Origin, Russia; exceedingly productive and a good substitute for Red June where that variety winter-kills.

Fruit small, oblong, obscurely angular, somewhat flattened at ends; surface a fine solid dark red (like a highly colored Red June); dots very minute, white, obscure, many; cavity regular, shallow to nearly flat, slightly russeted; stem medium to long; basin nearly flat, with about five prominences around the eye; calyx closed; segments long, reflexed. Core open; cells ovate, slit; seeds about twelve, short, plump; flesh sprightly subacid, juicy, much stained throughout with the same beautiful color as the skin, very good. July, August. Reagan. - See Black Ben Davis.

Apple Variety: Red Astrachan

Red Astrachan.

Red Astrachan

Origin, Russia; first imported into England with the White Astrachan from Sweden in 1816. Tree of vigorous, upright, spreading growth, an early and abundant bearer.

Fruit above medium, roundish, somewhat conical; surface smooth, greenish yellow, almost entirely covered with mottled, marbled and striped deep crimson, with delicate white bloom, a beautiful fruit; dots minute; cavity shallow, regular, obtuse, russeted; stem short; basin shallow, smooth, sometimes a little irregular; calyx small, closed. Core closed, barely clasping; cells open, obovate; tube funnel-shaped; stamens marginal or median; seeds many, angular, plump, small; flesh white, crisp, juicy, brisk acid, good. Late July, early August.

Red Canada (Steele's Red Winter)

An old variety of American origin, formerly much grown in New England and other parts of the East; the tree is of irregular, slow growth and productive in most localities, but to overcome its slender growth should be top-grafted on Northern Spy, Tolman, or other strong-growing variety.

Apple Variety: Red Canada

Red Canada.

Fruit medium to large, oblate, slightly conical, obscurely angular; surface smooth, rich yellow, mostly shaded with deep red and crimson, with rather indistinct stripes and splashes on sunny side; dots distinct, many, large, gray and yellow; cavity deep, wide, wavy, russeted; stem short, slender; basin narrow, abrupt, shallow, slightly wrinkled and irregular; calyx small, closed; segments long. Core small, barely clasping, closed; tube conical; seeds imperfect; flesh yellowish white, crisp, fine-grained, tender, juicy, brisk aromatic, subacid, very good to best. All winter.

Red June, Carolina

Supposed origin, North Carolina; tree very vigorous, upright, an early and abundant bearer, highly esteemed in many parts of the South and West as the best early market apple; not hardy in northern Iowa.

Apple Variety: Red June, Carolina

Red June, Carolina.

Fruit medium or below, roundish oblong, irregular, often unequal, somewhat conical; surface smooth, unctuous, almost wholly shaded with deep solid red, purplish or nearly black red on sunny side with delicate bloom; dots obscure, many, very minute, white; cavity narrow, regular, acute, with slight trace of russet; stem variable; basin narrow, smooth or slightly corrugated; calyx closed; segments long, divergent. Core wide open, rather large; cells elliptical, abaxile, slit; tube funnel-shaped; stamens marginal; seeds numerous, black brown; flesh very white, tender, delicate, juicy, fine-grained, sprightly, agreeable, subacid, very good. July.