the T or shield bud is used almost exclusively in the United States and Canada. The buds, as shown in Fig. 37, are cut from the new wood of the same season's growth. The shoots cut from the variety we wish to propagate are called "bud sticks." As cut the leaves are clipped off, leaving a short stub, as shown in Fig. 34, to handle the bud with when inserting. If taken in the fingers the tender cut surface is injured. In using, the bud sticks are kept wrapped in a moist cloth, whence they are taken one at a time as used. In making the T cut a smooth surface is selected on the north side of the stock. The downward slit is first made. In making the cross-cut slope the knife downward, as shown in Fig. 39. This slope aids in shoving the bud quickly under the bark. To prevent moisture getting in at the top cut the bud with the longest part above. Shove it down to place and cut off the upper part so as to join the slope of the stock. The mode of tying is shown at Fig. 36. The material used for tying is a palm fibre from Madagascar, known commercially as "Raffia." For use it is slightly moistened, but not made wet. If used wet it will loosen when dry. In cutting the buds from the bud-stick, the novice usually cuts too shallow and splits the bark at each end. In cutting, invert the bud-stick as shown in Fig. 38. From start to finish keep the knife down, taking with the bark a thin shaving of wood. A large part of the success in budding depends on the ability of the operator to keep a smooth, sharp-edged budding knife.

short stub, , to handle the bud with when inserting

Fig. 34. - Short stub, , to handle the bud with when inserting

Bud partially inserted between the lips of the stock

Fig. 35. - Bud partially inserted between the lips of the stock.

Bud inserted and tied

Fig. 36. - Bud inserted and tied.

Bud cut off, ready for insertion

Fig. 37. - Bud cut off, ready for insertion. (All after Bailey.)

Cutting the   bud with inverted scion.

Fig. 38. - Cutting the bud with inverted scion.

Downward slope in making the T cut.

Fig. 39. - Downward slope in making the T cut.