The beginner should understand that although as many different varieties may be raised from seed of one apple as there are seeds in that apple, it may also happen, especially if inbred by no other varieties being near, that some of these seedlings will be so nearly the same in all respects as the variety from which the seed was taken as to be considered identical even by experienced pomologists accustomed to close observation of fruits. Such seedlings may be called reproductions of the mother variety. It frequently happens in vegetables and flowers that several varieties, very nearly alike, originate in widely separated localities; in such cases only the first one introduced holds its own, the others are dropped. Apples and other orchard fruits do not come true to seed because it has not been found necessary to fix the type by a long course of selection, it being easier to reproduce the variety by grafts, buds, or sprouts. Apples generally are raised in mixed orchards containing many varieties, hence there is every facility for crossing with other varieties, the pollen being carried by insects or the wind. However, some varieties show a prepotent tendency and impress their characteristics strongly upon their offspring. This is especially true in isolated localities where but few varieties are grown, since inbreeding takes place to a considerable extent. The fact that Fameuse reproduces itself so closely from seed may be due to the fact that it was the main variety grown in Eastern Canada by the French Canadians after the unknown parent variety was brought from France; for long periods the trees were raised by the early settlers from seed, hence the seed was inbred.
This probably explains the well-marked families, types, or races of the Russian apples. Over large areas grafting was but little practised by peasants, and but few varieties grown; hence seed was saved mainly from the strongest, best trees. There is now a large group of seedlings of Duchess of Oldenburg in America, especially in the Northwestern States, which shows resemblance to their parent. In the Southwest many seedlings of Ben Davis have appeared, many of them so near like the parent as not to be worthy of introduction, while others, such as Gano and Black Ben Davis, are an improvement on the parent in some respects. In the Northwest a large number of seedlings of Wealthy have recently appeared, which resemble that variety quite closely. The Wolf River, which is considered to be a seedling of Alexander, has largely superseded its parent at the West because of demonstrated points of superiority. The Concord grape and certain plums and peaches show a strong tendency to reproduce themselves from seed. The late Geo. P. Peffer, originator of the Pewaukee, Peffer, and other apples, claimed that any apple will reproduce itself from seed if inbred by covering the blossoms to prevent access of pollen from other varieties.