After planting the soil should be at once stirred on the surface, drawing some loose earth around the plant to lessen evaporation from the firmed soil below.

Where pots are not at hand, many amateur gardeners use fruit-cans, unsoldered and without bottoms, in their place. The tins are held together by a wire around them. In planting they are carried to the field in boxes, taking care to keep the dirt from falling out, and in setting the ball of earth is loosened by taking off the wire. With the wire replaced the tins are set around the plants to protect them from sun and wind.

A cold-frame, in addition to the hot-bed is a great convenience. In the cold-frame the plants set out in " flats" and in pots can be kept to better advantage for hardening off. and the cold-frame is essential for such cold-blooded plants as cabbage, cauliflower, and lettuce until it will do to set them out in open air. In the South the cold-frame is used for starting all plants, as the heat from the sun passing through the glass warms the soil to such extent that ventilation is necessary. The cold-frame is also the proper place to hold flats of transplanted lettuce, as shown in Fig. 105. The cold-frame is identical with the hot-bed frame (65. The Hot-bed), with the exception of a pit beneath for the heating manure.