books



previous page: Commercial Gardening Vol4| by John Weathers (the Editor)
  
page up: Gardening and Horticulture Books
  
next page: American Horticultural Manual Vol2 | by J. L. Budd

American Horticultural Manual Vol1 | by J. L. Budd



The meaning of Horticulture as given by Noah Webster is the "cultivation of a garden, or the art of cultivating gardens." But modern advancement has given the word a much broader signification. It now includes such important divisions as pomology, or fruit-growing, ornamental and shade trees and shrubs, flowers and their culture, modes and methods of propagation, landscape gardening, spraying for insects and fungi, garden and orchard irrigation, systematic pomology, or plant description and classification, and still other divisions and subdivisions in varied climes and on different soils...

TitleAmerican Horticultural Manual Vol1
AuthorJ. L. Budd
PublisherJohn Wiley & Sons, Inc. London
Year1902
Copyright1902, The Scientific Press
AmazonAmerican Horticultural Manual, Part One (1902)

American Horticultural Manual. Part I

Comprising The Leading Principles And Practices Connected With The Propagation, Culture, And Improvement Of Fruits, Nuts, Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, And Plants In The United States And Canada.

By J. L. Budd,

Late Professor of Horticulture in the Iowa State College of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts,

Assisted By N. E. HANSEN, Professor in the South Dakota Agricultural College.

Over One Hundred figures and Explanatory Designs.

First Edition.

New York. John Wiley & SONS, Inc. London: CHAPMAN & HALL, Limited 1913

Copyright, 1902 By The Scientific Press

Robert Drummond And Company Brooklyn. N. Y.

-Preface
The meaning of Horticulture as given by Noah Webster is the cultivation of a garden, or the art of cultivating gardens. But modern advancement has given the ...
-Chapter I. Seeds And Seed-Growth
Seeds are embryo plants capable of growing into new individual plants more or less varied from the parent plant. As the first stage of plant-life it should ...
-2. Seed Variation of Cultivated Plants
The cultivated varieties of the fruits and ligneous plants are far more variable when grown from seed than those nearer to Nature. In many cases they are ...
-3. Commercial Seeds
It has been said with much show of truth that the Americans are not gatherers of the seeds of native ligneous trees and plants, while in Europe seed-growing ...
-4. Seed-saving
In selecting seeds for growing fruit-tree stocks it is desirable to secure those from primitive or nearly primitive types and species. The abnormal development ...
-5. Seed-stratification
The practice known as stratification by gardeners is simply mixing thoroughly the seeds with sand in a box and burying outside on dry ground, with the top ...
-6. Soaking and Scalding Seeds
Dry commercial seeds of the apple and pear are soaked at the North about twelve hours, just prior to a night of low temperature, during the latter part of ...
-7. Fall Planting of Seeds
Planting some of the bony-shelled seeds in autumn answers well the purpose of stratification if properly managed. If planted at proper depth for germination, ...
-8. Seed-testing
Seed-testing indoors is not wholly satisfactory, as the conditions are more favorable than in the soil of the open field or garden. The best test for the ...
-9. Depth of Planting Seeds
As a rule, the depth of planting depends on the size of seeds. But this is not invariable. Some quite large seeds, such as those of the bean, castor-oil bean, ...
-10. Best Time to Plant
As previously stated, stratified seeds kept in open air or the cellar must be planted very early or they may sprout in the boxes. But aside from this the fruit- ...
-11. Seeds in Shallow Boxes, or "Flats."
What are known to propagators as flats are shallow boxes with sides four inches high and perforated bottoms. The size as to length and width is varied for ...
-12. Seeds in the Hot-bed
Bottom heat, secured by manure in the heating stage, or by hot water or steam, is much used by professional gardeners, and to less extent by amateurs for ...
-13. Shaded Beds for Seed-planting
Some of our cultivated trees and plants, that under natural conditions drop their seeds in forest shade, seem to require the same protection when propagated in ...
-14. Retained Vitality of Seeds
Varied opinions have been given as to the duration of vitality of seeds of the cultivated plants. This largely comes from the varied modes of drying and ...
-Chapter II. Seed-Germination And Seedling-Growth
15. Seed-germination With an ordinary magnifyirig-glass the tiny plantlet is not difficult to discover compactly folded up within the seed. If we place seeds ...
-16. Some of the Modes of Boot-growth
As the hypocotyl, or first seed-growth, extends downward into the soil, rootlets start from its sides and rounded point. From the point the main or tap-root ...
-17. How Seedling-roots Grow
The tree-seedling permitted to stand where the seed was planted extends the main or water-feeding roots downward, if the soil is favorable, to a depth of ...
-18. The Office of the Roots
The roots of trees and plants serve the purpose of holding the top erect and to supply water, with its dissolved elements, for sustaining growth of the tree or ...
-19. Root-protection
It may be said that Nature protects tree- and plant-roots by shading in summer and surface-protection in winter. Under clean culture the bare surface is heated ...
-20. Root-division
The common practice of growing trees and some shrubs and plants from root-cuttings well illustrates some of the varied peculiarities of root-structure. It may ...
-21. Roots as Modified by Variety of Top
The cultivated orchard fruits vary peculiarly in the manner of root-growth when grown on their own roots or grafted. With a given lot of apple-seedlings, if we ...
-Chapter III. Stem- And Top-Growth, Appendages, Circulation
22. Stem-growth After the seed is established by starting rootlets the upward-growing shoot, or plumule, starts growth and soon forms perfect leaves. The root- ...
-23. General Classes of Stems
Roots are annual, biennial, or perennial, depending on their length of life. In the same way the stem-growth is divided into two main classes or divisions, the ...
-24. Heartwood and Sapwood
In the one-year-old seedling the stem is composed wholly of live or sap wood. But with increased age the older layers or rings of growth are buried by the ...
-25. Proper Height of Fruit-tree Stems
The advice in the past has been to trim up nursery trees when planted in orchard high enough to work under the branches. At this time in all parts of the Union ...
-26. Stem-protection
In California, in starting orchards of the citrus and other fruits, stem-protection, while the tree is getting some spread of top, is given by rived shakes or ...
-27. Proper Mode of Branching
It is usually the case that nursery trees as received for planting are not in proper shape for the orchard. Some slight changes can be made at time of setting ...
-28. Leaf- and Fruit-buds
Buds that appear in the axil of the leaf are in some respects like seeds. Indeed same buds, such as those of the tiger lily, drop to the earth and germinate ...
-29. Adventitious and Lateral Euds
Buds usually form only at the nodes of the stem and at the axil of the leaves, but some species develop buds under certain conditions at any point on the stem ...
-30. The Leaf
Most plants under culture develop true leaves or what Gray terms ''Leaves as foliage. In horticulture the mode of connection of the leaf with the branch and ...
-31. Sap and its Movements
The movement of water in cell-structure, transpiration in the leaf, and the downward current of assimilated food belongs to botany. But the work of the ...
-Chapter IV. The Flowers And Fruits
In the higher plants the flower is the expanded fruit-bud and is the organ of reproduction. A few plants under culture like the horseradish multiply rapidly by ...
-33. Inferior and Superior Flowers
In horticulture the flowers of the orchard fruits are divided into two classes, known as inferior and superior. The cherry and peach are superior in formation, ...
-34. Monoecious and Dioecious Flowers
When the stamen-bearing and pistil-bearing flowers are on separate trees or plants they are classed as dioecious. Examples of this class are found in the date, ...
-35. Perfect and Imperfect Flowers
Where the stamens and pistils are found in the same flower it is called perfect or hermaphrodite, as in most of our orchard fruits and garden plants. But when ...
-36. Cross-pollination
Even when the flowers seem perfect in all respects they often in the cultivated fruits seem incapable of self-pollination. This is not confined to the ...
-37. Nutrition of the Fruit-blossom
Growers of the strawberry now unite mainly in the belief that the flowers of the pistillate varieties are capable of enduring unharmed frosts and adverse ...
-38. Long Blossoming Period
Varieties of our fruits differ materially in their blossoming habits. Some varieties expand all their flowers in a brief period. Others seem to have two sets ...
-39. Possible Flower Production
To the true lover of horticulture there is a fascination in the work of systematic hand-pollination of a flower. As Lindley said many years ago: What increases ...
-40. The Fruit and its Maturation
The botanist defines fruit as The ripened pericarp and attachments. This would hardly answer for a description of Grimes Golden apple, Seckel pear, Ponderosa ...
-41. Air-drainage
In all parts of the Union most of the orchard fruits bear more regularly, and mature their fruits most perfectly, on land higher than the adjacent sections at ...
-42. Fruit Soils
Perhaps there is not a settled area in the United States where certain varieties and species of the fruits may not be grown with reasonable care. Even in the ...
-43. Fruits as Modified by Climate
Heat and light during the period of ripening affect the ripening and perfect flavor of fruits. When American fruits are shown in Europe at expositions their ...
-Chapter V. Modes And Principles Of Propagation
44. Some Preliminary Considerations As stated in (1. Seedling Variations) and (2. Seed Variation of Cultivated Plants), plants or trees grown from seed of the ...
-45. Root-grafting in Europe
Over a large part of Europe fruit-trees are found on their own roots. Sprouts and suckers of cherry, plum, prune, apple, pear, and other fruits are used for ...
-46. Some European Criticisms
Since the writer's visit to Europe many adverse opinions have been given by eminent horticulturists of Europe on modern root-grafting and stock-budding. As ...
-47. Commercial Stocks
The real truth is that budding and grafting may give us as healthy and long-lived fruit-trees as can be grown on own roots. To illustrate: If we bud or graft a ...
-48. Propagation by Seeds
As what might be called the foundation of horticulture, the leading facts were given relative to the handling, care of, and planting of seeds in the first ...
-49. Propagation by Suckers
About all the orchard fruits of the temperate zone throw up suckers from the surface-roots, especially if wounded by the plow or spade. Popularly they are ...
-50. Propagation by Root-cuttings
All fruits, ornamental trees, and shrubs that will sprout from the surface-roots naturally or by wounding with plow or spade will grow from root-cuttings.
-51. Rooting Sprouts by Mounding
If the sprouts or side shoots of cultivated trees or shrubs are cut back quite low in early spring an additional number of succulent sprouts will spring up. If ...
-52. Summer Layering
This is a method of division effected by bending down and covering shoots at about the completion of spring growth. Usually summer layering is confined to the ...
-53. Spring Layering
In spring layering a whole cane of grape or limb of a shrub is laid down in a trench as shown in Fig. 20. After pegging down in the trench the limb or vine is ...
-Chapter VI. Propagation By Inarching And From Woody And Immature Cuttings
54. Propagating by Inarching This is a process of layering by uniting a limb or branch of one tree or shrub with that of another of the same species or a ...
-55. Long Scion Inarching
Like inarching, this will only be practised on the home grounds. Fig. 23 gives the method of doing the work. A scion eighteen to twenty inches long is used ...
-56. Propagating by Ripe "Wood-cuttings
The successful growing of cuttings of woody trees and shrubs in the open ground is much varied by climatic conditions. In the moister air and warmer soil of ...
-58. Fall-planting of Cuttings
The cuttings are kept moist until planted. In fall-planting of cuttings of hardy trees and shrubs it is found best to plant on a shouldered trench, as shown at ...
-60. Spring-planted Cuttings
If grape-cuttings are planted in the fall, at time of pruning of the vines, a good stand at the North is rarely secured on account of rotting of the buds in ...
-61. Cuttings Kept in the Cellar
A few valuable shrubs will not bear propagation in the ordinary ways. One of these is the Amur Tamarix. The successful practice has been to make the cuttings ...
-63. Controlling Heat and Moisture
Various plans have been devised to secure the needed conditions as to light, moisture, heat, and transpiration. In all of them nearly, glass is the covering ...
-64. Why Cuttings Need Bottom Heat
In section (60. Spring-planted Cuttings) the reasons why grape and other cuttings are put in solar hot-bed in inverted position are given. If most heat is ...
-65. The Hot-bed
The use of the hot-bed for growing seeds of subtropical and other seeds is noted in prior section (12. Seeds in the Hot-bed). At the home place, and in ...
-66. Preparing and Setting Green Cuttings
Cuttings of most herbaceous house and greenhouse plants are made from the soft growing tips that will snap off when bent at the point where roots are to form.
-67. Need of Buds in Plant Division
The beginner in this interesting work will find some curious confirmation of the theory that leaf buds are essential to root and top growth. As an example, a ...
-68. Division of Perennials, Tubers, and Rootstalks
About all the perennial flowers and garden plants, such as perennial phlox, hemerocallis, funkia, fraxinella, and pie-plant, may be divided by separations, ...
-Chapter VII. Propagation By Budding And Grafting
69. Propagation by Budding In some cases the leaf-bud is so perfectly developed that it drops to the ground, where, if the conditions are favorable, it takes ...
-71. Some Native Stocks that Should be Used
In all parts of Europe primitive wild fruit-tree species are found nearly allied to the cultivated varieties, and their seeds are utilized for stock-growing as ...
-73. How to Cut and Insert Buds
What is known as the T or shield bud is used almost exclusively in the United States and Canada. The buds, as shown in Fig. 37, are cut from the new wood of ...
-74. Budding the Same Season the Pits are Planted
The pits of our native plums are often planted very early in spring quite thinly, given good cultivation, and are budded quite late the same season. These ...
-76. June Budding
What is known as June budding at the South gives salable trees of the peach and other trees the first-season from three to five feet in height. The budding is ...
-77. Ring-budding
This old European mode of budding is coming into use in this country in changing the top of mulberry, fig, walnut, chestnut, and oak. A ring of bark two inches ...
-79. Limits of Grafting
As in budding, the possible limits are not yet known. As a rule, close botanic affinity must exist between stock and scion, such as apple upon apple, pear upon ...
-80. Cutting and Packing Scions
The new wood of the preceding year's growth is usually used in grafting. In mild climate the new wood or scions are cut as used, or at least before starting of ...
-81. Taking Up and Packing the Stocks
If grown at home the apple, plum, cherry, and other stocks should stand in nursery as late in autumn as possible, and after taking up they should be heeled in ...
-82. Short Roots and Long Scions
Much has been said and written during recent years in regard to piece roots and whole roots in apple-root grafting. As noted (47. Commercial Stocks) many of ...
-83. Grafting-wax for Varied Uses
The most useful grafting-wax for varied uses is known as French mastic or Lefort's liquid grafting-wax. For a long period the composition of this wax was a ...
-84. Root-grafting the Apple
The now common plan of root-grafting the apple is by the method known as tongue- or whip-grafting. It is easier and simpler than other methods, and no waxing ...
-85. Packing Away the Grafts
While grafting and winding keep the grafts as finished under a damp cloth. In packing set the box on end as shown in Fig. 43. A layer of sandy earth is ...
-86. Crown-grafting Pear, Plum, and Cherry
These fruits are not as certain to unite as the apple in grafting unless additional care is taken. The common plan of indoor grafting is by wedge and side- ...
-87. Trenching for Graft-planting
The long grafts of the pear and stone fruits are difficult to plant firmly at proper depth without trenching with a nursery subsoil plough made for this use.
-88. Top-grafting
In all climates grafting in the top is often an advantage. Usually the gain comes from working a highly developed variety of fruit, rather delicate and tender ...
-91. Top-grafting Cherry and Plum
Comparatively little has been done as yet in top-working the stone fruits. But Western experience with the cherry leads to the belief that it will pay ...
-93. Scions to Save Girdled Trees
Young orchard trees are often girdled in winter by mice, rabbits, and sometimes by sheep. If sawed off below the injury they usually fail to grow from the stub, ...
-94. Bark-grafting
This grafting is done after the bark begins to peel in early spring when the leaves begin to start. The stock is cut back as in cleft-grafting, but no cleft is ...
-95. Soft-tissue Grafting
Wedge- and cleft-grafting are used in many instructive ways with tubers that have lost their crown-buds, and in grafting one species of cactus on another, and ...
-Chapter VIII. Some Leading Principles Of Fruit-Growing And Development
96. Selection of Soil and Subsoil Where possible the location of the home grounds, orchard, and nursery should be determined largely by the character of the ...
-99. Orchard Protection
This also is a question for local study. Over large sections of the country a tree shelter on the south is desirable, as the violent winds come from that ...
-100. Retarding the Blossoming Period
The belief is quite general that quite heavy mulching of the roots of orchard trees when the ground is deeply frozen will retard the blossoming period.
-101. Washing of Orchard Soils
As each year the selection of hill and slope land for orchard sites is becoming more general, the washing and gullying of such soils under cultivation becomes ...
-102. Variety Modifications
A common popular belief is that a given variety of the cultivated fruits does not vary in tree or fruit. But the close observer will find in every orchard-row ...
-104. Advance Planning of the Work
Professor Bailey says in his book on Plant Breeding : It is necessary, on account of the indefiniteness of the term 'variety, to remember that only varieties ...
-105. Nearly Allied Crossing
In crossing the orchard fruits the work has not proven as uncertain in results as most persons suspect. The remarkable results achieved by Luther Burbank, of ...
-106. Violent Crosses
All experience favors the belief that such violent crosses as wheat with rye, raspberry with blackberry, peach with plum, or our native wild crab with the ...
-107. Gathering Pollen in Advance
Some American authors advise the use of pollen gathered as needed. In practice this is not easily possible, as the pollen is scattered about as soon as the ...
-108. Preparing and Pollinating Flowers
When fruit-tree flowers are fully expanded, or even one half of them have opened, it is not easy to prevent self-pollination. It is far safest to begin the ...
-109. When and How to Apply Pollen
When partly developed flowers are emasculated the stigmas are not ready for the pollen in less than three days, as a rule, even when the weather is clear and ...
-110. Speedy Testing of the Crosses and Hybrids
The small lots of seeds developed by crossing are usually kept in flower-pots mixed with sand (5. Seed-stratification). When the seedlings produced are one ...
-Chapter IX. Transplanting Fruits And Ornamentals
111. Transplanting When trees or shrubs are transplanted from the nursery or forest to the orchard or lawn, the feeding-roots and rootlets are largely left in ...
-114. Double Planting of Orchards
The wide spaces - thirty to forty feet - between the small trees of apple or pear have tempted many to plant peaches, dwarf pears, or plums and cherries ...
-117. Fall- or Spring-planting
In all parts where severe freezing occurs in winter it is a gain to dig the holes in the fall. The dirt thrown out is fined and mellowed by frost and the sides ...
-119. Securing and Caring for Nursery Trees
If a local nursery is near it is usually best to visit it and secure the varieties doing best in the vicinity. If they must be shipped in, take the same care ...
-120. Proper Depth to Plant Trees
The proper depth to plant fruit trees is variable, dependent upon climatic conditions. Where there is no liability to root-killing it is not desirable to plant ...
-121. Pruning Tops and Boots Before Transplanting or Heeling In
The young nursery tree usually needs some pruning of the top prior to planting with a view to giving proper height of stem and shape of top. It is now ...
-123. Planting and Watering Trees
If the soil is well firmed over the wet roots (117. Fall- or Spring-planting) and the soil is moist but not wet, it is rarely necessary to pour in water when ...
-124. Transplanting Evergreens
Evergreens taken up in the near vicinity and the roots kept moist should bo planted at once. But experience has shown that it is safest to take them up and ...
-Chapter X. Orchard Management
125. Culture After Planting As soon as orchard trees are planted the ground should be cultivated to conserve moisture. Even if no weeds start keep the surface ...
-126. Shading of Orchard Soils
During recent years the continued culture of orchards has been advocated in California and in all fruit-growing centres. But a change in belief is now apparent ...
-127. Cover-crops and Blight
Beyond all doubt what is known as fire-blight of the apple, pear, and quince is caused by bacterial growth in the cell-structure of the leaf, blossom, and ...
-129. Protection from Mice and Rabbits
In the United States and Canada field-mice are found in all parts that are liable to girdle the stems of young orchard trees. A certain preventive is to throw ...
-132. Orchard Fertilization
In the Eastern and Southern States, and on the west coast, the commercial fertilizers have been used freely in with continued culture. The result has been that ...
-133. Low Hedge for Shelter-belt
Stock should in all cases be excluded from the orchard. The low hedge is more attractive than the fence, and near towns is not so easy to climb. Another good ...
-134. Marketing Summer-ripening Fruit
Properly managed, there is profit in most localities in growing summer-ripening apples and pears. In picking the stems should be retained, as it favors their ...
-135. Picking and Handling Fall and Early Winter Apples
Many of the fall and early winter apples will bear picking when the seeds are first browned and before they are fully colored. The Fameuse, Wealthy, Alexander, ...
-137. Earth-covered Cave for Apple Storage
Earth-covered caves are used often by nurserymen to store grapevines and fruit trees and for storing grafts of the orchard fruits (85. Packing Away the Grafts).
-138. Tile-draining of Orchards
It often happens that ridge land with good air-drainage has too stiff a soil and subsoil for best success in orcharding. If the soil seems too wet, or ...
-139. Fruit-growing Neighborhoods
The amateur or commercial fruit-grower who finds that any one of the orchard or small fruits succeeds unusually well in his vicinity should encourage his ...
-Chapter XI. Pruning Of Trees And Ornamentals
140. Need of Pruning Lindley said many years ago: If well directed, priming is one of the most useful, and if ill directed it is among the most mischievous, ...
-143. Pruning Young Apple and Pear Orchards
Only a few years ago the advice given in the fruit books of Europe and America was to thin out the tops of bearing fruit trees to let in the sun. Charles ...
-145. Training Dwarf Apple- and Pear-trees
The use of dwarf apple- and pear-trees is becoming more general in nearly all parts of the States. Apple on Paradise roots and pear on quince are now popular ...
-148. Pruning the Cherry and Plum
The Morello varieties of the cherry form rather open, round-headed tops that need comparatively little pruning if a well-defined stem and top are established ...
-149. Pruning the Peach and Apricot
In peach- and prune-growing centres from California east to the Atlantic the commercial pruning is often excessive, literally cutting wagon-loads of brush to ...
-150. Pruning the Orange
This semi-tropical fruit is included mainly to sustain the principle now so generally favored of growing thick tops in hot, relatively dry climates. Professor ...
-152. Pruning and Shaping Shrubs
All our ornamental shrubs of the lawn and park may be divided into three general classes as to habits of flowering and pruning : (1. Seedling Variations) Those ...
-154. Pruning Ornamental Hedges and Screens
The lawn hedge on the border or beside a walk must show uniformity of outline and thickness of base. The only durable forms are those with broad base and an ...
-Chapter XII. Spraying For Insects And Fungi
155. Evolution of Spraying In the sense in which the word spraying is now used we may say that it is an operation of our day. In commercial fruit-growing ...
-156. Spraying for Codling-moth
Arsenite of Lime Solutions. - John N. Dixon in 1877 and 1878 used a weak solution of white arsenic (155. Evolution of Spraying). With increased experience he ...
-157. Curculio of the Apple, Pear, Plum, Apricot, Cherry, and Peach
The species of the curculio that penetrate the fruit of the apple, pear, plum, apricot, cherry, and peach are not identical, but their methods of working and ...
-158. Spraying for the Bark and Leaf Aphis.
Kerosene Emulsion. - The scale insects, plant-lice, and the true bugs (Heteroptera) that suck their food from the leaves or young growth of plants and trees ...
-159. Leaf Aphis of Apple, Plum, Cherry, and Peach
These are not identical species, but their habits are about the same. With the apple the winged lice lay their eggs around the buds of the new growth, which ...
-160. Spraying for Scale Aphis
This is a common trouble with the apple orchards in about all parts of the Union. During the summer little can be done, as the insect is well housed under its ...
-161. Some Miscellaneous Insects
The amateur and beginner in fruit-growing and home-making should keep in mind the fact that about all our injurious insects may be divided into two general ...
-162. Spraying for Fungous Diseases
The Bordeaux Mixture. - It is an interesting fact pertaining to the now general use of the sulphate of copper for controlling the fungous diseases of ...
-163. Apple and Pear Scab
Excepting perhaps the codling-moth the scab is now the most destructive and widely spread drawback to apple culture and to a less extent of the pear. It is now ...
-164. Brown Rot of the Stone Fruits
In the dry air of the prairie States the brown rot or fruit rot of the stone fruits is mainly confined to the foreign plums and the peach. It rarely attacks ...
-165. Fungi of the Grape and Small Fruits
The different forms of rot of the grape, especially in the South, such as black rot, brown rot, and ripe or bitter rot, are controlled by a similar system of ...
-Chapter XIII. The Apple, Pear, And Quince
166. Origin of the Cultivated Apples From prehistoric times the apple has been a leading cultivated fruit of the temperate zones. Poets and writers have ...
-167. Our Native Crab apple
The most valuable native species of the United States is Pyrus coronaria. As found in the prairie States it differs some in habit of tree and flower and fruit, ...
-168. Dwarf Apple-trees
In the growing of handsome and good summer and fall apples in private gardens dwarfing on paradise or other dwarf stocks is often an advantage, as they can be ...
-169. Propagation of the Apple
Within recent years the growing of apple-seedlings has become a business carried on by specialists. In the prairie States for many years they have been grown ...
-171. Varied Season and Behavior of Apple Varieties
As grown on varied soils, altitudes, and with varied heat and length of summer, varieties vary exceedingly in season of ripening, coloring, and distinctive ...
-The Pear
172. History and Some of the Pear Races High-grade pears for dessert use may be.said to be a modern development in west Europe and the United States. Pears ...
-173. Dwarf Pears
When dwarfed by budding on the Angers quince, given varieties of the pear bear earlier and the small trees can be admitted on smaller grounds, as with the ...
-174. Propagation of the Pear
Nearly all the pear-seedlings used in this country for propagation are imported or grown from imported seed. In either case the seed used is mainly saved in ...
-The Quince
177. Origin and Races The quince is an ancient fruit that has been changed in size and quality less than any one of our orchard fruits by modern selection, ...
-Chapter XIV. The Cherry, Plum, Prune, Apricot, And Peach. The Cherry
179. History and Classification This refreshing and wholesome fruit is by no means a modern development. In the fourteenth century we are told by Marco Polo ...
-180. Propagation of the Cherry
The selection of stocks and propagation by budding and grafting are given in Chapter VII (Propagation By Budding And Grafting) and the transplanting, spacing, ...
-The Plum
182. Its History and Classification The plum is also one of the anciently cultivated fruits of central Asia. Regel says in the Gartenflora, published in Berlin: ...
-183. The Prune
Commercially, all the domestica varieties of the plum that can be cured without removing the stone, and that will keep well after drying, are classed as prunes ...
-184. Apricot
The apricot seems closely related to the plum, as it buds and grafts readily and makes a good union of wood on stocks of some of the plum species, especially ...
-185. The Peach
To an extent not realized with anv of the stone fruits, the peach is now a commercial fruit in every village, city, and mining and lumber camp of the Union.
-186. Propagation of Plum, Prune, Apricot, and Peach
These fruits are so nearly allied that they can be all budded or grafted on the same stock. And commercially the peach is often worked on Ohicasa-plum stocks ...
-187. The Nectarine
The fine fruit was once supposed to be a good species, as it seems to have been an anciently cultivated fruit. At the great commercial fair at Nishni Novgorod ...
-188. Laying down Peach and Apricot
In the cold North, even in the trying climate of Minnesota, the peach is grown by laying down for winter protection. In north Iowa many have secured good crops ...
-189. Orchard Management
The stone fruits are superior (33. Inferior and Superior Flowers) and more liable to injury of blossoms by late frosts than the apple or pear. Hence the most ...
-190. Thinning the Fruit
As a general rule amateurs and home-growers of the domestica plums and peaches never think of thinning the fruit, even in seasons when the trees are carrying ...
-Chapter XV. Some Subtropical Orchard Fruits
191. The Orange This is one of the most ancient fruits and one that has been most modified by culture, selection, and natural crossing. De Candolle says : ...
-192. Orange Propagation
The writer has had no experience in propagation except in the way of propagating the Otaheite variety as a house plant. But the results obtained by varied ...
-193. Top-working the Orange
In orange-growing centres in this country the first plantings of the gulf region and west coast were mainly seedlings, and seedlings are yet set in orchard ...
-194. Orange Cultivation
During the early period of American orange-growing in a commercial way the advice was given to keep up clean cultivation through the season and to rely mainly ...
-195. Pruning the Orange
The most approved plan of pruning in European and American orange-growing centres is to form a low head and compact top when.the tree is young and up to the ...
-196. The Lemon
This is closely related to the orange, as is indicated in horticultural practice in the choice of stocks. The lemon is often budded on the orange and the ...
-198. The Pomelo or Grape-fruit
This species (Citrus decumana) is quite closely allied to the orange, and it is the most ornamental tree of the genus when laden with its large golden fruit.
-199. The Kumquat
This is a dwarf species of the citrus family. As grown on Citrus trifoliata in Florida it makes a small, handsome bush. It is a heavy bearer of golden yellow ...
-200. The Lime
The sour lime (Citrus medica, variety acida) is much grown in a home way, as its acid fruits are used to the almost total exclusion of the lemon in frostless ...
-201. The Mandarin (Citrus nobilis)
This peculiar member of the citrus family seems to be a distinct species. It is a large shrub or small tree with dense foliage and small lanceolate leaves. The ...
-Chapter XVI. Some Other Tropical And Subtropical Fruits. The Olive
202. The Olive Naturally the olive is a dry-climate fruit; that is, it needs a dry air as well as a relatively dry soil. Dr. Henry Lansdell says in his Russian ...
-205. The Fig
This ancient fruit, now found in about all subtropical climates, also seems to have originated in central Asia, and to this day a large part of the commercial ...
-208. The Date Palm
This is truly a child of the desert, and its delicious fruit only seems to reach perfection in climates with desert-like conditions as to heat and aridity of ...
-211. The Banana
This valuable fruit of tropical climates is grown in considerable quantity in southern Florida, as it will grow nearer the sea and on lower land than the ...
-212. The Pineapple
This delicious tropical fruit is native to Brazil, Mexico, and probably some of the West India islands. But doubts of this fact have arisen on account of the ...
-214. The Loquat
This is a combined ornamental and fruit-bearing shrub or small tree native to Japan and China. It has long wide, evergreen leaves decidedly ornamental, and ...
-216. The Pomegranate
This ancient fruit grows wild in Persia and over central Asia, and some cultivated varieties grow as far north as Samarcand, where the winters are quite severe.
-217. The Persimmon
What is known as persimmon or date plum may be said to be a new fruit in west Europe and the United States. For this reason probably De Candolle in his Origin ...
-218. The Native Persimmons
The native species (Diospyros Virginiana) is indigenous to all parts of the Southern States known to the writer, and along the streams it, in some cases, ...
-220. The Guava
This is often called the apple of tropical climates. The fruits of the best tropical varieties are often as large as a good-sized apple or pear. It is an ...
-221. The Tomato
This South American fruit has in recent years been developed in size and quality of fruit to an extent that can never be equalled with the tree fruits. Bailey ...
-222. The Melons
The history of the muskmelon and watermelon is obscure. It is probable that De Candolle is right in his conclusion that they were originally native to Africa, ...
-Chapter XVII. The American Grapes
223. Grape History and Development Except on favored soils on the west coast our grapes may be said to be truly American. In some cases the varieties grown ...
-224. Grape-propagation
The grape is propagated easily from seeds, layers, cuttings of the new wood, and by grafting. It is only grown from seeds where attempts are made to develop ...
-225. Growing Vines from Single Buds
The growing of vines from single buds is mainly practised with new varieties where rapid propagation is desired with a limited stock of new wood. It is also ...
-226. Grafting the Grape
Grafting the grape is mainly confined during recent years to the parts of Europe and California where the varieties of the European species (Vitis vinifera) ...
-228. Best Soil and Location for Vineyard
Much has been written on this topic that after experience has shown had little foundation. About three leading facts deserve the attention of commercial ...
-229. Grape Varieties for Varied Sections
It is not easy to select any one variety adapted to all parts of the Union. Such dessert varieties as Concord, Worden, Moore's Early, and Cottage as yet are ...
-230. Distance Apart and Grape Planting
It is not easy to formulate rules in regard to distance apart of vines in plantation. Those familiar with our native varieties know that the Delaware with its ...
-231. Varied Modes of Vineyard Training
Under natural conditions the wild vine climbs to the top of forest-trees and spreads out laterally in the tops, where it bears fruit exposed to the sun and air.
-233. Diagonal Vine Training Plan
In the prairie States, and in other extended areas, a simple renewal system is practised that is only a variation of the system generally practised in the ...
-234. The High Renewal Vine System
In relatively mild climates where winter protection is not essential, such as western New York, the river bluffs of Missouri, and in sections of the South, a ...
-235. The Pacific Slope Vine System
Fifteen years ago when the writer made his first study of the fruits of the west coast, nearly all the vineyards of the raisin, wine, and table grapes of the ...
-236. Other Systems of Pruning
The fan renewal system adopted in parts of the Union is much like the diagonal-training plan of the prairie States, except that in this system the canes are ...
-237. Orchard Fruit Cultivation and Manuring
Whatever may be said of continued culture of the orchard fruits, there can be no difference of opinion as to the need of continued culture of the grape.
-238. Need of Humus in Cultivated Soils
In speaking of soil selection (228. Best Soil and Location for Vineyard) the need of fertilizing soils after several crops have been gathered was indicated. In ...
-239. Shading Vineyard Soils
It is stated above that cover-crops cannot be used in vineyards. This is true in practice, as the shading of the soil by growing crops is in the way of needed ...
-Chapter XVIII. The Raspberry And Blackberry
240. The Raspberry: Origin of American Varieties The raspberry has been cultivated as a fruit over Europe and Asia during the historic period and even back to ...
-242. The Black-cap Family (Rubus occidentalis)
A distinguishing characteristic of this class is that it does not sprout from the roots, but is propagated from the tips of the young canes. As found native in ...
-244. The Purple-cane Varieties
This is an interesting and valuable assemblance of varieties which has been classed as a true species, Rubus neglectus. It appears to be intermediate in ...
-245. American Red Varieties (Rubus strigosus)
The wild red raspberry of the United States is widely distributed and its fruit, as found wild, often approaches closely in quality the European red species ( ...
-247. Pruning the Raspberry
The first year after planting not more than two shoots should be allowed to grow, and for field culture without stakes these should be pinched back when one ...
-249. Raspberry Winter Protection
The usual way given in our American fruit-books to lay down the raspberry and blackberry, is to commence at one end of the row and lay down the canes all in ...
-250. Staking Raspberries and Distance Apart
On rich ground the black caps and purple-cane varieties, and also the reds grown, as they should be, in stools, should be staked or supported on both sides by ...
-251. The American Blackberries
It is beyond doubt true that we have in the United States the largest and best native wild blackberries of the north temperate zone and probably of the world.
-253. The Dewberry
This vine-like species naturally trails on the ground. Some of the modern varieties, such as Lucretia and Windom, bear large fruit, softer in texture than most ...
-Chapter XIX. The Strawberry And Its Culture
254. Some Historical Notes Without much doubt the first settlers on the Atlantic coast found larger and better wild strawberries than were at that time under ...
-255. Staminate and Pistillate Strawberry Varieties
All botanists have described the strawberry as perfect in flower or bi-sexual. But our cultivated varieties are now classed as staminate and pistillate or ...
-256. Setting Out and Care of the Strawberry Plants
In the Northern States fall-plowing best fits the soil for spring-planting. The soil is fined by the winter frosts and the chance of injury of the plants by ...
-257. The Two-year System of Strawberry Cropping
We have much talk in books and papers about the best methods of renewing old plantations. But the experience of growers each year strengthens the belief that ...
-260. The Strawberry Under Glass
Those who have had experience know that no cultivated fruit will grow under glass with as little care and expense, and fruit as bountifully, as some varieties ...
-Chapter XX. The Currant And Gooseberry
262. The Red and White Currants Although we have many varieties of the cultivated currants in Europe and America, all except what are known as black currants ...
-266. The Black Currant
The black currant (Ribes nigrum) has long been a favorite culinary fruit in most parts of Europe, but as yet it is not much grown in the United States. But in ...
-267. Golden Currant
This native fruit (Ribes aureum) of the West has been too much neglected. As found in its native haunts it varies in size of fruit, and quality and habits of ...
-268. The Gooseberry
In all parts of western and eastern Europe a number of varieties are cultivated, larger in size but not better in quality than our selected American varieties ...
-Chapter XXI. Promising Wild Fruits Worthy Of Some Attention
272. The Dwarf Juneberry The dwarf Juneberry, shad-bush, or service-berry (Amelanchier alnifolia), has become quite popular where locally grown. In some cases ...
-274. The Buffalo-berry
As a combined ornamental and fruit-bearing shrub, the buffalo-berry (Shepherdia argentea) deserves more attention than it has yet received. It is native to the ...
-275. The Barberry
Several of the species and varieties of the barberry have long been used in Europe, Asia, and to some extent in America for combined use for ornamental ...
-276. Goumi (Eleagnus longipes)
This quite-near relative of our buffalo-berry was introduced from Japan. It is a bush in habit with reddish-brown branches and handsome foliage with peculiar ...
-277. The Huckleberry
The huckleberry is the most widely distributed wild fruit of the Northern and Southern States. In nearly all parts of the Union it is gathered for local use ...
-278. The Sand Cherry
During the past fifteen years the writer has given considerable attention to the sand cherry, as growing wild in the Black Hills, Wyoming, eastern Colorado, ...
-279. The Tree Cranberry
Under this name the high-bush cranberry (Viburnum opulus) is propagated as a combined ornamental and fruit-bearing shrub. It is in no sense a cranberry, but is ...
-280. The Cranberry
Although this widely known American fruit has long been commercial and found in the market of about every city, village, and mining and lumber camp of the ...
-Chapter XXII. Some Leading Nut Trees
281. Advance of Nut-growing In Europe and Asia nut culture is nearly as ancient as the cultivation of the edible fruits, and by selection and culture the ...
-282. The Almond
This near relative of the peach has handsome peach-like blossoms, and the nut is botanically the pit of the fruit. But the thin, hard, fleshy part is not ...
-283. The English or Persian Walnut
In Europe the commercial varieties of Asiatic walnut (Juglans regia) are referred to simply as walnuts. But in the United States they are called English ...
-284. Walnut Propagation
The belief has been quite general in this country that budding or grafting the nut trees has proven more uncertain and difficult than the grafting of the stone ...
-286. Black Walnut
The native black walnut (Juglans nigra) has a wide distribution in the Northern States. It is one of our largest trees and its lumber is so valuable for gun- ...
-288. The Butternut
The American butternut (Juglans cinerea) is also a valuable lumber tree. The wood has been used for palace-car finishing and other work requiring a high polish, ...
-289. The Hickory-nut
Of the native species of the hickory found in the United States, the pecan (Hicoria pecan) stands first at present in commercial value; the little shellbark (H.
-290. Pecan Propagation
This valuable nut has been thus far mainly grown from the nuts. But it has been found that the nuts from a given tree bearing nuts that will bring forty cents ...
-291. The Chestnut
Select varieties of the American sweet chestnut (Castanea Americana) are the best in quality that the writer has tested in Europe, Asia, or America, but the ...
-293. The Filbert
The filbert is grown commercially over a large part of Europe and Asia, and the nuts are found for sale in about every grocery and fruit-store. Tons of the ...
-294. The Hazel-nut
This is found native in about all parts of the Union, in timber openings and borders where the soil is shaded and where the leaf-mould deposits of years have ...
-296. Cocoanut
The cocoanut palm is one of the most peculiar economic trees of the earth. Floating in ocean water for months does not impair the vitality of the nut, and if ...
-298. Brazil-nut
This tropical nut is also included, as it thrives well in Porto Rico, the Philippines, and Cuba. It is not hardy anywhere in the United States, and the ...
-Chapter XXIII. Planning And Planting The Home Grounds
299. American Rural and Suburban Homes Among the nations of the world the United States is alone in its system of rural and suburban homes. The farmer, as soon ...
-302. Where to Plant Trees and Shrubs
The location of tree and shrub groups depends largely upon the shape of the grounds, and no two places may be exactly the same in expression when the work is ...
-303. Planning and Planting More Extended Grounds
In improving larger park-like grounds with varied hill and valley, and possibilities in the way of natural or artificial water views, it is always advisable to ...
-304. Improving Old Places
It often happens that large and small places have trees, shrubs, and hedges when purchased, or when the decision is reached to attempt a change for the better.
-305. Transplanting Trees and Shrubs
Chapter IX (Transplanting Fruits And Ornamentals) of this volume gives some of the essentials of transplanting of fruits and ornamentals in connection with ...
-Chapter XXIV. Some Of The Leading Shade, Lawn, And Park Trees
307. Adapting Trees to Soil and Climate The nursery-catalogues of the Eastern, Southern, and West coast States give lists of the leading trees, shrubs, and ...
-308. Sugar or Rock Maple
This is a popular shade, park, and lawn tree over a large part of the Union, with proper selection of varieties. The sugar maple (Acer saccharinum, Waugh; A.
-309. Norway Maple (Acer platanoides)
This, as represented by its many varieties, is also variable in hardiness and adaptation to our varied soils and climates. The nursery varieties are all ...
-310. The Dwarf Oriental Maples
The Japan maples (Acer palmatum) listed in catalogues are peculiarly beautiful as represented by a dozen or more varieties grown in Eastern nurseries. They do ...
-311. Box Elder (Acer negundo)
This tree is discarded by Maynard, who says: It soon takes an irregular form, is easily broken by wind and ice, and is rather short-lived. As found native in ...
-312. The Silver and Red Maples
The soft or silver maple (Acer dasycarpum, Erhr; A. saccharinum, Linn) is much used in the East and Southeast. The Western type is a clean, thrifty tree when ...
-314. The Elms
The white elm (Ulmus Americana) is one of the grandest trees of the temperate zones for street and avenue planting, and it should have a place in parks and on ...
-315. The Hackberry (Celtis occidentalis)
This also has been a neglected tree by propagators and planters. As found native in the prairie Stabes, it forms a round-topped tree of rapid growth, with ...
-316. The Plane-tree (Platanus occidentalis)
This has for many years been a popular shade and park tree over the north temperate zone of both continents. As an avenue tree in large parks and private ...
-317. The Basswood or Linden
Over west and east Europe the linden (Tilia Europea) is a favorite tree for avenues, streets, shade, and in park grouping. But this European species in the ...
-318. The Honey Locust
As a park tree this is gaining ground rapidly. The native species (Gleditschia triacan-thos) was a favorite with A. J. Downing, who says of it: There is a ...
-319. The Birches
The most valuable of all the birches for ornamental planting is the cut-leaved weeping variety, classed by Bailey as a variety of Betula alba. If all the ...
-320. The Oaks
In our relatively new country the oak has not been planted as freely as its merits demand. The impression has been too common that it was a tree of the ...
-321. The Oleasters
What is known at the West as wild olive or oleaster {El agnus angustifolia) is hardy from the lakes west to Colorado and northwest to Manitoba. This species or ...
-322. Ornamental Species of Prunus
In relatively mild climates of the Eastern and Southern States the Japan weeping and double-flowering cherries noted in catalogues, as single specimens or on ...
-323. Mountain-ash Family
The European mountain-ash (Sorbus aucuparia) is a desirable tree for giving variety of expression on the outer edge of groups, and the same is true of the ...
-324. The Apple Family
The wild crab-apple (Pyrus coronaria), especially the Western form of the Soulard type, has value for ornamental planting. Nursery grown, it is as easy to ...
-324. Poplars and Willows
These rapid-growing trees have value in certain places in parks and on large places. The true white poplar of east Europe makes a large tree with silvery ...
-325. The Magnolias
The beautiful evergreen species of this country and Japan are mainly valuable in the South and on the west coast. Of the deciduous species the cucumber-tree ( ...
-326. The Larches
The common European and American larches are peculiar in their adaptation to varied soils and climates. The American species grows naturally in swamps and the ...
-327. Some Other Desirable Trees
The maiden-hair tree (Salisburia adiantifolia) is a specially desirable tree from Japan and central Asia that does well over a large part of the Union. Even in ...
-328. The Spruces
The Norway spruce has been propagated more extensively as yet than any other species, and has been widely planted in the Eastern and prairie States. But it is ...
-329. The Firs
Several of the firs are short-lived when planted in open exposure. The present limits will only permit the mention of those that have done well over large ...
-330. Some of the Pines
The pine-family has many species in about all parts of the earth. In this connection only a few of the hardiest and handsomest can be referred to. The white ...
-Chapter XXV. Some Of The Ornamental Shrubs And Vines
331. Some of the Uses of Shrubs The flowering and colored foliaged shrubs are used effectively on the borders of tree groups and in groups in the angles, ...
-332. The Spiraeas
Spir s Van Houtteii stands well at the head of the list in beauty of form, flower, and ability to thrive in nearly all climates. Its pendulous branches are ...
-333. The Lilacs
Possibly the most useful of the lilacs in landscape work is the tree lilac, known commercially as Syringa Japonica. As introduced from Japan it has not proven ...
-334. The Mock-oranges
This numerous family of ornamental shrubs is popularly known as syringa in Europe and America. As this is the botanical name of the lilac familv, it seems to ...
-335. The Barberry
This is also a numerous family, nearly all of which are hardy in the North and in the prairie States. The Amur barberry (Berberis Amurensis) is specially ...
-336. The Snowball Family
The tree or shrub cranberry (Viburnum opulus) is native to the Northern and Western States, and it thrives under nearly all conditions. It is an interesting ...
-337. The Bush Honeysuckles
Lonicera splendens stands well at the head of the group for varied use on home grounds or in parks. It is usually classed as a variety of L. Tatarica, and its ...
-338. The Hardy Roses
The queen of flowers can boast of a greater number of fine varieties than any ornamental shrub of the earth. In past as well as present ages it has been the ...
-339. Evergreen Shrubs
East of the Great Lakes and over a large part of the South the boxwood (Buxus sem-pervirens), mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia), American holly (Ilex opaca), ...
-340. The Hydrangeas
The only truly hardy species of this quite extended family is known as Hydrangea panic-ulata grandiflora. (Fig. 99.) It is hardy even in Minnesota, but it does ...
-341. The Tamarix
The hardiest and most beautiful species is Tamarix Amurensis. In the West this will thrive on dry knolls where no other graceful shrub will live. Its foliage ...
-342. The Buffalo-berry
This has been noted as a fruit-bearing shrub (274. The Buffalo-berry). When grown in groups the silvery foliage attracts attention from afar, and when the ...
-343. Japan Quince (Cydonia Japonica)
This is much used for ornamental planting East and South; but it is not hardy enough for the prairie States north of the 40th parallel. The flowers are mostly ...
-344. White Fringe (Chionanthus Virginicus)
This is a special favorite. It has heavy dark-green foliage which is ornamental through the season and when loaded with its lace-like peculiar white flowers it ...
-345. Purple Fringe (Rhus cotinus)
This is popular in the Eastern States under the name of Venetian sumach or smoke-tree. It is a crooked, straggling grower, but its large leaves are handsome ...
-346. Cut-leaved Sumach
The beautiful cut leaves of this variety of Rhus glabra give a fern-like expression to the foliage, and in autumn it colors up as gorgeously as the oaks. It is ...
-347. Golden Elder
This is one of our brightest golden-colored shrubs, and the leaves hold the golden hue well through the season. If the old canes are cut out once in two years ...
-348. The Snowberry
It is quite usual to plant the snowberry (Symphoricarpus racemosus) and the red Indian currant (S. vulgaris) together in the same group or in banking against a ...
-349. Golden Bell
The golden bell (Forsythia viridis-sima) displays its bright-yellow flowers from bottom to top of the young growth very early in spring even earlier than the ...
-350. Pearl Bush
This common name is given to Exo-chorda grandiflora and also to E. Alberti, which are closely related species. The latter species from Turkestan thrives best ...
-351. Weigela Rosea.
This is the old garden name of Diervilla, of which we now have many varieties. Diervilla rosea is quite as valuable as any in the list. Its fine rose-colored ...
-352. Red Dogwood (Cornus sanguinea)
This is a hand-some hardy shrub specially valuable for its winter expression when placed in contrast with low-trained Salix aurea or a group of dwarf growing ...
-Ornamental Climbing Vines
In the South and the dent-corn area of the West handsome vines to cover verandas, porticos, porches, arbors, and unsightly walls and fences are far more ...
-353. The Climbing Honeysuckle
Lonicera media of east Europe is specially valuable. It is hardy far North, and does well, so far as tested, South and East. It is handsome in foliage, flower, ...
-354. Climbing Bittersweet
The most valuable ornamental species tested by the writer is Celastrus punctata, from the Amur valley in Asia. It is far more rapid in growth than our native ...
-355. Virginia Creeper
The Ampelopsis quinquefolia, often called the American woodbine, but more properly Virginia creeper, is peculiarly variable as found in different parts of the ...
-356. Chinese Wistaria
This is a rapid-growing vine that will twine to advantage around porch columns, arbors, and fences. Its large panicles of blue flowers are produced in great ...
-357. Jackman's Clematis
This is a showy climber when supported on woven wire. Its intensely violet blue flowers are very large and attractive. At the West the weak canes are cut back ...
-358. Actinidia arguta
This is a peculiarly rampant-growing vine from Japan, with a tropical expression of foliage. Where hardy east of the lakes and in the South, it will cover a ...
-Chapter XXVI. Perennials And Bulbs
359. The Perennial Beds The bed for perennials may be located in front, as shown in Fig. 83, and on quite large front lawns room can also be given for the bulb- ...
-360. The Herbaceous Peonia
The select modern varieties of the Albiflora type stand well at the head of the perennial list in beauty of foliage and flower, hardiness and freedom from ...
-361. Perennial Phlox
In a rich, well-kept perennial bed this is one of the grandest late summer and autumn flowers. It follows the roses and gives a succession of bloom until late ...
-362. The Double Hollyhock
This showy plant may often be used for a background of a bed or against a background of shrubs or dwarf evergreens. It ordinarily flowers the second year and ...
-363. Gas-plant (Dictamnus fraxinella)
A very hardy perennial with large terminal racemes of either pink or white flowers. It has tropical-looking foliage, and is a handsome plant when not in bloom.
-364. The Hardy Lilies
These should have a place in every well-kept home place. They do best in a dry soil, naturally underdrained or tiled. The bulbs should be planted four inches ...
-365. Golden Glow (Rudbeckia Iaciniata fl. pl.)
This is not an ornamental plant, but the double yellow flowers are developed profusely during late summer and autumn. It makes the finest show when it has a ...
-366. Japan Iris
This species of iris has very large flowers that range from pure white through all the shades of pink, red, and purple, with many combinations. It thrives best ...
-367. Oriental Poppy
All the varieties of the perennial poppy (Papaver orientale) are hardy and very showy when in bloom, as the flowers are very large and brilliant scarlet in ...
-368. Japan Spiraea (Astilbe Japonica)
A hardy perennial, producing fine feathery panicles of pure white flowers in June. It needs dividing and replanting once in three or four years.
-369. Hardy Feverfew (Pyrethrum)
We now have many beautiful varieties of Feverfew with double flowers and a wide range of colors. They flower in June, but if the old flowering stems are cut ...
-370. Moss Pink (Phlox subulata)
This blooms very early and so abundantly that its pink-and-white flowers can be seen near the ground from afar. In the prairie States it succeeds in half-shady ...
-371. Plume Poppy (Bocconia cordata)
This vigorous, hardy Oriental plant has large tropical-looking leaves, and the flowers are borne in large feathery panicles raised above the fine foliage. It ...
-372. Lily-of-the-Valley
This beautiful little flowering plant will ever be popular and pleasing. In all parts of our country, with its bright summer sun, it loves the shade. A bed of ...
-373. Care of the Perennial Beds
It pays to cover all perennial beds with forest leaves or coarse manure in autumn, after clearing off the tops and litter. Even if some plants are hardy enough ...
-374. The Tulip Bed
The grand modern tulips may also be classed with the hardy outdoor plants, as with slight leafy protection the bulbs live over winter in our most trying ...
-375. Less Hardy Holland Bulbs
The hyacinth, narcissus, and crocus bulbs are also planted in the fall in beds in the States east of the lakes and in the South. In the Western States, on dry ...
-376. The Canna
By crossing and selection the florists have made remarkable advances with the canna within recent years, in shortening the growth and improving the flowers in ...
-377. The Gladiolus
Among the summer-flowering bulbs the most showy and popular are the modern varieties of the gladiolus, and they are about as easy to grow and manage as the ...
-378. The Dahlia
This is another modern development from a single-flowered Mexican species. Indeed, the development of the new decorative types has come about in our day. The ...
-379. Elephant's Ear (Caladium Esculentum)
This tropical plant with immense leaves is often used with canna in tropical beds with good effect. It is really not a Caladium, but the Colocasia, from which ...
-380. Sweet Pea
This beautiful and fragrant flower is too well known for description. Its chief value is for cut flowers, as the plant and its supports are by no means ...
-381. The Castor-bean
In about all parts of the Union the castor-bean (Ricinus communis) is used in parks and in tropical beds on lawns. Its broad-lobed leaves, showy panicles of ...
-Chapter XXVII. The Vegetable And Small-Fruit Garden
382. Its Location, Shape, and Shelter The site chosen for the house and its surroundings largely determines the position of the vegetable and small-fruit ...
-883. Rotation of Crops
The most satisfactory and profitable gardening on a small or large scale requires rotation of crops. The strawberry rows should be moved at the end of two ...
-384. Fall Plowing
There are many advantages in clearing off and plowing the vegetable-garden in autumn in all parts of the Union, but specially in the prairie States. The fining ...
-385. Garden Culture
Too many seem to conclude that the main purpose of cultivation is the destruction of weeds. But the fact must be recognized that the dust-blanket between rows, ...
-386. Procuring Good Seed
Good pure seed that has been properly grown and gathered from selected plants is specially needed by every one who owns a home or commercial garden. The only ...
-387. Plant Propagation and Transplanting
The hotbed (65. The Hot-bed) is a desirable accompaniment of every family garden except in small city places. Well-arranged permanent homesteads often have ...
-The Vegetable And Small-Fruit Garden
After planting the soil should be at once stirred on the surface, drawing some loose earth around the plant to lessen evaporation from the firmed soil below.
-388. Manuring the Garden
Few owners of private gardens have any conception of the large quantity of manure used to produce the great crops in the market-gardens. Henderson says: It is ...
-389. Preservation of Vegetables
It is usual with most home owners to store vegetables in the cellar under the house. This plan has many objections, not the least of which are the smells, the ...
-390. Garden Insects
With a methodic system of rotation of crops, fall plowing, and a general cleaning up prior to the plowing, but little trouble with garden insects will be ...
-392. Miscellaneous Garden Insects
The cabbage-worm can readily be eradicated by using the arsenical poisons (156. Spraying for Codling-moth), and extensive growers of cabbage use them without ...
-393. Some Neglected Garden Crops
Most all American landholders who attempt gardening for home use are acquainted with such common vegetables as sweet corn, potato, pea, cabbage, radish, ...
-394. Asparagus
This earliest, most healthful, and delicious vegetable is rarely found in home gardens in well-kept rows, as grown by market-gardeners. Almost invariably the ...
-395. Celery Growing
This delicious and healthful vegetable is not grown in private gardens to any great extent. Many seem to entertain the opinion that it is a special crop that ...
-396. Egg-plant
This is supposed to be a native of South America, but its origin seems uncertain. It is used as a vegetable in all the tropical and subtropical regions of the ...
-397. The Lima Bean
The Lima, pole, and dwarf beans have properly been called the king of the table beans in all countries. But over the Northern States, even at the West, where ...
-398. The Melons
These are included among desirable fruits (222. The Melons), and are here noted as a rare crop in home gardens. If started on sods in the hot-bed, the crop ...
-Chapter XXVIII. Irrigation
399. Irrigation in the Humid States In the truly arid States the work of irrigating crops and fruits is imperatively required. Hence the land brought under ...
-400. Watering the Orchard Fruits
A large part of the watering in the arid States is from mountain streams or from reservoirs filled from such streams or from melted snows. But in the States ...
-401. Reservoirs with Puddled Bottoms
Many conclude that wooden or iron reservoirs, or those that are walled and cemented, can alone be depended upon. But over the world the fact has been long ...
-402. Artesian-well Irrigation
In South Dakota, parts of Iowa, and in many other parts of the humid States, artesian wells lifting water to the surface in great volume are quite common. They ...
-403. Sub-irrigation
The best practical illustration of what is known as sub-irrigation is found in the raisin-producing district near Fresno, California. No water is applied to ...
-404. Green-house Sub-irrigation
This has become far more general than outdoor sub-irrigation. The trenches are made water-tight by spreading cement over the slate bottoms and sides. In the ...
-405. Surface Culture Needed
In all kinds of watering, whether on the surface or from below, the surface must be stirred soon after the wetting to prevent baking and to conserve the ...
-406. Remarkable Results of Irrigation
The story of the transformation of desert land into producing fields giving several crops of alfalfa in a season, and other crops in proportion, is often told ...









TOP
previous page: Commercial Gardening Vol4| by John Weathers (the Editor)
  
page up: Gardening and Horticulture Books
  
next page: American Horticultural Manual Vol2 | by J. L. Budd