Sections 283, 284, and 285 of Part I give some facts in regard to the distribution and culture of the European walnut (Juglans regia) in the United States; the need of alternating varieties and species in orchard, and its propagation and possible increase of hardiness by importing varieties from North Central Asia.
The varieties now cultivated on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts include some of those from Western Europe and their American seedlings, together with varieties from Japan. The latter De Candolle includes as varieties or types of Juglans regia. But recently botanists have included the varieties from the mountains of North Japan in a new species (Juglans sieboldiana), and those from the island of Yezo in extreme North Japan have been included in another species (Juglans cordiformis). At this time however, the J. cordiformis is regarded by most botanists as a variety of J. sieboldiana, and the writer knows from actual inspection that the walnuts of Central Asia do not differ materially from those of Japan in tree or nut very materially. Even the growing of the nuts in large clusters peculiar to J. sieboldiana repeated in the Asiatic varieties, and is also repeated in the cluster and other varieties of J. regia; the early bearing habit of the J. cordiformis is also repeated in the dwarf varieties of North Central Asia; yet as a matter of convenience it may be best to include the Japanese varieties as a distinct species.
Without much doubt this Japan variety is a climatic variation of Sieboldiana. The trees bear very young, and prove hardy in Ohio and along the coast as far as tested. The kernel is large, of best quality, and can be extracted whole with a little care. This variety by selection is likely to prove very valuable.
Medium in size; shell quite hard; kernels plump and easy to extract. This old European dwarf variety will bear heavily in isolated position, often when less than six feet in height. Quite extensively planted in New Jersey and as far north as Philadelphia and New York.
This variety has been propagated from seed giving rise to variations; but where propagated by budding or grafting it has very thin shell and in all respects is a superior variety. California.
Form long, ovate; quality remarkably good. A French variety that is commercial on both continents. France.
Medium, long, ovate; shell fairly thin; kernel plump and good. A variety grown and propagated at Hightstown, New Jersey, that proves hardy and fruitful when planted together, but, as with the chestnut, isolated trees rarely bear nuts.
Ovate in form, with sharpened point, and smooth shell, which is thicker than English species; kernel plump and full, with flavor of our Butternut, but less oily and pungent. The nuts grow in clusters at the end of preceding year's growth. A rapid grower and early bearer. Hardy in Michigan and as far north as Boston.
Japan Walnut. Mayette.
Broad, and above medium in size; kernels plump and full. This variety blossoms later than usual with the species; hence has become a favorite on the Atlantic as well as the Pacific coast.
Medium in size, with quite a hard shell. Interesting as being the original variety found around the mission grounds of the west coast.
Medium in size; shell fairly thin; kernel high-flavored. Blossoms very late, hence is valuable in frosty positions.
Medium to large; shell thin; kernel white and fine in quality. This blossoms quite late and is a smaller tree than most others and bears young. It has proven a valuable variety on the Atlantic coast when planted near other varieties.
Medium, long, ovate; shell quite thin; quality good. Grown by the writer from nuts picked up at Saratov, on the Volga, in Russia. It has proven hardy enough to pass through winters in Central Iowa. Now propagated in Missouri.