The total area (including water) of the United Kingdom is 77,498,955 acres. Over, on or in, this extent of land and water are found the wild or semi-wild mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians embraced in the following pages. These denizens of the cliffs, marshes, rivers, brooks, and lakes, wastes, mountain and heath, land under crops and grass, woods and plantations, orchards and gardens, exercise beneficial, neutral and harmful influence, according to their respective proclivities, upon the culture and produce of crops. The cultures practised are five, viz. sporting, fishing, forestry, farming and gardening.