The long grafts of the pear and stone fruits are difficult to plant firmly at proper depth without trenching with a nursery subsoil plough made for this use. Fig. 46 shows the construetion of this useful nursery implement. The shovel-plow in front spreads the earth and the subsoil lifter passing through the base of the pole lifts and fines the earth to a depth of fourteen inches. With only two horses this depth is reached by running twice in each row. The grafts are set with a narrow spade which is thrust down in the mellow earth, the handle leaned forward, and the graft is set in back of the blade, when another movement of the spade presses it in firmly. The setting is rapid and the conditions for growth are far better than can be secured by other methods. Shorter grafts are set without the use of the spade. A boy spaces apple-root grafts and the man following presses them down in the soft soil and levels up the surface. The trenching also is useful in holding the moisture. The summer rains run the water to the trenches where the growing plants need it.
Fig. 46 - Subsoil lifter for use in planting long root-grafts.